Time Allowed: Three Hours       Maximum Marks: 300

Candidates should attempt All questions strictly in accordance with the instructions given under each question.

Q. 1 Answer any TWO of the following (Answer to each question should be in about 150 words):  15 × 2 = 30

(a) Discuss the global response to President George Bush’s ‘National Missile Defence Plan’ (NMD).

Important Points for Answer:

Bush’s NMD plan

Detail, Effect

Global Response

Answer: America declared the NMD Plan in April 2001, costing it about USD 60 billion. It was in development since 1990s but was signed in 2002.

This declaration has effect of violating Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty of 1972 and may also make the CTBT ineffective. When the President Bill Clinton had announced preparation of this plan, world leaders, including NATO, did not favour.

Though America calls it a step towards security, it has effect of creating new race in the world for arms among the nations. Russian President Putin called it a subject of deep concern over the world security. Chinese President Jiang Zemin also opposed the plan. France, Germany, North Korea, some Muslim countries and some of the Socialist South American countries have also called it a step of America towards leading the world to unipolarity. Hardly any nation approves of it as it has effect of leading the world again to insecure and unbalanced power position. (Total 157 words)

(b) What were the major recommendations of the ’Group of Ministers’ on Indian National Security System?

Important Points for Answer:

Group of Ministers



Answer: The Group of Ministers (GOM) was set up in April 2000 to review the national security system in its entirety and in particular to consider the recommendations of the Kargil Review Committee. The GOM, under the Chairmanship of Shri L.K. Advani, submitted its report on 23rd May 2001.

Its main recommendations were:

Central government is advised not to involve the para-military forces in works other than their duties.

To make utilisation of the emergency provisions in issues endangering national security and integrity like Kargil.

To speed up the judicial system on criminal matters.

To strengthen the intelligence agencies.

To constitute a joint command of Defence Ministry with Defence forces.

To review and amend various laws, including the Citizenship Act, to make their implementation more effective.

To strengthen internal security, border security and management, vesting them with more powers and less political interferences.

All these recommendations were made to prevent repetition of incidents like Kargil attack in India. (Total 159 words)

(c) Examine the latest phase of Indo-Iran relations.

Important Points for Answer:

Indo-Iran relations

Current issues



Answer: The Prime Minister of India, Mr. Atal Bihari Vajpayee and the President of Iran, Mr. Khatemi signed “Tehran Declaration” on 10th April, 2001. It was a historic step between India and Iran to enter into strategic relations. There are provisions for technology, information technology, energy and trade-commerce cooperation. Both nations have agreed to confer ‘Most Favoured Nation’ status upon each other.

Both sides agreed for a comprehensive conference on terrorism. For regional stability in Asia, both nations agreed to fight against terrorism. Situation of Afghanistan was reviewed by both the countries.

The issue of natural gas transportation was discussed, exploring options for overland and undersea pipeline.

For the progress in bilateral trade, both sides considered elimination of double taxation, promotion of investment and protection of commercial and political interests of both the countries.

Mr. Vajpayee addressed the ‘Majlis’, Iran’s Parliament on 11th April 2001, thus becoming the first foreign leader to address the House. (Total 155 words)

Q. 2 Answer the following (Answer to each question should be in about 20 words): 2 × 5 = 10

(a) What is India’s ‘Look East Policy’?

Answer: Started by Narsimha Rao Government in 1990s, it aims at developing harmonious relations with the countries of East and of South-East Asia, by giving them more importance.

(b) What do you understand by ‘G-15’?

Answer: G-15, Group of 15 nations, is an organisation of 15 developing nations established in Non-Alignment Conference 1989 in Belgrade, Yugoslavia. Currently it has 17 members and its Secretariat is at Geneva.

(c) Explain the problem of infiltration in eastern parts of India.

Answer: From the eastern countries of Bangladesh and Myanmar, illegal infiltration has affected law and order, economy balance of population in India.

(d) Why does India object to Kashmir being treated as a ‘disputed territory’?

Answer: Kashmir is an integral part of India and therefore objects to the use of term ‘disputed territory’ which may give a claim to Pakistan over Kashmir.

(e) What is the significance of Pyrdiwah and Boraibari in Indo-Bangladesh relations?

Answer: Pyrdiwah is a territory of Bangladesh and Boraibari is of India, yet Bangladesh controls Boraibari and India controls Pyrdiwah till date. This has been a reason of dispute between the two countries.

Q. 3 Answer the following (Answer to each question should be in about 20 words):         2 × 5 = 10

(a) In what fields have N.R.I.s excelled in the developed countries?

Answer: NRIs have excelled in the fields of Information Technology, Medical Science, Engineering, Trade & Commerce, Industry, Academics and Literature in the developed countries.

(b) In which specialities Indians are most wanted abroad?

Answer: Indians are most wanted in highly professional fields like Information Technology, Medical, Engineering, Scientific Research as well as in blue collar jobs like construction workers and domestic labourers.

(c) What efforts are being made by Indian Government to look after N.R.I.s?

Answer: MEA and MOIA have started facilitating NRIs by granting OCI and PIO Status, opening Indian economy for investment, extending consular and community welfare supports.

(d) What is the contribution of the N.R.I.s to India’s development?

Answer: NRIs have invested in Indian economy, brought knowledge and technology, remittances has strengthened Forex reserve of India, earned goodwill and spread culture of India in other countries.

(e) Why do N.R.I.s retain their emotional attachment to India?

Answer: Roots of NRIs are Indian and their cultural affinities to India remains stronger as they follow Indian traditions and customs abroad. They also have family relationships with India.

Q. 4 Answer any ONE of the following (Answer should be in about 250 words):

(a) What is the incidence of poverty in India? How should poverty alleviation programmes be constructed?     30

Important Points for Answer:

Poverty in India – Measurement

Incidence of Poverty

Construction of poverty alleviation Programme


Answer: In India, poverty is defined on the basis of calories required by a person in a day, separately for rural and urban areas. Indian Planning Commission fixed 2400 calories per person per day in rural areas and 2100 calories per person per day in urban areas as the limit of poverty line.

Professor Lakdawala Committee suggested to measure per capita income on the basis of Consumer Price Index and Industrial Workers’ Index. According to Prof. Lakdawala Formula, 35.37% of country’s population was below poverty line in 1993-94 and 26.10% in 1999-2000. State-wise distribution of poverty in India ranges from more than 50% in Bihar to nearly 10% in Punjab.

Many policies and programmes, especially after the Fifth Five Year Plan, are directed to alleviate poverty which definitely raised level of life but are not completely successful.

Direct involvement of people in the programmes would result into more success in policy implementation. Awareness among executives, bureaucrats and public is an essential requirement. Panchayats should be given more power and authority in implementation of such programme. More localised content and implementation of policies can be result oriented. Awareness of people about benefits and opportunities available under various governments schemes can be created.

In rural areas, agricultural and animal husbandry related schemes and programmes can be encouraged with community cooperation. Various crafts, arts and skills should be developed among youth and necessary training, tools, loans can be provided to make them self-reliant. Cottage and small industry development will also help in the fulfilment of this aim. (Total 257 words)

(b) Indian economy presents a paradox of high savings rate with low-income and high savings rate with low growth rate. Analyse. 30

Important Points for Answer:

Indian Economy

Saving Rate

Low Income

Growth Rate



Answer: Economy requires capital formation for its growth. Indian economic growth has been slow due to lack of capital formation. Capital formation is achieved through savings (domestic or individual), loans and debts. For higher rate of capital formation, a country requires to raise saving rate as it cannot depend upon loans or debs.

In India per capita income is low. But public makes saving out of that low income by not spending a part over the consumer goods. This habitual saving has become a social phenomenon which has led to high savings rate even with low income. At the time of independence, there was 10.2% domestic capital formation which rose to 27.3% in 1997-98. India has targeted 30% rate of capital formation for the achievement of growth targets.

The growth rate of Indian economy has been slow since Independence. Indian economy has not achieved targeted growth rate during most of the Five Year Plans. Mr. Jagdish Bhagwati presented this paradox of higher savings rate with low growth rate.

Reasons forwarded for this are:

Factors like lack of enough productivity, misdirected investment, inefficient work

Indian economic policies till 1990s have been without much flexibility which had adverse effects on Indian growth rate.

Slow productivity tops the list of factors responsible for economic slow growth.

India has higher savings rate. While the higher savings rate has lead to higher capital formation but it has not resulted into high growth rate, due to some economical and administrative lacuna. The growth rate in accordance with the savings has not been achieved. (Total 257 words)

Q. 5 Answer any TWO of the following (Answer to each question should be in about 150 words):  15 × 2 = 30

(a) Liberalisation of the Indian economy since 1991 has led to excessive consumerism and over-production of ‘white goods’. Elucidate.

Important Points for Answer:


Economic Impact

Consumerism Trend

White goods


Answer: At the end of the first phase of economic liberalisation 1991-2001, the result is economic growth and better availability of goods and services to consumers of India. The review of the phase shows that economic growth has been achieved and employment are also generated but it has resulted into increased spending capacity.

Demand is high and level of production is also high. Excess spending capacity has led to consumerism in India. Sell of luxury goods has increased. Markets are full with white goods, that is goods for the higher class of society, by multi-national companies.

White goods i.e. electrical consumer appliances for domestic use are high in demand and families benefited by liberalisation have started spending on such white goods. Multi-national companies have come to Indian markets producing white goods and Indian producers have also been involved in the race. They could sustain only due to the increased consumerism in Indian society. (Total 156 words)

(b) What are the hurdles faced by the Finance Ministers of India in keeping the fiscal deficit below 3-4 percent of the GDP? Suggest steps to lower the fiscal deficit.

Important Points for Answer:

Fiscal deficit

Causes of increase

Hurdles faced by Indian FMs

Measures suggested

Answer: The difference between total revenue and total expenditure of the government is termed as fiscal deficit. The last half of the 90s has indicated higher fiscal deficit and its increase year by year.

Reasons responsible for fiscal deficit, beyond the control of the Finance Ministers, are:

Higher expenditure of salaries and allowances after the implementation of the fifth pay commission.

Higher interest payment on debts and loans of the Government.

No increase in revenue in proportion to the expenditure.

No control over deficit.

Reduction in the rate of taxes.

Due to these reasons Finance Ministers could not control fiscal deficits below 3-4 percent.

Suggested measures are:

To reduce expenditure of administration.

To increase income from revenue by widening tax base.

To tax upon the agriculture and other commodities henceforth excluded, though at the minimum rate.

To make the tax collection machinery efficient.

To disinvest the PSUs running in losses.

To efficiently collect payments for services provided by the Government. (Total 160 words)

(c) Discuss the nature and causes of the UTI crisis with particular reference to US-64. How does this UTI fiasco affect the investment climate in India?

Important Points for Answer:

UTI Crisis

US-64 Scheme

Effects on Investment Climate

Answer: Unit Trust of India (UTI) has been a profitable unit for investment in India, but some losses caused by it in last few years has raised a suspicion over investment climate. Launched in 1964, the US-64, an open-ended balanced fund, is its flagship fund. UTI decided to suspend the purchase and sale of its US-64 scheme for six months in 2001.

Due to mismanagement in purchasing of shares in communication, IT and entertainment sectors was the greatest fault by management. The Deepak Parekh Committee recommendations were not followed. The crisis exposes that the loss is due to mismanagement of fund, priority to the interests of officers and members, share brokers and industrialists in comparison to the investors.

If the UTI cannot be loyal to the interests of investors and cannot improve management, the only unit in India with public reliability will also lose the confidence which in turn would discourage people from saving, affecting capital formation. (Total 159 words)

Q. 6 Answer the following (Answer to each question should be in about 20 words):         2 × 15 = 30

(a) What is ‘CRISIL’? What does it do?

Answer: CRISIL (The Credit Rating Information Services of India Ltd.) is a credit rating agency. CRISIL undertakes the rating of fixed deposit programmes, convertible and non-convertible debentures apart from credit assessment of companies.

(b) What do you understand by “Current Account Convertibility of Rupee”?

Answer: It refers to freedom to use Indian currency for purchase of goods and services but not capital assets. From Budget of 1992-93 Indian rupee was made fully convertible to buy any amount of foreign currency.

(c) What do you mean by providing industry status to agriculture in India?

Answer: Granting industry status to agriculture sector would mean that it could avail facilities and benefits on a par with an industry. But tax provisions are hurdles in this way.

(d) Elucidate “Operation Flood”.

Answer: Launched in 1970 by the National Dairy Development Board, Operation Flood was the world’s biggest dairy development programme, aimed at creating milk grid across India. It made India the largest producer of Milk and Milk products.

(e) Expand the term “Nasdaq”.

Answer: An American stock exchange, National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotations, formed in 1971 by National Association of Securities Dealer is located in New York and is the second largest in the world.

(f) Differentiate between “galloping inflation” and “run-away inflation”.

Answer: When inflation, increase of prices, is in double digit, it is called galloping inflation. Run-away inflation is linked to interest rate linked increase in prices which is difficult to control.

(g) What is meant by “couple protection ratio”?

Answer: The couple protection ratio (CPR) is usually expressed as the percentage of women in the age group of 15—49 years, protected from pregnancy / child birth in the year under consideration for a specific area verses non protected couple.

(h) Distinguish between “Human Development Index” and “Gender-Related Development Index”.

Answer: The HDI is a composite index of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators. The GDI is the ratio of the HDIs calculated separately for females and males using the same methodology as in the HDI.

(i) What is green GNP?

Answer: Gross National Product is used in measuring National Income. When environmental depreciation is deducted from GNP, we get Green GNP.

(j) Distinguish between, a “hard” currency and a “soft” currency.

Answer: A hard currency remains relatively stable through a short period of time, and to be highly liquid in the forex. Soft currency is hyper sensitive and fluctuates frequently.

(k) Explain “rolling plan”.

Answer: It is a plan designed to continue over a period of time and is subject to regular review and updating. Janta Government launched rolling plan in 1978.

(l) Illustrate Lorenz curve.

Answer: Developed by Dr. Max O. Lorenz, it is a cumulative frequency curve representing the distribution of a variable such as population against an independent variable such as income.

(m) What is meant by “trickle-down” theory of development.

Answer: It declares development as an economic phenomenon. Economic development raises the level of society and percolates its benefits to the lower strata of society by itself.

(n) What is “misery index”?

Answer: A measure of economic well-being for a specified economy, computed by taking the sum of the unemployment rate and the inflation rate for a given period. An increasing index means a worsening economic climate, and vice versa.

(o) What is meant by “Most Favoured Nation” policy?

Answer: Most Favored Nation status is when a country enjoys the best trade terms given by its trading partner. That means it receives the lowest tariffs, the fewest trade barriers, and the highest import quotas (or none at all).

Q. 7 Answer any TWO of the following (Answer to each question should be in about 150 words):  15 × 2 = 30

(a) Discuss the significance of Kyoto Protocol. Why is U.S.A. not signing it?

Important Points for Answer:

Kyoto Protocol



USA’s contention

Answer: Kyoto Protocol of 1997 is related to the emission of Green House Gases. It is an international agreement linked to the UNFCC which commits its Parties by setting internationally binding emission reduction targets.A Conference in July, 2001 in Germany was held over the Protocol and its progress. It is to come into force from 2002 and has provision to reduce emission of GHGs by 5 percent of the 1990 level emission by 2008-2012. For its enforcement, ratification by the Industrialist nations responsible for 55% of emission is required. The Protocol sets a date of 2012 to stop emission of GHGS.

Global Warming is the result of Green House effect for which Green House Gases like methane, COz and some halons are responsible.

Bush administration of USA has not signed the Protocol arguing that China, the second largest producer of GHGs, it is out of the Protocol along with some other developing countries.                             (Total 154 words)

(b) Evaluate the performance of Summit meeting of the Arab League held in March 2001?

Important Points for Answer:

Arab League Summit 2001



Answer: The meeting of the Arab League was completed on 27 March, 2001. It discussed various matters among which Palestine, Israel and Iraq questions were the major issues. The host of the meeting Mr. Shah Abdullah II of Jordan favoured Palestinians and appealed members to help them against the atrocities by the Israeli forces.

The Russian President’s message was read which proposed to solve the problem of UN prohibitions by a “package” of suspending the bans and bringing Iraqi nuclear programme under International inspection, then finally end them.

All nations condemned Israeli forces’ occupation and atrocities over Palestine and appealed the international community to constitute a committee to investigate into the matter. Some nations like Tunisia, Syria proposed stricter actions against Israel.

A fund with one billion dollar amount was constituted to help the Palestine people. As a whole, apart from discussing their trade and political matters, the league pay a great attention to the Palestine and Iraq matters, supporting their cause. (Total 161 words)

(c) Outline the salient features of India’s nuclear policy and explain the reasons for India’s refusal to sign the C.T.B.T.

Important Points for Answer:

India’s nuclear policy

Main features

India’s opposition to CTBT

Answer: In August 1999, India declared its nuclear policy which follows ‘no first use’ doctrine and assures that only in case of any nuclear attack, the nuclear weapons will be used. India will acquire minimum nuclear capacity to counter attack in case of war. India will behave as a responsible nation and will never attack a non-nuclear power with such weapons.

India has reiterated that India will not sign C.T.B.T.–Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, in its present form. Reasons, once again, explained for, are:

The treaty does not limit time or propose doctrine of nuclear-free world.

Nuclear powers can experiment with super computers in this field and developing nations will not be able to experiment.

They are not serious in reduction of nuclear weapons in certain time limit.

India believes it is not an agreement to make the world free from nuclear weapons but only to stop new powers entering this club. (Total 156 words)

Q. 8 Answer the following (Answer to each question should be in about 20 words):         2 × 5 = 10

(a) What do the following stand for?

Answer: (i) UNCIP – The United Nations Commission for India and Pakistan (UNCIP) (1948-1950) was tasked to investigate and mediate the India/Pakistan dispute over the future of the state of Jammu and Kashmir.

   (ii)       KLA – The Kosovo Liberation Army was an ethnic-Albanian paramilitary organisation that sought the separation of Kosovo from the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia ( FRY) and Serbia during the 1990s and the eventual creation of a Greater Albania .

(b) Why has Slobodan Milosevic been in news in the recent past?

Answer: He was known as butcher of Balkan. He is accused of killing thousands of Albanians in Kosovo. He was delivered to the International Court of Justice in March, 2001.

(c) Who is Gao Zhan?

Answer: She was convicted for 10 years’ imprisonment (but detailed for 166 days) by China for her alleged spy activities against China for Taiwan.

(d) Who is Meghawati Sukarnoputri?

Answer: Daughter of Indonesia’s first President Sukarno, she is elected as the Fifth President of Indonesia in July 2001. She is the first women President of Indonesia.

(e) Which is the latest right confirmed by the 57th session of the United Nations?

Answer: The 57th session of the United Nations confirmed the right to live in clean and pollution free environment to all persons.

Q. 9 Answer the following (Answer to each question should be in about 20 words):         2 × 5 = 10

(a) What is GCC?

Answer: GCC stands for Gulf Cooperation Council. This organisation of six Gulf countries, consisting of Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Oman, Kuwait, Qatar and Bahrain, have signed a co-operative security agreement in December, 2000.

(b) Why was Macau in the news recently?

Answer: Macau was handed over to China after about four and half centuries of control by Portugal in December, 2000. China will provide it administrative autonomy for 50 years.

(c) What is G – 8?

Answer: Group of 8 developed countries, consisting of Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, UK and USA, G-8 met in its 26th Annual Conference in Japan on July 21 to 23.

(d) What is European Union?

Answer: European Union (EU) is an economic and political union of 28 countries which came into existence in 1993. It is an organisation of primarily European countries and it deals with foreign affairs, security and police.

(e) Explain the position of UN vis a vis the League of Nations.

Answer: The UN came into existence through a Charter in 1945 at the end of the Second World War while the League of Nations through a treaty in 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference which ended the First World War.

Q. 10 Answer any ONE of the following (Answer should be in about 250 words):         

(a) What is a cryogenic engine? Discuss its significance in India’s space programme.  30

Important Points for Answer:

Cryogenic engine—technology


India’s progress—effect on space programmes

Answer: Cryogenic means low temperature. Cryogenic engines are highly efficient liquid propellant engines. They use liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen as the propellant. Oxygen can be kept in liquid state at below -1830 C temperature, while hydrogen requires temperature below -253°C to be in liquid form. Moreover, the liquid oxygen is very reactive. So, effective technology is required to ensure that both come in contact only in the combustion chamber. Apart from this technological care, two quite different state of temperature are required to be maintained. To keep propellant in liquid state, low temperature is to be maintained while in the combustion chamber very high temperature and pressure are created by combustion to create a greater thrust. These engines produce greater thrust by the same weight of propellant than other engines. They are highly efficient and are used throughout the world.

India signed an agreement with Russia for Cryogenic technology but due to American pressure Russia didn’t transfer India this technology. However, later on, ISRO tried to develop this technology and has achieved much success in this path. India will become self – reliant in its space programme after the development of this technology.

Cryogenic engines are very useful in launching of heavy satellite launch vehicles like GSLV. We will be able to launch much heavier satellites into orbit. Even satellite launching market will be available for India in the world. Cryogenic engines will not only make India progress in its own programmes but commercialisation of this technology and its services will get India foreign currency.      (Total 255 words)

(b) What are stem cells? Why have they been in the news recently? Discuss. 30

Important Points for Answer:

Stem cells



Issues in debate

World response

Answer: Stem cells are special types of cells that have ability to grow into any kind of tissue. They can be used to grow into heart, skin, liver, blood or any other kind of tissue. These cells are taken from the patient’s own body—from his bone marrow. If it is a newly born child, placenta cells are taken. Such stem cells can also be produced from embryos or from umbilical cord blood.

Their ability to grow into required types of tissue make them useful to cure many diseases. They can repair the damaged part of our body. Apart from this, they can be preserved for years by keeping them in liquid nitrogen at -270 degree Celsius and can be used for the treatment of the person when he gets any defect in his body.

But a new controversy has arisen with the concept of stem cells. A group of politicians and ethics advocates ask whether they are really embryo cells and are ethically justified to replace them. However, the debate is over the embryo stem cells. They favour the right to life of the embryonic fertilised cells. On the other hand, the scientists show the benefits and potential utility of these cells to cure human diseases. More than 45 disorders can be treated with the stem cells.

Britain has favoured research in stem cells while America allows only research over the embryo cells and not their use. India is also conducting research in this field. Apart from this ethical debate, these researchers have their own technical problems yet to be solved.       (Total 261 words)

Q. 11 Answer any TWO of the following (Answer to each question should be in about 150 words):        15 × 2 = 30

(a) What is fibre optics? What advantages does it offer in telecommunications? Elaborate.

Important Points for Answer:

Fibre optics—technology

Use in telecommunication


Answer: Fibre Optics is a branch of Physics dealing with principle of Internal reflection and its applications in various fields. Fibre optics technology enters high energy light waves in optical fibres, a hollow thread with efficient reflective inner surface, at the one end and it is transmitted to the other end.

Besides its application in medical and broadcasting, it is very useful in telecommunications. Sound energy is converted into and transmitted as light energy through optical fibres. Speedy and efficient transmission is the main advantage besides clarity. There is no or negligible loss of energy and cross talks are avoided. Electrical interference is also not present and so telecommunications gets good quality transmission.

In comparison to metallic lines, optical lines are smaller and therefore more messages can be sent simultaneously. They have large bandwidth and so a potentially high transmission capacity. They are signal tapping proof and possess high temperature tolerance. Components are light weight and 10,000 times thinner than hair.    (Total 160 words)

(b) What is vermicomposing? Discuss its importance in the Indian context.

Important Points for Answer:



Usefulness and relevance in India

Answer: Vermicomposing is a process of producing carbonic fertiliser by bio-chemical process using earthworms and biological wastes.

Earthworms convert the biological wastes available in the soil, like remains of the crop, waste of animals etc, into carbonic fertilisers. Indian farmers mainly use NPK fertiliser of which Nitrogen(N) and Phosphorous(P) can be produced by vermicomposing apart from Sulphur. Other benefit of vermicomposing is that they remove the wastes of rural areas by composing them. They use unnecessary organic and non-organic matters, thus cleaning our villages.

Preventing soil erosion, vermicomposing hold the soil together. Earthworms convert the complex nitrogen based products into organic products in very short time, and so the fertiliser producing is not a time taking process by vermicomposing.

The process is a part of life cycle of earthworms and so it never stops and do not require to replace them. They produce no harmful effect to the soil or its fertility.           (Total 155 words)

(c) What does the Montreal Protocol deal with? Discuss its role in protecting Earth’s environment.

Important Points for Answer:

Montreal Protocol

Environmental danger

Protective measures

Answer: The Montreal Protocol deals with the protection of ozone layer in atmosphere. It was agreed upon and signed by 47 nations in September, 1987 in the city of Montreal, Canada. They agreed to stop emission and use of ozone depleting substances. This protocol identifies two types of chemicals as ozone depleting – CFC and Hallons.

Ozone layer of the Earth is in danger and some preventive measures are necessary otherwise, the result will be danger to life, natural resources, environment, health, biodiversity and ecological balance.

This protocol aims at preventive measures to protect ozone layers of the Earth is the most important step in this direction. In 1998, it adopted a policy to completely stop production and use of CFCs in 15 years, by 2000 for the developed nations and 2010 for the developing nations. Under this protocol a global fund is established to aid those developing nations who cannot afford technological costs for alternative chemicals. (Total 155 words)

Q. 12 Answer the following (Answer to each question should be in about 20 words):

(a) What is “handshake” in computer language?

Answer: The handshake is often the steps of verifying the connection, the speed, or the authorisation of the computer trying to connect to it. An example of handshaking is when a modem connects to another Modem.

(b) What is “ethernet” and what is it used for?

Answer: Ethernet is a local area network, used to interconnect computer equipment. They use radio frequency signals sometimes. It is a very common type of LAN.

(c) What is “digital signature” and what is it used for?

Answer: Digital Signature, a mathematical scheme for demonstrating the authenticity of digital messages or documents, is an encrypted signature used as a means of authenticating electronic documents, necessary for electronic commerce.

(d) What do the following stand for?

Answer: (i) DRAM: Dynamic Random Access Memory

   (ii)       JPEG: Joint Photographic Experts Group

   (iii)      ASCII: American Standard Code for Information Interchange

   (iv)      IMAP: Internet Mail Access Protocol

(e) What is a WAP-enabled phone?        2 × 5 =10

Answer: WAP–(Wireless Application Protocol) enabled phones are having screen facility which shows the picture of the user opposite-side. It provides facilities of a number of WAP-sites to the user through the medium of telephones.

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