Time Allowed: Three Hours       Maximum Marks: 300

Candidates should attempt All questions strictly in accordance with the instructions given under each question.

Q. 1 Answer any ONE of the following (about 250 words) : 30

(a) The reforms of 1909 introduced a cardinal problem and ground of controversy at every revision of the Indian electoral system.” Comment.

Important Points for Answer:

•       Reforms of 1909 – provisions     

•       Effects

•       Electoral –revision       

•       How problems posed?

•       Conclusion

Answer: The Indian Council Act, 1909 also known as the ‘Morley Minto Reforms’ introduced formally electoral system in India.

There was a demand for Self-Government which was not conceded to, even in a part. The electoral system that was introduced contained two divisions of electorates, namely :

(i) General electorates, and (ii) Special electorates.

The General electorate contained non-official members of provincial legislative councils and municipal boards.

The Specialised electorates were of three kinds :

(a) Class based,

(b) Communal-which separates electorates for Muslims and Hindus,

(c) Social Interest based electorates.

No Universal franchise was introduced. Only a class of citizen was qualified for voting which was almost a minority to the total population of each electorate.

Communal Representation introduced here was aimed at dividing Hindu-Muslim to make them weaker. Only an elite class Muslims were interested in such reforms.

Moreover, the elections were not direct elections, but it was by an electoral college which in turn elected from each electorate areas. Special interest was also introduced by providing seats to British capitalists and Zamindars. Communalism was given a fire not only by dividing electorates but also by relaxing conditions for qualifications to be a voter.

All these measures, in name of reforms introduced by the Act of 1909 gave a political and social blow to the national movement.

These policy was made more and more grave at every revision of electoral systems. For example, by Act of 1919 the Communal electorates were introduced for Sikhs, Christians and also for Harijans. These separate communal electorates introduced for Harijans were severely criticised by Gandhiji and were not accepted.

Not only by providing a pseudo majority provisions but especially by introducing a separate communal electorate system, the Act of 1909 put a fire which was given blow at every revision to divide Indians and to make them quarrel among themselves so that the force of unity can be broken and weaken.

(b) Discuss the problems that impeded the integration of the princely states into the Indian Union. How were these problems tackled?

Important Points for Answer:

•       Integration policy

•       Princely states

•       Problems

•       How tackled?

Answer: Mountbatten Plan made the Princely states free to decide their fate, either to join Indian or Pakistan Dominion. However, they were allowed sovereignty or a separate dominion.

Some states of India wanted to remain free as separate states. Hyderabad, Travancore, Bhopal, etc. were the states which wanted to remain sovereign.

For incorporation and integration of Princely states, a new States Department was constituted in July 1947, under Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel as its incharge.

By tactful handling of the problem, all states except three signed an Instrument of Accession with Indian Government by August 15, 1947.

Junagarh’s Nawab wanted to join Pakistan but people wanted to join Indian dominion. People’s movement pressurised Nawab and Indian Army help resulted in its merger with Indian dominion.

Hyderabad wanted to remain a separate state but it was included in India by bait and threats by Sardar Patel very tactfully.

Apart from such incorporation of states into Indian dominion, there were problems involved in regard to their integration. Many small states were required to integrate to form a sizeable state.

Many princely states in Kathiawar were integrated to form Kathiawar Union. Same problems were involved in Vindhya, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Himachal Pradesh, etc. Issues of boundary redrawing also arose to be tackled by Sardar Patel.

Their titles and positions were required to change for democracy. Privy purses and posts of Governors or Raj Pramukhs were offered to them for their renouncement of titles.

State of Travancore was involved in India by realising them the threats of Communism. Mysore was incorporated by People’s movement. Last was the Kashmir to join India after the fear of attack by Pakistan army. Raja Harisingh of Kashmir signed instrument of accession to get help of Indian army against this threat.

By the incorporation of Kashmir, all states had merged with India and their integration was also completed by November, 1948.

Thus, different situational problems arose in integration of Indian Union which were tackled by Sardar Patel very tactfully by use of wisdom, threats, rewards or force according to the needs.

Q. 2 Answer any TWO of the following (about 150 words) :           2 × 15 = 30

(a) The mainstay of Mahatma Gandhi’s movements was the rural India. Elucidate.

Important Points for Answer:

•       Gandhi’s attitude

•       Issues–importance & involvement of rural public

Answer: After returning from South Africa, Gandhiji decided to round all over the country. He first came in struggle with the Government, through Champaran Satyagraha of 1917, that was for the cause of Indigo farmers. He pictured the regional problem at the national level. In the same way, his Satyagraha in Gujarat in 1918 for Kheda district farmers also come from rural India. He changed his life style and adopted simplicity in his living style. He himself lived like a villager.

He adopted programmes like Boycott, Swadeshi, encouragement for Khadi and rural handicraft. His emphasis was always upon the society in rural India. He had even opposed heavy industry because it would have adverse impact on rural economy.

His movement for abolition of casteism, untouchability, upliftment of Harijans etc. were basically cantered in rural life. Rural mass cooperation was inevitable for achievement of freedom and only educated urban people cannot win freedom, according to Gandhiji, as he regarded rural areas as the soul of India.

After 1920, all movements like Civil Disobedience, Non-Cooperation etc. involved large masses of rural people. This made villages take active part in political actions, making the base of national movement much wider.

(b) Discuss the character of major tribal uprisings in British India in the nineteenth Century.

Important Points for Answer:

•       Tribal uprisings

•       Reasons

•       Nature

Answer: In the nineteenth century, British were establishing themselves in the areas of remote tribes. During this spread, they had to face many regional, tribal revolts for their interference in tribal life and occupation.

Among many main revolts were, Munda Revolt, Khasi Revolt, Santhal Rebellion, Kandh Uprisings, Kol Uprisings, Kukis Revolt, etc.

All these tribal revolts were led by either any Leader or elder person of the tribal group. They were local in their spread and were limited to their regional objectives.

These revolts, sometimes against Land lords, money lenders and British rule acquired violent nature and when suppressed by forces they generally turned to religious character by its leader claiming incarnation of any deity.

However, fragmented in character, they were examples of their true spirit of sacrifice and courage. They set examples for nationalist leaders. Explaining the exploitation and cruelty towards them, they stood to remove them by themselves.

(c) Bring out the ideological basis of the Moderate-Extremist divide in the Indian National Congress.

Important Points for Answer:

•       Ideologies of – moderates, extremists of Congress split

Answer: Indian National Congress divided in 1907-Surat Session between Moderates and Extremists due to their different ideologies though both groups continued to work for national movement of India.

The foremost difference was in social base, for moderates zamindars and upper middle class was the base while for the extremists, educated middle and lower middle class formed a wide base.

Moderates regarded the British rule in India’s social, political and cultural interest while extremists thought them as exploiting India.

Moderates were loyal to the British crown while extremists did not.

Moderates had no faith in mass movement which the extremists had from starting.

Moderates meant ‘Swaraj’ as just Constitutional reforms and increase in share of Indians in services and representation under the crown while the extremists meant it freedom from British rule altogether.

Moderates followed only constitutional methods of petitions, resolutions, etc. while the later movements boycott, protest, strikes, etc.

These main ideological basis led the Congress to split in its Surat Session.

Q. 3 Write about the following (not exceeding 20 words each):     15 × 2 = 30

(i) Arthasastra

Answer: A famous work by Kautilya or ‘Chanakya’ the Prime Minister of Chandragupta Maurya.

It deals with Political principles and policies.

(ii) Sarnath Pillar

A pillar erected by Ashoka as a holy mark of Buddha’s first sermon. Our national emblem is taken from the top of this pillar.

(iii) The Jatiya Sarkar of Tamluk

Answer: It was a parallel Government established by leaders in Tamluk (Midnapur) during December 1942 to September 1944.

(iv) Punnapra-Vayalar

Answer:  A localised peasant movement by small farmers and artisans against the ambitious Diwan C.P. Ramaswamy in Travancore state in 1946-47.

(v) Sajjad Zahir

Answer:  A famous personality of Urdu literature who also belonged to social and religious reformation of Muslims in 19th century.

(vi) Al-Hilal

Answer:  A newspaper started by Abul Kalam Azad in 1912 to spread his socialist thoughts and national spirit among people.

(vii) Har Dayal

Answer:  He was the editor and founder of the ‘Gadar’ newspaper and later on ‘Gadar Party’. It was a revolutionary group in San Francisco working for India freedom.

(viii) Khudai Khidmatgar

Answer:  Khan Abdul Gafar Khan organised Pathans in Kabul to form a group ‘Khudai Khidmatgar’ for Indian freedom by following ‘Ahinsha’ in 1929.

(ix) Mahayana Cult

Answer: This is a cult of Buddhism which regard ‘Buddha’ as the God. It came into existence from the fourth Buddhist council in first century.

(x) W. W. Hunter

Answer: He was the chairman of Education Commission for India constituted in 1882. His findings and recommendations developed Indian education.

(xi) Indu Lal Yajnik

Answer: He was one of the founder of All India Kishan Sabha in 1936. He was a famous peasant leader of Gujarat.

(xii) Achhut Patwardhan

Answer: He was one of the founders of Congress Socialist Party in 1934. He was a famous socialist thinker and companion of J. P. Narayan.

(xiii) Sir William Jones

Answer:  He established Asiatic Society of Bengal in 1784 in Calcutta to bring out prestigious Indian heritage and culture.

(xiv) James Wilson

Answer:  He played a vital role in the revival of Indian ancient education in the time of Lord Bentick. He supported royal grant for development of literature and language.

(xv) Ghulam-giri.

Answer:  It is a book written by Jyotiba Phule. It condemns casteism in India and exposes problems of the depressed classes.

Q. 4  Answer any TWO of the following (about 125 words each) :  2 × 10 = 20

(a) Describe the major characteristics of the rivers of Peninsular India.

Answer:  Rivers of Peninsular India radically differ from those of the Northern Indian rivers, called the Himalayan Rivers in vary characteristics. Peninsular Rivers have their origins in Aravallis, Western Ghat, Eastern Ghat and Satpura series of mountains.

   –         they have little or no water in summer.

   –         they do not form sedimentary plains because they pass through rocky soil.

   –         their flow is fast and they are not useful in water transportation due to fast flow and up-down path.

   –         at some places they form water falls and attract tourists.

   –         due to fast streams, they can be used to generate hydro-electricity.

(b) Account for the very high concentration of salt extraction industries in the Saurashtra and South Tamil Nadu Coast.

Important Points for Answer:

•       Salt extraction industries, requirements

•       Locational suitability of Saurashtra and Tamil Nadu

•       Other reasons

Answer: For the development of Salt industries, high temperature, dry season, less precipitation and high salinity of water is necessary.

In Gujarat, the coastal districts of Saurashtra, receive less than 50 cm of annual rainfall and hence come under Semi-arid zones. Mean annual temperature is around 25-30° C and the sky is clear and cloudless for a major part of the year. Both these factors lead to less precipitation and more evaporation. Moreover, there are no river delta or estuaries to reduce the salinity of sea water, making the coast ideal for salt industries.

Similarly, in the South coast of Tamil Nadu, away from the Kaveri, annual precipitation remains 60 cm, an average with mean annual temperature of 25 to 30° C. Moreover, salinity in the coastal water is high due to lack of any river drain. So, the ideal and much required condition for salt industries are available here in the South of Tamil Nadu coast also.

These are the reasons for the very high concentration of salt extraction industries in the Saurashtra and South Tamil Nadu coast apart from availability of cheap and experienced labourer activities.

(c) State the four distinctive stages of Indian Demographic history.

Important Points for Answer:

•       Stages : upto 1921, 1921-1951, 1951-1971 and from 1971

Answer: The History of Indian Demography can be divided into four distinctive stages as :

Stage-I : Upto 1921.           Stage-II : 1921 to 1951

Stage-Ill : 1951 to 1971      Stage-IV : from 1971

Stage I : upto 1921 – represents the phase of very slow growth rate of population. This was characterised by high birth rate and high death rate. Due to adverse situations, the death rate was very high. Even during 1911 to 1921, there was negative decadal growth rate of – 0 -31%.

Stage II : from 1921 to 1951—is characterised by medium growth rate. During this period, the medical facilities, food availability etc. contributed in reducing death rate to some extent and continuous high birth rate represented 11 to 14% of decadal growth rate of population.

Stage III: from 1951 to 1971 – covering the period from 1951 to 1971 represents very high growth rate. After Independence, availability of medical facilities and food were increased. This impressively reduced death rate and because of no measures to check the growth of population, the birth rate also was higher. So, it resulted in the growth rate of 21 to 24% per decade.

Stage IV : from 1971 – which is continue from 1971 can be marked with slow reduction in population growth. Due to measures to check the population, education and awareness, the birth rate has slowed down. However, the reduction in decadal growth rate is amongst the higher rate of population.

Q. 5  Write short notes on the following (about 20 words each) : 5 × 2 = 10

(i) Define Terai Region.

Answer: Situated in the south of the Shivalik Range, it is composed of sedimentary deposits. This plains are made by the eroded materials of the main Himalayan ranges.

(ii) Mention the area of Shola forests in India.

Answer: The area of Shola forests in India :

Western Ghat range

Eastern Ghat range

Mountain Hills of Annamalai and Nilgiri in Peninsular region.

Satpura mountains.

These forests occur between the range of 1000 to 1500 mt. altitude.

(iii) Who are Todas and where do they live?

Answer: Todas are Scheduled Tribes residing in Tamil Nadu’s Nilgiri mountain areas. They profess animal husbandry and collection of forest products.

(iv) Name any four principal languages of Andaman and Nicobar Islands.

Four principal languages of Andaman and Nicobar Islands are Nicobari, Tamil, Telugu and Hindi.

(v) What is MRTS? Where it is in operation?

Answer:  MRTS is Mass Rapid Transport System. It is in operation in Delhi to improve transport facility in the mega city.

Q. 6  Answer any ONE of the following (about 250 words) :          30

(a) Discuss the question of death sentence and Presidential clemency.

Important Points for Answer:

•       Death sentence

•       Constitutional powers of President regarding death sentences

Answer: The President of India is given clemency powers in respect of death sentence, under Article-72,

   –         may it be for the violation of any

         –         union law, or

         –         state law, or

         –         martial law.

The President has clemency powers in the following ways :

Pardon : completely absolves the offender.

Commutation : substitution of one form of punishment for another lighter punishment.

Remission : reduction of sentence without changing character of it, however, it is not possible in case of death sentence.

Respite : On some special grounds (like pregnancy) awarding lesser punishment.

Reprive : Temporary suspension of death sentence.

This powers of the President is to be exercised on the advice of the council of ministers. Generally decision of the President in this regard is not questioned in the court of law, but in exceptional cases it can be taken for judicial review, it has been grossly misused out of scope of Article-72.

The presidential clemency cannot be demanded as a matter of right. It can be rejected even without assigning any ground.

The Supreme Court examined the scope of the President’s pardoning power under Article- 72 in the Kehar Singh’s case-1989 and held

The President may scrutinise the evidence on the record

He may decide differently from the court.

The offender has no right to be heard by the President.

The manner of consideration is the discretionary decision of the President.

The court do not guide in exercise of the power under Article-72 to the President.

The order of the President is not subject to judicial review on its merit.

(b) Explain the discretionary powers of the Governor of a State.

Important Points for Answer:

•       Governor

•       Discretionary powers

•       Constitutional provisions

Answer: The Governor of a State is vested with discretionary powers more than the President of India. In certain circumstances he is not bound to act on the advise of the Council of Ministers, even he need not seek its advise.

Some occasions where the Governor is required to act discretionary are :

   (i)        Appointment of the Chief Minister

   (ii)       Advising the President for Proclamation of Emergency.

   (iii)      Dissolution of Legislative Assembly.

   (iv)      Dismissal of a Ministry.

   (v)       Reserving a bill for the President’s consideration.

   (vi)      Schedule 6

   •         Appointment of the Chief Minister : Generally the leader of the party with majority is appointed as the Chief Minister. But in situation where no party gets absolute majority, the Governor exercises his discretionary powers in appointing the Chief Minister.

   •         Advising the President for proclamation of Emergency : Under Article 356, the Governor advises the President to proclaim emergency when he is satisfied that the Government cannot carried on in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution.

   •         Dissolution of Legislative Assembly : Under Article 174, the Governor summons, prorogues and dissolves the Legislative Assembly. When the ministry loses the majority and the Governor is satisfied, he may dissolve the House.

   •         Dismissal of a Ministry : According to Article 164, a minister holds office during the pleasure of the Governor. When the ministry loses support of the House, the Governor will dismiss the ministry. But he cannot dismiss it until it losses majority support.

   •         Reservation of a bill for the consideration of the President: However, situation are mentioned in Article 200, when he will reserve the bill, yet he can use, discretion regarding this matter.

   •         Schedule 6 : It mentions some function expressly to be performed by the Governor at his discretion in the tribal areas of the State of Assam.

In all these situation, the Governor of a state is empowered by the Constitution to use his discretionary powers.

Q. 7  Answer any ONE of the following (about 250 words) :          30

(a) Discuss Parliamentary Control over the Executive.

Important Points for Answer:

•       Control–Financial, Administrative, Legislative, Collective & Individual responsibility, Representative, Control through Information, Control by Suggestions

Answer: Parliament controls executive in the following ways :

Financial Control

Administrative Control

Legislative Control

Collective and Individual Responsibility

Representative Control

Control through Information

Control by Suggestions

   ¦          Financial Control : The Government is required to pass budget and financial bill in both the Houses. Parliament does not allow the Government to expense unnecessarily. The Government cannot withdraw any amount of money from the Consolidated Fund without Parliamentary authority.

   ¦          Administrative Control : Generally, Parliament does not interfere in Administrative matters but if any policy is formed in wrong way, Parliament may ask for explanations.

   ¦          Legislative Control : While enacting any law in Parliament, the Government needs to explain its all provisions and answer questions asked by the members of Parliament. Thus, it does not allow the executive to enact any arbitrary acts.

   ¦          Collective and Individual Responsibility : The whole council of ministers is answerable to Lok Sabha for any step taken by any of the minister of the council of ministers. Even the minister is answerable individually to the Lok Sabha for steps taken by officials of his department. If Lok Sabha does not approve the act of the minister, the whole cabinet has to resign, because of collective responsibility.

   ¦          Representative Control : Members of Parliament represents different sections of people. They ask questions to the executives as representatives and thus they save the interest of their people through representation.

   ¦          Control through Information : People, and through them, members of Parliament have unlimited right to seek information.regarding any policy formed or steps taken by the executives. They ask for information and keep control over any irresponsible acts.

   ¦          Control by Suggestions : Parliament makes some useful suggestions during the discussion of any policy. Members do not allow the executives to make defective policies.

These are various modes how Parliament controls over the executives.

(b) Identify the major obstacles in the smooth functioning of Parliamentary democracy in India.

Important Points for Answer:

•       Parliamentary democracy

•       Obstacles in India–Hung Parliament, Absence of strong opposition, Regionalism, Criminalisation, Non-secular politics, Lack of (Morality, Literacy, Education), Corruption, Absence of Healthy discussion.

Answer: India adopted Parliamentary Democracy after independence. After more than half a century of this Parliamentary democracy, the major obstacles noticed so far, in its smooth functioning are :

   ¦          Hung Parliament : However, this factor has emerged in last decade, nineties, but it has been proved a major obstacle in forming stable governments. It led to frequent elections and ineffective functions of the Governments.

   ¦          Absence of strong opposition party : Indian Parliament never get a strong and ideal political party to stand as opposition party in Parliament. A strong opposition can effectively play a role in the formation of Government policies. Opposition is not meant to be an obstacle even in effective and necessary decisions just for political reasons.

   ¦          Regionalism : In last some decades, Indian politics has noticed growth of many regional parties. Problem is not with their being regional, but they sometimes have proved to be hindrances in national interests. These small and regional parties, even effect the stability of the Government.

   ¦          Criminalisation of Politics : Today, many politicians are with criminal records. Elections are won at the tip of gun. Even in Parliament, criminalisation has affected neutrality.

   ¦          Non-secularism,Castism, etc. : Nowadays, religion, caste, language and such undesirable factors are used in election propaganda. Such politicians are a threat against the national interest. They disturb Parliamentary proceedings and policy making over their such kind of political issues.

   ¦          Lack of Morality, Literacy, Education : Many parliamentarians are illiterate or not properly educated to understand and preserve the dignity of Parliament. Even many of the members of Parliament do not have morality enough to maintain the honour of these Houses.

   ¦          Corruption : Politicians have been started to be identified as corrupt generally. Corruption is so prevalent among political parties that it does not allow the functioning of Parliament on ideological basis. This has effect on the merits of its decisions.

   ¦          Absence of Healthy Discussion : In Parliament, policies and questions are discussed on their merit and demerit basis, but nowadays only a few politicians bother to get enough knowledge to go into the facts and details of the problem and bring out some effective solutions. The discussions are on the basis of Party politics, mostly.

These are major obstacles in the smooth functioning of Parliamentary democracy in India.

Q. 8 Answer any TWO of the following (about 150 words each) :  2 × 15 = 30

(a) Highlight the significance of Forty Fourth Amendment to the Constitution of India.

Important Points for Answer:

•       44th Amendment       • Significant changes

Answer: Forty-fourth (Constitutional) Amendment Act-1978 is a landmark in our constitutional amendments. It has not just restored various provisions of the Constitution which were distorted by the 42nd Amendment Act-1976, but also made some specific provisions providing safeguards against possible misuse.

It has made important changes in the following ways :

It restored the term of the Lok Sabha and the State Legislative Assembly to five years.

Question of disqualification of members of Parliament or State Legislature is to be decided, as originally provided by the President or the Governor.

In Fundamental Rights, it made Articles 20 and 21 non-suspendable even during the Emergency.

Article 31 is taken out from the Fundamental Rights and now Right to Property, is an ordinary legal right only.

Now the President can return the advise of the Council of Ministers for its reconsideration.

For the proclamation’ of Emergency, written advise of the Cabinet and not of the Prime Minister only, is required.

Article 352 now requires that the proclamation must be approved within one month and not two months.

Emergency can be revoked by a simple majority and for this a special session can be summoned by the Speaker or the President on the notice by One-Tenth membership of the Lok Sabha.

The Presidential rule in the State can be imposed for a limited period of six months and it can be continued only if certain conditions, mentioned therein, prevails.

Some safeguards against preventive detention are inserted in Article-22.

It again restored the power of the Supreme Court regarding the elections of the President and the Vice-President.

Emergency provisions are made justiciable.

Thus, drastic changes in the Constitution, for the safeguards, have been made by this amendment.

(b) Identify the major Fundamental Duties.

Important Points for Answer:

•       Constitutional provisions

•       Towards nation

•       Towards society

•       Towards humanity, environment, etc.

Answer: Part IV A, containing a single Article-51 A was inserted by the Constitution (forty-second Amendment) Act-1976. It enumerates the ‘Fundamental Duties’ of every citizen of India. However, no citizen can be punished for its violation, but they are expected to be followed by citizens. After 86th Amendment-2002, there are eleven fundamental duties.

We can classify them as under :

Towards Nation :

To abide by Constitution.

To respect the national anthem, the national flag and ideals of our national struggle for freedom.

To uphold sovereignty and integrity of India.

To render national service, defend the country.

Towards Society

To promote harmony and spirit of brotherhood.

To transcend religious, linguistic and regional or sectional diversities.

To renounce derogatory practices to the dignity of women.

To safeguard public property and abjure violence.

Towards Humanity, Environment, etc.

To protect and improve environment.

To strive towards excellence in all spheres.

Duty of parents or guardians to provide opportunity to children or wards between age of six and fourteen.

To develop scientific temper.

(c) Explain the relevance of Rajya Sabha as a second chamber in the federal set up of Indian Parliamentary System.

Important Points for Answer:

•       Rajya Sabha – composition

•       Federal set up

•       Functions and Powers

•       Requirement of Rajya Sabha

Answer: Rajya Sabha is the permanent house of Parliament, representing states and people indirectly. It is not dissolved even in the time of emergency.

It is vested with equal powers to that of the Lok Sabha, except in matters of Money bills. It works as a revising body over the acts passed by Lok Sabha. It re-considers those legislations and brings the defects to the notice of Lok Sabha, which being a busy and much politicised House, could not have noticed it. It returns bills for reconsideration with some amendments to the Lower House and prevents it to take hasty and faulty decisions.

In emergency, it plays an important role, when the Lower House is dissolved, the Government has to pass the acts in Rajya Sabha. Sometimes, when the ruling party has not enough majority in Rajya Sabha, it is prevented from taking decisions with political motives.

Generally, experts, experienced and honourable politicians, social workers and academicians are represented in Rajya Sabha. They are less motivated by politics and so keep a check over the politicians, who may sometimes ignore national interests for their personal political gains.

In India, especially Rajya Sabha is vested with some specific powers, like :

Article 249 empower Rajya Sabha to pass a resolution to declare that in national interests, some provisions in the state list can be enacted by Parliament.

Article 312 empowers Rajya Sabha to create new categories of the All India Services, by a resolution.

Because of all these factors, Rajya Sabha helps the federation function smoothly.

Q. 9 Answer the following (about 20 words each) :   5 × 2 = 10

(a) What is a point of order? When can it be raised?

Answer:  It is a process to suspend the business before the House. It is raised when the process is not in accordance with the rules and regulations of the House, to assist the presiding officer.

(b) What is a Privilege Motion?

Answer:  If any member of Legislature does not inform to or keep secret from the House any information or presents it wrongly, other member can pass this motion.

(c) State the difference between Council of Ministers and the Cabinet.

Answer: The Council of Ministers is the body to aid and advise the President, consisting the Cabinet Ministers, Union Ministers of the state level, etc. But the Cabinet is inner body of it which consists only Cabinet Ministers.

(d) How is the Vice President of India elected?

Answer:  The Vice-President of India is elected by an electoral college consisting members of both Houses of Parliament. System of proportional representation and means of single transferable vote, by secret ballot is adopted.

(e) What is meant by ‘Sine-die’ adjournment?

Answer:  ‘Sine-die’ means for an uncertain period. When there are continuous obstacles in the proceedings of the House, Presiding officer adjourns the House ‘Sine-die’, without any reference to reassembly of the House.

Q. 10 Write on any ONE of the following (about 250 words) :       30

(a) Discuss the steps taken by Government to check child labour and promote child welfare.

Answer:  Child labour is a curse upon society. It not only exploits tender age but also prevents growth of potentially intelligent citizens of the future. In India, child labour is prevalent in almost all parts and in every type of works.

Adverse effects of child labour has been accepted by the world and internationally, steps are being taken to check it. Indian Government has also taken some positive steps in this direction.

National policy of 1974 declared that No children below fourteen years of age shall be employed in any hazardous work uncertain labour. Government formed and implemented many policies under the National Policy to progress in this direction. Many children were removed from works in factory.

In 1986, Child Labour Prohibition Act was passed as a launch step to curb the evil. Based on this Act, child labour related National Policy was also prepared.

Indian Government set up a Committee to find out causes leading to child labour and problems arising out of them, under Shri M.S. Gurupadaswamy in 1979. It suggested some measures which were taken into consideration while forming suitable policies.

In case of M. C. Mehta vs. Union of India – 1987, the Supreme Court also directed to remove children from factories and other works which check or reduces their growth. After this case Parliament passed the Constitution (80th Amendment) Act, 2000 which prohibited child labour and made provisions for compulsory education to children of the age of 6 to 14 years as their fundamental right. Also, a fundamental duty was added for parents or guardians to take care of their all over development.

In addition to check of child labour, to give them opportunities to develop in all spheres of life, it is also required to promote child welfare, through positive actions. For child welfare, wholesome food, education, clean and encourages environment with enough care are also necessary.

Government formed various policies for the development of education. Mid Day Meal programme is one of the steps for this target. Free education, books, etc., are also made available in addition to scholarship.

Vaccination, medical check-up in schools, co-curricular activities for their welfare are under implementation. In field of justice, children below fourteen years of age are treated as minors and are not generally given corporeal punishment but are sent to child-care homes where they are taught various skills of handicrafts, etc. So that they can earn and rehabilitate in society after sentence period.

All these steps for child labour eradication and promotion of child welfare are under implemented through various policies and acts at central and state levels apart from various programme of NGOs.

In 1994, in Sambhalpur, Thane and Gorwa districts, the National Child Labour Projects (NCLP) was launched for suitable programme implementations.

(b) Suggest measures for the eradication of wide spread corruption in Public Life India.

Important Points for Answer:

•       Corruption

•       Measures suggested

Answer: Corruption has spread from bottom to top in all branches of public governance system in India. To eradicate corruption, steps can be suggested like :

Politicians are generally regarded as the main source of corruption. There should be strict laws debarring life-time election and any public post apart from string, punishment for proved corruption.

Corrupt practices in bureaucracy has spread like an epidemic which can only be controlled through a transport system of work. Records of bureaucracy should be referred at regular interval of time and if found any involvement in corrupt practices, they should be removed from posts.

Anti-corruption Bureau, Central Branch of Investigation and other organisation should actively investigate into corruption matters and their control should be in judiciary and not in executives.

Transparency in public dealings is required so that no secret practice can lead to corruption.

Laws of our country and procedures of public dealings must be made easy so that a general person can understand them and follow without involving any procedural complexities, people should be educated on these matters.

Help to citizens in curbing corrupt practices must be made very quick and reactive.

Whistle Blower incidents has provoked a fear among public due to lack of safety and security of the person who tries to expose corruption. Proper investigation, secrecy and security should be there to make the person feel safe who acts to remove corruption.

Punishment must be made stringent for corruption in public life.

Not only laws and policies but also people’s awareness and active support are required to remove corruption from public life.

Q. 11 Write on any TWO of the following (about 125 words each) :         2 × 10 = 20

(a) The issue of gender equality in India.

Answer: This issue has gained a central position in political and social debate. In India, the Constitution provides that there shall be no discriminations on basis of sex, i.e. gender. Laws also regard both men and women equal, yet in practical life, there is a wide gap in matters of development, progress and prosperity.

Women, though are called to be provided with equal opportunities in matters of education and jobs, are clearly not avail of them. Level of education is obviously not equal but even proportionately literacy level has also a wide gap among male and female.

Sex ratio shows a gap of 67 women less than per one thousand men in India. Social practices and policies are yet not so developed to provide females enough chances for their all over development.

Debates are there to provide them more and more reservations in education and jobs apart from facilities for their upliftment. In some fields, a few female persons have achieved glorious success but they are exceptions and not generality of Indian gender issues.

(b) Natural Heritage and Cultural Heritage.

Answer:  We are presented with many resources and locations naturally without any effort in their creation. Although they are very useful in the progress of human beings they have been sometimes used thoughtlessly and put into danger of their existence in natural form. Various sanctuaries, National Parks, Biosphere reserves, rivers, mountains, plateaus, valley species of animals, birds and plants are included in natural heritage.

Human culture and development owes much to there heritage. They have contributed and are continue to contribute in our progress. Their use must be in sustainable manner, so that no heritage site is endangered to its existence.

Cultural heritage are those which are made by human beings, dance styles, folk music, art, sculpture, architectural monuments, literature, etc. are, cultural heritage developed by various cultures in the world by their distinct traditions and customs and they expose the evolution and development of human society and culture.

UNESCO prepared a list of Natural Heritage and Cultural Heritage of the World every year. These heritage sites or monuments are conserved with great importance and value to human society.

(c) Identify the types of disabilities.

Answer:  Mainly there are two types of disabilities :

   (i)        Physical disability,

   (ii)       Mental disability.

But under Physical disabilities, many such types of disabilities are found. The Disabled Persons Act, 1995 enlists and considers disabilities to

Audio-visual disabilities – Deafness or blindness disabilities, related to bones, and some others.

Some mental problems, undeveloped state of mind etc. are considered as mental disabilities under the Act.

Physical Disabilities:

   –         Blindness : Not necessarily total blind person but it includes lack of vision of one eye, less vision, etc.

   –         Deafness : Inability to hear or less ability.

   –         Bone related disabilities include incapacity to work in any muscle on bone or joints resulting in uselessness of that part of body.

   –         Disability may come by accidents etc., like cutting of hand, leg or loss of eye, etc.

Mental Disabilities :

There are some persons born, idiot, they cannot count twenty or cannot tell name of parents. Such mental incapacities of various degree, mental disorder and unsoundness of mind are included in mental disabilities.

Q. 12 Write notes on any TWO of the following (about 125 words each) :          2 × 10 = 20

(a) What are the distinctive features of the Lokpal Bill introduced in the Parliament this year?

Important Points for Answer:

•       Bill detail

•       Provisions – Constitution, sphere, independence, procedure and powers

Answer: The Lokpal Bill introduced in the Lok Sabha on 14th August, 2001 aim at curing corruptions in high offices by following provisions :

   •         Constitution:

             A Committee will appoint the Lokpal and two other members for three years term. The chairman of Lokpal body will be acting or retired Chief Justice of India. Member will be from retired judges or chief justice of the Supreme Court.

   •         Sphere:

             All members of Council of Ministry, Legislators and the Prime Minister will be covered under its sphere.

   •         Impartiality of post:

             It is immunised by political interferences. They can be removed only by the order of the President on proved misbehaviour or infirmity by the Committee of the Chief Justice of India and two other judges of the Supreme Court.

   •         Procedure and Powers :

             It cannot proceed without any report against the Prime Minister, Minister or a Legislator. It is just a recommendatory body to report to the Parliament but cannot punish the corrupt person.

(b) What is the Prime Minister’s Five-point agenda for India’s development as a Knowledge Society?

Answer:  Prime Minister’s Five-point agenda is :

Primary level education by the year 2010, to educate all at primary level, provide access for higher education, increase number of educational institutions like IITs, IIMs, etc.

In Biotechnology, enlarge the horizons of knowledge, create employment and bio-genetic knowledge for medicine. Develop human resources and potential.

Protect intellectual property rights, indigenous knowledge and art from electronic media spread.

To promote IT exports through various provisions for communication and information technology developed and progress, to be aided by information and broadcasting ministers.

To constitute “Education Development Finance Corporation” in Private sectors.

All these were the main points of the five-point agenda of the Prime Minister, aiming at making India a hub of knowledge and development.

(c) What are the preconditions for the growth of Civil Society? Is Indian democracy conducive to it?

Important Points for Answer:

•       Civil society – meaning

•       Indian Condition

Answer: Civil Society means a developed, modern, intellectual, healthy, prosperous and stable society with dignified conditions of life of a citizen in it.

It can be achieved with the fulfilment of some basic requirements. Some pre-conditions for it are:- higher education and literacy level, enough technical and modern knowledge to access the technological inventions and their benefits, intelligent and moral political awareness to govern the society, ideal manner, growth of literature and art to make lives interesting and wholesome, self reliance or at least easy fulfilment of necessities of life, health related services and facilities of modern and efficient technology with skilful professionals, economic prosperity, equality of male-female and religious harmony opportunities to every person to achieve his all over development.

All these ideal pre conditions can construct a civil society. Indian democracy, however, do not fulfil all the pre-conditions. It can provide a base for it and have some characteristics and potential to be developed into a civil society, but not yet, for and only if grown in proper direction.

Q. 13 Write about the following (about 20 words each):      5 × 2 = 10

(a) Anthrax

Answer:  It is a disease, quickly spreading through air, caused by bacterias and affecting respiratory system of a person, resulting in death in a short period of time.

(b) Radiation and its effects

Answer:  The rays emitted from radioactive matter is called radiation. It damages or destroys cells and so causes skin diseases, cancer, etc. Even they are useful in treatment also.

(c) The Statue of Liberty

Answer:  It is in New York, a city of USA, is considered as the symbol of freedom.

(d) George Walker Bush

Answer:  He is the President of the USA. He is in controversy due to American attack on Iraq under his government.

(e) Genome Answer: The whole sequence of genes is DNA, which controls heredity in human being, as Genome. Scientists attempt to map human Genome.

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