Time Allowed : Three Hours      Maximum Marks: 300

Candidates should attempt ALL questions strictly in accordance with the instructions given under each question.

Q. 1 Answer any two of the following (in about 150 words each) :          15 × 2 = 30*

(a) Discuss the major issues in Indo-US relations in recent times.

Important Points for Answer:

•       Indo-US relations

•       Recent Issues

•       Effects

Answer: Recently, especially after the attack on the World Trade Centre of America, both countries have agreed to combat terrorism. India supported US actions over Taliban.

Attack on Indian Parliament has attracted support from Bush administration. Over Kashmir issue also, America has pressurised Pakistan and so the process of fight against terrorism has been accelerated. Both countries have frequently made statements to this effect.

India is being considered strategically important by America due to Chinese presence in the Indian ocean. Also, due to China and Pakistan’s relations with North Korea makes India more important for America. Due to all these reasons also, American policy has been changed towards India.

Visit of Indian Prime Minister, recently, to New York has turned Indo-US relations towards the direction of strategic cooperation. Bilateral agreement over security and technology training cooperation has been inked. Both decided to prepare Anti-Missile shields jointly. The issues related to security and strategic importance have been floated over the surface in recent times between India and USA, apart from their cooperation in trade and other issues.

(b) Discuss the impact of the collapse of the Soviet Union on Indo-Russian relations.

Important Points for Answer:

•       Collapse of USSR

•       Indo-US relations

•       Progress and cooperation

Answer: The collapse of the Soviet Union has, in fact, no effect on Indo-Russian relation, if we consider in the declining terms. But if positive changes are to be considered, Russia has performed the inheritance of the USSR in true sense.

India had to, of course, make some agreements with other separated parts of the USSR according to strategy and foreign policy, depending on individual country.

But Russia and India remained in the same terms. Russian support continue to India. Russia’s position in the Security Council was not affected and so India had no fear. Even after the end of cold war, Indo-American relations also get a boost.

Russian President and Indian Prime Ministers or Presidents have frequently visited each other. Recent visit of Russian President Vladimir Putin in December, 2002 and bilateral agreements during it shows solidarity of this relations. Both countries accorded to cooperate in defence, security, trade, scientific research and other fields apart from combating terrorism, in their ‘Delhi Declaration’ and 8 other agreements.

Russian support to India on Kashmir issue is intact. Though Russia stopped supply of Cryogenic engines due to American pressure but it does not break us from concluding that Indo-Russian relations have been progressive.

(c) Discuss the recent trends in India’s relations with China.

Important Points for Answer:

•       IIndo-China relations

•       Issues involved

•       Recent progress

Answer: China visit of the Indian Prime Minister, Mr. Atal Bihari Vajpayee in June, 2003 shows positive turn of Sino-India’s relations. During this visit, both countries came to conclusion that leaving the disputes to be solved with time on another route, a new route for cooperation, simultaneously can be created.

In this way, both countries agreed to increase trade cooperation via Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand and Sikkim. Both countries have a big amount of trade through illegal and two number routes, which can now be prevented and legalised.

After the talk, China removed Sikkim from its website as a separate nation and show it as a part of India. Both have some disagreements about Arunachal, Sikkim and Tibet regions apart from boundary disputes.

For constructive results, both nations have constituted a joint working group of experts. Tai Ping Quo on the part of China and Brijesh Mishra from India will head these groups and will bring out solutions.

Thus, cooperating with each other in the race of development and Asian solidarity, India and China have taken a good policy of two track simultaneously – cooperation on first, solving problem on second.

Q. 2 Answer the following (in about 20 words each) :         2 × 5 = 10

(a) Discuss the importance of the Agra Summit on Indo-Pakistan relations.

Answer:  It increase co-operation between both countries and the Bus Service between Delhi and Lahore has been started.

(b) What has been the nature of “Track II diplomacy” between India and Pakistan?

Answer: Journalists, Artist, Celebrities and Social workers, individually and in groups, apart from legislators have come and gone on non-official visits to increase interaction under Track- II diplomacy.

(c) Discuss the major irritants to Indo-Bangladesh relations.

Answer:  Apart from old problems of illegal infiltration into Indian border and water disputes, new concerns are on the points of Sino-Bangladesh relations and activities of ISI on Bangladesh land.

(d) Discuss India’s policy towards international terrorism.

Answer:  India supports policy of combating terrorism under the UN and common for all nations. India is in hard-core opposition of terrorism in any form.

(e) In what sense is Indo-Nepal cooperation important for both countries’ national security?

Answer:  Both countries are part of same geographical region, bordering to each other and commonly with some other nations co-operation in peace would help security of both.

Q. 3 Answer the following (in about 20 words each) :         2 × 5 = 10

(a) Under what conditions are NRIs permitted to remit deposits in India in any currency of their choice?

Answer:  NRI’s are permitted under Non-Resident Foreign Currency accounts to remit deposits in India in any currency apart from some specialised schemes being declared from time to time.

(b) How can NRIs be attracted to invest in India?

Answer:  By providing security, facilities, more interests, attractive and liberal term apart from infrastructure, the NRIs can be attracted to invest in India.

(c) What is the significance of the Pravasi Bhartiya Divas in modern India?

Answer:  Besides soldiering cultural and social bonds, this day is important for economic and political strengthening of India by NRIs cooperation.

(d) In what ways did Idi Amin make life difficult for the people of Indian origin in his country?

Answer:  He ordered to evacuate Uganda to Asians without compensating them and migrants had to return home leaving their all properties there. PIOs had to flee India.

(e) What is “Brain Drain”?

Answer: The migration of intellectual people for profession to foreign countries leaving home country is called “Brain drain”, as their services can not be availed to home nation.

Q. 4 Answer any one of the following (in about 250 words) :        30

(a) Write a note on the strategy of planning in India since 1951.

Important Points for Answer:

•       Planning

•       Strategy

•       Main objectives of all plans

Answer: The strategy means a decided path to achieve some long term objectives. The main points which have been adopted in and can indicate the strategy are :

Increase in national income and per capita income.

Improvement in agricultural production to be self-reliant in food grains production.

Industrialisation specially in basic and heavy industries.

More Employment opportunities.

Equality in income and wealth distribution.

To achieve self-reliance.

Eradication of Poverty.

Economic growth and price stability.

Measures adopted in various Five Years Plan (FYP) can be pointed out as under

First Five Year Plan (1951-56) : aimed at rehabilitating the economy affected by the Second World War (1939-45), checking inflationary tendencies, saving food crisis with special focus on agriculture, initiating, a new mixed economic pattern.

Second Five Year Plan (1956-1961) : was a major step towards industrialisation. On Mahalanobis Model it focused on basic and heavy industries on socialistic pattern.

Third Five Year Plan (1961-1966) : set its principal goal as to secure a marked advance towards self-sustaining growth. It implies savings and investment in the economy to rise sufficiently to secure a high rate of growth of income on a continuing basis.

Plan Holiday (1966-1969) : During the Periods of 1966 to 1969, there were three annual plans viz. : 1966-67, 1967-68, 1968-69.

Fourth Five Year Plan (1969-1974) : primarily wanted to achieve growth with stability and to be self-reliant in food-grain.

Fifth Five Year Plan (1974-1978) : mainly concentrated on poverty eradication and self-reliance. Main focus was to ensure effective public procurement and distribution system, reduction of inequalities in income.

Rolling Plan (1978-1980) : by the Janata Government, focused at enlarging the employment potential in agriculture and allied activities.

Sixth Five Year Plan (1980-1985) : included a novel feature of controlling the growth of population through Voluntary adoption of small family norms. Main targets were to accelerate growth in infrastructural sectors, to check inflationary pressures and correction of balance of payment difficulties.

Seventh Five Year Plan (1985-1990) : It decentralised planning and ensure full participation of people. Apart from target of alleviation of poverty it aimed to generate maximum productive employment opportunities.

Eighth Five Year Plan (1992-1997) : Only fourth version was really implemented with objectives of containment of population growth, universalisation of elementary education, to generate surplus food for exports, to strengthening infrastructure in order to support growth process on a sustainable basis.

Ninth Five Year Plan (1997-2002) : focuses at “Growth with Social Justice and Equality” by providing appropriate direction and balance to the socio-economic development of the country.

Tenth Five Year Plan (2002-2007) : is continue with the objectives of achieving 8% of GDP growth rate, enhancement of human well-being and fulfil the requirements of basic social-services.

(b) What were the major recommendations of the Task Force on direct taxes appointed under the Chairmanship of Shri Vijay L. Kelkar?

Important Points for Answer:

•       Recommendations

Answer: Two Task Forces were appointed under the Chairmanship of Shri Vijay L. Kelkar,

   (i)        The Task Force on Indirect Taxes,

   (ii)       The Task Force on-Direct Taxes.

The Task Force on Direct taxes submitted its final report to the Government in December 2002. Its major recommendations are as below :

A. Personal Income Tax

   (i)        Increase in exemption limit from Rs. 50,000 to 1,00,000 for general tax payers and Rs. 1,50,000 for widows and senior citizens.

   (ii)       Two tier tax rate, 20% upto 4 lakhs and 30% above 4 lakh, instead of present three tier.

   (iii)      Elimination of tax incentives U/S 88, 80 L etc.

   (iv)      Imposition of tax on Agricultural income above Rs. 1 lakh.

B. Corporate Tax

   (i) Reduction in Corporate tax to 30% for domestic companies and 35% for foreign companies.

   (ii)       Elimination of Minimum Alternative Tax (MAT).

   (iii)      No tax on dividends to shareholders.

   (iv)      Exemption of long-term capital gains on listed equity.

   (v)       Reduction in general rate of depreciation from 25% to 15% for Plan and machinery.

   (vi)      Elimination of Sections 33 and 35 and no exemptions under them.

   (vii)     Tax on hotel expenditure to be merged with Service Tax.

   (viii)    Abolition of Wealth Tax.

C. Tax Administration

   (i)        To issue PAN (Permanent Account Number) to all citizens.

   (ii)       Expansion of tax-payer services, easy access through Internet and E-mail.

   (iii)      Transparency and objectivity.

   (iv)      Abolition of block assessment of Search and Seizure cases.

The emphasis of these major recommendations was laid down on :

Raising the Income Tax Limit.

Exemption to be given on rational basis.

To concessional treatment of long-term capital gains.

Abolition of Wealth tax etc.

Q. 5 Answer any two of the following (in about 150 words each) : 15 × 2 = 30

(a) Outline the important objectives of the Tenth Five Year Plan.

Answer:  The Tenth Five Year Plan (2002-2007) is aimed at the following important objectives :

It aims at the target of 8 per cent GDP growth for 2002-07 period.

Only GDP growth is not the criteria of development. It defines objectives in broader terms of enhancement of human well-being.

It aims at providing adequate level of consumption of food and other consumer goods.

Its one objective is to provide access to basic social services like health, education, basic sanitation facilities and drinking water.

To fulfil these objectives, it sets some targets like :

         –         To increase literacy to 75% by 2007.

         –         To provide access to potable drinking water to all villages by 2012.

         –         To reduce Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) to 45 per 1000 live births by 2007 and to 28 per 1000 live births by 2012.

         –         To reduce Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR) to 2 per 1000 live births by 2007 and to 1 by 2012.

         –         To increase the forest cover to 25% by 2007 and to 33% by 2012.

         –         To reduce poverty ratio by 5% by 2007 and by 15% by 2012.

All these are important objectives of the Tenth Five Year Plan.

(b) What is a Finance Commission?

Important Points for Answer:

•       Constitutional provisions

•       Composition

•       Function

Answer: The President of India is required to appoint a Finance Commission under Article-280 of the Constitution of India. It is for the specific purpose of devolution of non-plan revenue resources. Its functions are to make recommendations to the President.

From the net proceeds of taxes,

  It distributes the shares of the Union and the States;

  Also it allocates the share among the States.

It decides the principles on which the Union will pay the grants-in-aid to the revenues of the states.

It also recommends in regard to any other matters concerning the financial relations between the Union and the States.

Since the inauguration of the Constitution in 1951, the Finance Commissions are appointed regularly at and for the interval of five years.

Its recommendations are not mandatory to follow, yet it maintains the financial relations between the Union and the States in accordance with the changing needs of time.

(c) Point out the measures undertaken towards flexibility in capital account transaction during the recent past.

Important Points for Answer:

•       Flexibility – requirement

•       Measures taken

Answer: Tarapore Committee (1997) was constituted for suggesting measures for flexibility in capital account transactions. The committee suggested various measures for that of which some are implemented by the Government from time to time.

Measures :

   –         Liberal policies towards other economies.

   –         To repeal FERA, Foreign Exchange Regulation Act and implement Foreign Exchange Management Act (FEMA).

   –         For more flexibility, Government allowed more investment in institutional portfolio

   –         Use of GDR/ ADR to know the conditions of foreign markets.

   –         Liberal policy and less regulation towards Foreign Direct Investment.

   –         Bonds which can be exchanged to foreign currency and planting Rate Notes were issued.

   –         Foreign Currency Accounts were encouraged for the convenience of NRIs and other investors.

   –         NRI deposits schemes are being promoted.

All these steps are taken apart from making rupee fully convertible, for the encouragement of foreign investment in India.

Q. 6 Answer the following (in about 20 words each) :         2 × 15 = 30

(a) What is Plan Holiday?

Answer:  Due to delay in the formation and implementation of the Fourth Plan, there were three annual plans during 1966 to 1969. This period is known as “Plan Holiday” in Indian Economy.

(b) Why did India have a surplus in current account balance in 2001-02 after a gap of 24 years?

Answer:  Inflow level reached to 2 9% of GDP and so there was a surplus after 24 years gap in current account balance.

(c) What is Value Added Tax?

Answer:  VAT is levied on the net increase of the value of the product at various stages of its production to exclude the possibility of double taxation and tax evasion.

(d) What is the main objective of the Competition Act, 2002?

Answer: To constitute a Regulating Commission to prevent the policy of nationalising or undertaking of companies under the Monopoly Restriction provisions.

(e) Name the two agencies that have helped to promote Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in India.

Answer:  FIPB – Foreign Investment Promotion Board and

FIIA – Foreign Investment Implementation Authority

are the two agencies that have helped to promote FDI in India.

(f) What is the main thrust of the Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Bill?

Answer:  To legalise financial reforms and give priority to fiscal responsibility and Budget management of the Government.

(g) Highlight the main feature of the policy relating to buy-back of shares.

Answer:  Companies buy-back their shares from the market from time to time to derive influential and profitable form to its assets and profits.

(h) Why was Janashree Bima Yojana introduced?

Answer:  It was introduced to the people of 18 to 60 years both from rural and urban sectors living below poverty line to cover them under the Insurance policy.

(i) When was the idea of Agriculture Insurance Corporation mooted?

Answer: Under the National Agriculture Policy – the idea of Agricultural Insurance Corporation was mooted to cover all related aspects of Agriculture.

(j) What is the policy of the Government with respect to child labour?

Answer:  Government has prohibited employing any children under the age of 14 years in any hazardous industry or work, making it illegal.

(k) Explain the objectives of the National Health Policy, 2002.

Answer:  With proper planning in next two decades, to raise the Health Services at targeted world level, and provide basic health services to every person.

(l) What was the main objective of the ‘Operation Blackboard’ scheme?

Answer:  To bring qualitative reforms in elementary level education and increase reach of education.

(m) Explain the essential feature of differential rate of interest scheme.

Answer:  The public sector banks will lend one percent of its deposit in last year at the minimum interest rate of 4 per cent to the backward classes of society of which 40% will be to SCs and STs.

(n) Which are the three major items of expenditure of the Government of India on revenue account?

Answer: The three major items of expenditure of the GOI on revenue account are:

Interest payment,

Plan expenditure,


(o) What was the essential feature of the Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana?

Answer:  It is to construct roads to connect about 1 lakh villages in the next seven years (2007) and also to upgrade about 5 lakh kms of existing roads to provide connectivity through all weather roads.

Q.7 Answer any two of the following (in about 150 words each) : 15 × 2 = 30

(a) What is the ‘Veto’ in the UN-system?

Important Points for Answer:

•       UN-system

•       Veto – meaning 

•       Effectiveness

•       Merits  

•       Demerits

Answer: The United Nations (UN) aims mainly at maintaining international peace and security, primary responsibility of which is upon the security council, one of its six principal organs of it.

The security council consists of, now fifteen member states of which five are permanent members since the conception of the UN. These five permanent members, known as P–5, have been provided with Veto power.

America, Russia, Britain, France and China are P-5 members, having nuclear capacity. To avoid any confrontation among them, every member is given power to reject any question or vote negatively. This negative vote has the effect to remove that matter from voting and no majority decision is required. This special voting power is given to prevent any clashes among these powerful nations, on any question and thus to make world peace possible in true sense.

In the absence of veto, any confrontation among these nuclear powers would have endangered the world. These veto can be used in any substantive, important question in voting and not in procedural questions.

In procedural questions, simple majority is required. But a procedural question can be turned into a substantive one by using ‘veto’ and thus giving rise to ‘double-veto’ system.

(b) Discuss the role of the NATO after the end of the Cold War.

Important Points for Answer:

• NATO-functions

• Role played after cold war

Answer: North Atlantic Treaty Organisation was established, under the leadership of America, on 4th April, 1949 by signing the North Atlantic Treaty by the member states which established the North Atlantic Alliance.

It is a defence alliance in political and military field, based on the UN Charter.

After the end of the cold war, America emerged as the sole super power in the World. NATO emerged as more important military organisation influencing European countries and removing Soviet influence. Even some of the Communist countries of Europe are now members of NATO, which exemplifies its political importance and influence over strategic concern of the countries.

The NATO has played a role of checking emergence of any strong power group to effect the solidarity of American and European alliance especially after end of the cold war.

Due to its impact on international politics, Russia has once again lead some countries to form a military organisation in Europe.

All these shows that NATO’s role has remained strategically of central importance in the world.

(c) Discuss the role of the United Nations in the protection and promotion of Human Rights.

Important Points for Answer:

•       UN      

•       Human Rights

•       Role of UN

Answer: The Preamble of the UN charter envisages to conserve peace in the world and that is declared to be possible through economic, political, social development of human. In various provisions of the UN, it is expressly declared to avoid discrimination based only on the grounds of race, sex, language or religion.

The UN adopted ‘The Universal Declaration of Human Rights-1948’ in December 1948, which most countries of the world have accepted.

Other declaration also, of course apart from the Universal Declaration of Human Rights 1948, declare that every person has right to life, liberty, profess religion of own choice, free expression, right to work, right to dignity, right against bondage 1abour against exploitation, cruelty arid right against derogatory arrest and imprisonment. All these rights are must to be respected by all the nations.

The UN has established The Human Rights Commission and other agencies and organisation to upheld and protect Human Rights in the world. It is also assisted by and provides various helps to many voluntary organisations in this direction

Q. 8 Answer the following (in about 20 words each) :         2 × 5=10

(a) What do the following stand for :

   (i)       IBRD (ii)      UNHCR


   (i)        IBRD International Bank for Reconstruction and Development

   (ii)       UNHCR : United Nations High Commission for Refugees.

(b) Who is Hans Blix?

Answer:  Hans Blix is the weapons inspector, appointed by the UN, to report about the presence of  weapons of Mass Destructions in Iraq.

(c) Why was David Kelly in the news recently?

Answer:  David Kelly was British expert appointed in Iraq. He committed suicide there.

(d) What is the problem in Chechanya?

Answer:  Chechanya is a part of Russia. Militants in Chechanya demand for a separate nation to  which Russia does not agree. Bloody violence is the result.

(e) What is the significance of the Robin Island?

Answer:  The Robin Island is included in the World Heritage List. It is the Island where Mr.   Nelson Mandela was imprisoned for 27 years.

Q. 9 Answer the following (in about 20 words each) :         15 × 2 = 30

(a) What is the significance of Enola Gay in world history?

Answer:  It was the aircraft which carried and dropped atom bomb on Hiroshima city of Japan on  6th August, 1945.

(b) Why is Guantanamo Bay in the news now?

Answer:  A1 Qaida terrorists are kept imprisoned on the Bay of Guantanamo by America where it has Naval base.

(c) What is the theory of “clash of civilisations”?

Answer:  Two different types of ideologies, when cannot mix up, produces clash of civilisation.

(d) What does the theory of “end of history” mean?

Answer:  It shows end of one type of ideology or concepts in the world and gives way to another one. e.g. war with swords has end of its history.

(e) Why was Robert Mugabe in the news recently?

Answer:  The President of Zimbabwe, because of malpractices in elections and differences with “whites” is in news recently.

Q. 10 Answer any one of the following (in about 250 words):       30

(a) What do you understand by depletion of ozone layer and why is it considered harmful? Name ozone depleting substances and processes. What international ramifications took place to protect the ozone layer and what was the target agreed upon?

Important Points for Answer:

  • Ozone layer 
  • Depletion
  • Causes – substances, process
  • Ramifications

• Targets set up

Answer: Ozone is a gas in the lower level of stratosphere. It is a kind of super-charged oxygen – 03. It makes a layer in the atmosphere which acts as a cover to the earth against ultraviolet radiation of the sun. The canopy of ozone layer is with variable extent, less dense near the surface of the earth compared to the height of 30 km.

Some pollutants in the atmosphere like chlorofluoro-carbons (CH3) cause the depletion of ozone layer. These CFCs and other similar gases when reach to the stratosphere they are broken down by the ultraviolet radiation and as a result they liberate free atoms of chlorine or bromine. These atoms are highly reactive with ozone and disrupts the stratospheric chemistry. The reactions deplete ozone layer.

Due to depletion of ozone layer, the earth is exposed to the ultra-violate radiation. These rays cause harmful effect to living beings on the earth. It affects process of photosynthesis in plants. Raise in the temperature, various skin diseases, decrease of immunity, etc., are the probable results.

For the protection of ozone layer, Vienna Conference in March, 1985 was held. In September 1987, Montreal Protocol was signed. This was followed by the Kyoto Protocol of 1997.

The Montreal Protocol plans to phase out the use of CFCs and other ozone depleting substances. It called for the cessation of CFC production by 1996.

The Kyoto Protocol requires countries to take appropriate steps to reduce green house gases emission level at least 5% below 1990 level by 2008-12.

Apart from these International ramification, various conferences and programmes are also held all over the world regularly to protect the ozone layer.

September 16 is declared as the International Day for preservation of ozone by the Montreal Protocol – 1987.

Note : The Kyoto Protocol came into force in January, 2005.

(b) What is interactive television? What special advantages are derived by using. VOD services? What are the components of a typical VOD system? Which feature film was generated first entirely on computers and in which year?

Important Points for Answer:

  • Interactive television
  • Advantage
  • Technology  
  • Film
  • VOD

Answer: This is generally like a simple television or a personal computer, but it is more advantageous in form that it can be used to derive more informations and entertainment connecting internet. It is connected with the Internet services and so a separate computer is not required to access internet broadcasting. This television can be set up to use both types of services.

VOD services can be helpful in providing internet, telephone and broadcasting of television programmes through Broad Band Tripple Play. This enables a cable operator or user to have such combined services which are made possible by accessing to the Internet Protocol. The internet protocol based VOD system can provide these facilities the network of the cable operators speedily and efficiently, without interferences, make the entertainment and information available more easily. According to the Internet Protocol, operators will be able to use internet access, voice over services and bro. of television programmes simultaneously in a single service system, VOD. VOD will thus made possible the entry into Internet Protocol for world class facilities.

For education, research and conferences, all the three services, combined can give a new dimension to the information technology. It will also reduce the expenditure of entry and delivery into Internet Protocol, which would be a boon for scientists, technicians, academicians and experts in various fields.

It will require some necessary devices and facilities to enable a user to access VOD services. These requirements are :

   –         User interface and display

   –         Network interface

   –         Local server and database

   –         Multimedia distributor

   –         High speed

In 2000, Tway story was the first film generated entirely on computers.

Q. 11 Answer any two of the following (in about 150 words each) :        15 × 2 = 30

(a) What does the solar system consist of? Discuss the motion of the entire solar system as a whole and also the motion of most of the bodies forming the solar system.

Important Points for Answer:

• Solar system

• Components

• Motions

Answer: The solar system consist of a star called the Sun at the centre and all the objects that travel around the sun. The objects travelling around the sun include nine planets and many satellites that travel around them, asteroids, meteoroids, comets and interplanetary dust and plasma.

Nine planets, from the sun are – Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto.

The solar system is located in a corner of the Milky Way galaxy and it, as a whole, travel around the centre of the galaxy.

The bodies like planets, travel around the sun in their definite orbits and also rotate over their own axis. Planets have two types of motions, concurrently in the solar system:

(1) Revolutionary Motion – they revolve around the sun at their centre, in their definite orbits.

(2) Rotationary Motion – they rotate over their own axis while revolving around the sun. The satellites, that most of the planets consist of, travel around their respective planets and with them around the sun also.

Asteroids, generally found between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter, also travel around the Sun.

Other celestial bodies in the solar system travel constantly in definite or indefinite orbits around the sun.

(b) In which year and by which countries was International Space Station (ISS) launched? How many countries are participating in this program? What are the unique studies being made in the station which could not be made so accurately on the earth?

Important Points for Answer:


• Studies

• Features

Answer: International Space Station (ISS) was launched in 1993 by the USA and Russia. Countries from European Union, Canada and Japan are participating in this program.

There are some situations which help in researches based on the origin and evolution of life on the earth. Special characterised effects of low gravity and vacuum on life can be experimented here very accurately which is not possible on the earth.

Many questions can be, hopefully, answered through research and study in the space station. How did life origin on the earth? Did it transferred to the earth from other planet or matters of space? Did life origin on other planets? What is the effect of space condition on the health of space researches and travellers? How did the solar system come in this condition of present?

All these miseries of universe would be attempted to solve. This space station will also research and provide information for other space missions.

(c) Discuss the elements of ‘frozen semen technology’. What are ‘embryo transfer’ ‘transgenic animals’, ‘DNA recombinant technique’?

Important Points for Answer:

• Frozen semen technology

• Transgenic animals

• Embryo transfer

• DNA recombinant technique

Answer: Frozen Semen Technology is used to produce improved quality animal generation. With the help of liquid Nitrogen, semen of a male animal, of species with desired quality, are frozen for a long period in ‘Semen Bank’ for its use in future to get offsprings by artificial insemination. This is called “frozen semen technology”.

Embryo transfer: To produce hybrid offspring, embryo developed in male animal of desired characteristics, are transferred into the uterus of another animal to develop the offspring in its body. By this technique, offsprings with desired qualities can be produced even by less quality animals.

Transgenic animals : In such animals, a transgene is integrated with the genome of the original animal. The gene is entered through DNA by plasmids or DNA vector based on virus. Such transgenic animals possess qualities of both the species.

DNA Recombinant Technique : It is possible to transfer gene from one genome to another through this technique.

Q. 12 Answer the following (in about 20 words each) :       2 × 5 = 10

(a) What is ‘Sympathetic Haptics’?

Answer: A method of feeling transfer through internet broadcasting. A user’s touch and pressure is received by Data Globe, it is sent via internet to another user against him and he can feel them through same device.

(b) What are special features of ‘Linux’?

Answer: ‘Linux’ is an open source operating system based on UNIX. It is freely down loadable, user supported and being considered as an alternative to windows. It is suitable for certain business applications.

(c) What is an operating system? List the basic services provided by an operating system.

Answer:  An Operating System is a programme that runs a computer. It manages files and folders, organises the internal activities of the computer and its peripheral devices. Moves data to and from devices.

(d) What is an ‘Internet Worm’? Explain DDoS.

Answer: Internet Worm is a programme spread through internet and gets activated by itself. DDoS means Distributor’s Denial of Service.

(e) What do the following stand for?

   (i)        POSIX – Portable Operating System Interface.

   (ii)       EPROM – Erasable, Programmable Read Only Memory.

   (iii)      MODEM – Modulator demodulator.

   (iv)      COBOL – Common Business Oriented Language.

Don’t miss new articles