Time Allowed: Three Hours       Maximum Marks: 300

INSTRUCTIONS : Answers must be written in the medium specified in the Admission Certificate issued to you, which must be stated clearly on the cover of the answer-book in the space provided for the purpose. No marks will be given for the answers written in a medium other than that specified in the Admission Certificate.

Q. 1 Answer any one of the following (in about 250 words) :        30

(a) Discuss the major regulations enacted by the British rulers to curb the freedom of Press in India.

Important Points for Answer:

• Regulations

•       Controls

• Various Acts          

•       Objectives

Answer: First newspaper ‘The Bengal Gazette’ or ‘Calcutta General Adviser’ was seized in 1812 because of Government’s criticism in it. Since then the British rulers has put some curbs and regulations over the newspapers in India through various regulations.

Censorship of Press Act, 1799 was enacted by Lord Wallesley with provisions of Wartime Press restrictions which included pre-censorship. This was relaxed under Lord Hastings and in 1878, pre-censorship was abolished.

John Adams enacted Licencing Regulations, 1823 which made starting or using a press culture without a licence a penal offence, chiefly directed against Indian Language or edited by Indians.

Licencing Act of 1857 imposed licencing restrictions in addition to registration procedure and the Government reserved right to stop publication.

Registration Act 1867 was of a regulatory nature. It required to print the name of the printer and the publisher and the place of publication of every book and/or newspaper. It also required to submit a copy to the local government within one month of its publication.

In addition to all these restrictive and regulative act, the Vernacular Press Act-1878 was enacted to control Vernacular Press and prevent them from seditious writing. It also provided effective punishment apart from repressive measures.

All these acts were aimed to control Indian press and prevent the exposure of criticism against the Government apart from controlling spread of national spirit to secure their rule in India.

(b) Form a critical assessment of the Non-Cooperation Movement.

Important Points for Answer:

• Movement–Origin, Spread, Objectives, Success, Effect on society

• Comment

Answer: At the time of Khilafat issue, the non-cooperation movement gained a boost. In 1920, the issue of Khilafat non-cooperation movement provided a momentum to masses for raising their voice against the British rule.

September, 1920, special session of the congress at Calcutta, approved the non-cooperation programme till the wrongs done by Punjab and Khilafat issues were remedied. The movement boycotted government schools and colleges, low courts and legislative councils, foreign clothes, renunciated the government titles and honours.

In this movement the congress decided to attain Swaraj as their goal through peaceful and legitimate means. Gandhi promised Swaraj within a year through the non-cooperation movement. Revolutionary groups of Bengal also supported the congress programme.

It was the peak time for the movement when Gandhi withdrew it due to Chauri Chaura incident. With abandonment of the non-cooperation movement, Khilafat movement went critical over Gandhi’s decision of withdrawing the movement.

To evaluate the movement, it can be concluded that it could not realise its goal of Swaraj and in fact Swaraj became more far reached goal now. Nor could it solve the Punjab issue

But it resulted in some favourable consequences like arousing a mass spirit in public and their active involvement from every nook and comer of the country first time after the revolt of 1857. People started to wear Khadi and use Swadeshi in place of foreign goods giving a boost to Indian Economy. Nationalist education spread in country and institutes like Jamia Milia and Kashi universities came into existence.

In this way, it created a fertile soil for the national movement involving persons from even religion, caste and sex.

Q. 2 Answer any two of the following (in about 150 words each) : 2 × 15 = 30

(a) What led to the partition of Bengal in 1905?

Important Points for Answer:

• Partition – reasons

• Policy of British

Answer: The reason which led to partition of Bengal in 1905 were mainly political rather than administrative as was declared by the British Government.

Though to a certain extent, the reason of difficulties in administration of big area and mass of population, forwarded by the Government was justified, real reasons could be pointed out as below:

To curb national activities : Bengal had became a centre of political national activities with Calcutta as its hub. Most of the literate activists were in Bengal, most of nationalist news papers were published from Calcutta. To put a curb on their activities through dividing them, Partition was planned.

To divide people : Bengal was partitioned with a well plan to divide people on the basis of religion and language. Partition was effected in such a manner that areas of religious and linguistic unity were also divided under two different provisions.

To weaken spirit and national activities : To weaken the spirit of nationalism was the main motive apart from propping up muslim communalists to curb nationalist and congress activities. Policy of ‘Divide and Rule’ was implemented explicitly.

(b) Write a note on the Theosophical Society.

Important Points for Answer:

• Establishment        

•Objectives

• Functions  

•Success

Answer: The Theosophical Society was founded in the United States in 1875 by Madame H. P. Blavatsky and Colonel M. S. Olcott. They were inspired by Indian thought and culture. In 1882, its headquarter was shifted to Adayar, near Madras. Later on, Annie Besant was elected its President in 1907.

The society believed that relations can be built Op between a soul and God by contemplation, prayer, revelation, etc. It was inspired by the philosophy of Upanishads, Samkhya, Yoga and Vedanta schools of thought. It affirmed its faith in reincarnation and karma. It worked for Universal brotherhood without any distinction of race, caste, sex, creed, colour or so. One of its aims was to investigate the law of nature and latent power of man. It gave a renaissance to Hinduism.

Not only a religious revivalist society, but it also worked as a movement to glorify Indian religion, culture and tradition and gave much required feelings of pride to the Indians in their religion and philosophy. Inspired by the feelings of self respect, they also get encouraged in fighting against the British rule.

(c) Discuss the main findings of the Hartog Committee (1929).

Important Points for Answer:

• Committee – formation        

•Findings

• Recommendations

Answer: Hartog Committee, under the Chairmanship of Sir Philip Hartog was appointed to find out and recommend measures for progress of education in India. It found out that:

There is no necessity to make education compulsory or expand it hastily. It also emphasised on the primary education.

It got some admissions undesirable in High schools and intermediate levels. So, it recommended to admit only deserving students to high schools and intermediate level after standard VIII and other average students should be given vocational education.

It advocated Vernacular medium of education for rural students and then vocational courses.

The level of University education was not maintained due to open and unrestricted admissions to every student, so it recommended restricted admissions to university for improvements in its standard.

This committee made some valuable recommendations regarding development of education in India.

Q. 3 Write about the following (not exceeding 20 words each) :     15 × 2 = 30

(i) Upanishads

Answer: The last part of Vedic Literature, also called “Vedantas”. They are 108 in numbers, dealing with philosophical aspects to search “Gyana” (knowledge).

(ii) Vajrayana

Answer: A branch of Buddhism which came into existence in seventh century. It emphasised meat, sex and wine. It also believed in magic and charm. It gave a death knell blow to Buddhism in India.

(iii) Kumarsambhav

Answer: This is a Sanskrit epic by Mahakavi Kalidasa in Gupta period. The epic narrates story of the birth of Kartikeya’ son of Lord Shiva and Parvati.

(iv) Razmnama

Answer: It is farsi translation of the epic “Mahabharata”. It was translated in time of Akbar by Badayuni, Abul Fazal, Faizi, etc.

(v) Mirza Haidar

Answer: Mirza Haider became ruler of Kashmir in 1540. He was relative of Humayun. Later on, he was removed by a Hindu ruler.

(vi) Muhammad Barkatullah

Answer: Muhammad Barkatullah, a revolutionary leader, was the first Prime Minister of temporary government of India formed in 1915 in Kabul by Mahendra Pratap Singh.

(vii) Sohan Singh Bhakna

Answer: He found ‘Hindi Sangh’ in America in 1915. He was also related with Gadar Party and Kamagata Maru incident.

(viii) Alluri Sitaramaraju

Answer: He organised an armed force of depressed classes and led the Rumpa revolt. He was killed in 1924. He worked for development of this section of society.

(ix) Canjeevaram Natrajan Annadurai

Answer:  He founded Dravida Kangam (federation) in 1944. Later in 1949, he founded Dravida Munetra Kazagam.

(x) Jadong

Answer:  He was a naga tribal freedom fighter. He worked for social and religious upliftment of the tribes. Executed in 1931.

(xi) Jadunath Sarkar

Answer:  A famous historian. He praised Shivaji in his maratha history. He explained economics and political aspects of marathas.

(xii) Nazir Hasan

Answer:  Worked for Muslim development in economic, social and political fields with Sir Syed Ahmad Khan in Aligarh movement.

(xiii) Subhash Gupte

Answer:  He died recently. This Indian leg spinner got fame by taking nine wickets against West Indies.

(xiv) Acharya Nirmalya

Answer:  A great contributor to Bengal cinema and literature. He wrote an essay “Chalchitra Pratham Sutre” about the starting phase of cinema.

(xv) Jyotirao Phule

Answer:  Jyoti Rao Phule founded ‘Satya Shodhak Samaj’ in 1873. Worked for eradication of untouchability. He wrote “Gulam Giri”. He led a movement against Brahamanism.

Q. 4 Answer any two of the following (in about 125 words each) : 2 × 10 = 20

(a) Examine the distribution of oil refineries in India.

Important Points for Answer:

• Refineries – distribution, reasons

Answer: India has developed its capacity of refining crude oil, producing petrol, diesel and other products.

India has some refineries distributed over the landmass according to some geographical or economical reasons, like availability of crude oil, as raw materials, from nearest wells and regions, situation of ports where import of oil would become easier and transportation  facilities as more important factor.

In Assam, Digboi is a major oil producing region which has availability of oil minerals. In Ankleshwar and Mumbai based refineries, mainly the raw material comes from Bombai High oil region.

Based on the oils of Naharkatia and Huglijan, the refinery is situated in Noonmati.

To Karali from Bombai High and Gujarat oil producing areas, to Jamnagar from Gujarat, Bombay high and imported on the port, oil is available.

Vishakhapattnam, Kochin, Chennai etc. are refineries based on imported oil.

At last, Mathura, Barani and some other refineries are situated due to availability of market and transportation facilities in the region.

Thus, various factors have been decisive in the distribution of oil refineries in India.

(b) Why are the Aravallis called a divide between Mewar and Marwar?

Important Points for Answer:

• Mewar

• Marwar

• Aravalli – how divide?

Answer: Mewar comprises of Udaipur, Chittorgarh, Bhilwada, Dungarpur, etc. districts of Rajasthan Marwar is made of Jodhpur, Jaisalmer, Bikaner, Nagor areas in Rajasthan.

Both areas are divided and separated by a mountain range, spread over south-west to north-east direction, called Aravalli range.

Due to the effects of this mountain range, Mewar experiences an average temperature of 35° C in summer and about 15°C in winter. Rainfall occurs to an average of 75 to 85 cm annually. Given this climatic situation, this region consist of rich resources of natural vegetation.

Quite contrary, Marwar experiences 32 °C to 36 °C average temperature in hot season and 10°C to 15°C in cold seasons. It has only barber vegetation and experiences cyclonic rainfall.

Apart from the geographical differences, the eastern part of Aravalli, Mewar has its dialect known as Mewari different from the western region, Marwar’s Marwari dialect.

(c) What is Golden Quadrilateral? How will it help in the economic development of the country?

Important Points for Answer:

• Golden Quadrilateral

• Importance in economic development

Answer: An ambitious road project joining four mega cities of the country, Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai, with total length of the road amounting to 5,846 km costing about 27 thousand crore rupees, with improved quality, six lane, all weather metallic roads is known as Golden Quadrilateral as it forms a quadrilateral shape.

According to a report, due to improved road network, savings in the fuel cost will be about 8000 crore rupees per year, it will increase inter-state trade, transportation of passengers and goods, reducing time and maintenance cost of vehicle, supplementing Railway and Airlines as a mean of speedy transportation facility, it will surely help Indian trade to grow and develop.

It will help joining important ports with this Road Network in increasing facilities, providing network availability to nearly situated village areas to have the benefit of city markets for their goods.

Q. 5 Write short notes on the following (in about 20 words each) :         5 × 2 = 10

(a) El Nino, La Nina and monsoon rains

Answer:  El Nino is a warm ocean current and La Nino is a cold ocean current.

El Nino rises in the Southern Pacific Ocean at Peru coast Effecting the monsoon rain.

Both have effects upon the amount and occurrence of monsoon – that is based upon moisturised winds blowing from over water bodies – rainfall.

(b) The Sambhar lake

Answer:  It is situated in Rajasthan, the largest salty water lake. It is a salt producing lake.

(c) The Sundarbans

Answer:  Tidal forests, occurring in the deltas and coastal areas with very dense vegetation. Main type of vegetation is Sundri and so named and known as the Sundarbans.

(d) Bombay High

Answer:  Situated in Arabian Sea, it is an oil producing region. It is the largest oil producing region of the country in North-east of Mumbai.

(e) Sabarkantha and Banaskantha

Answer: Both are districts of Gujarat. They are mainly dependent on Agriculture, Banaskantha has dairy and animal husbandry while Sabarkantha is arid, in most part.

Q. 6 Answer any one of the following (in about 250 words) :        30

(a) What is the significance of a preamble to a constitution? Bring out the philosophy of the Indian polity as enshrined in the Preamble of the Indian Constitution.

Important Points for Answer:

• Preamble

• Significance

• Constitutional philosophy

Answer: The Preamble is a key to open the mind of makers – it was held so in re Berubary’s case- 1960 by the Supreme Court of India. It sets out the main objectives that the Constitution sought to be achieved. It is the soul of the Indian Constitution. It has been regarded as a part of our Constitution and it throws light upon the meaning and scopes of a provision if there is any ambiguities.

The Preamble, in short and simple language, enshrines the philosophy of the Indian Politics. In the very start, the words “We the people of India” suggest that the ultimate power lies in the hands of the people. It is a democracy in real sense indicating the rule by the people, for the people and of course, of the people.

Moreover, it is also impregnated with the goals to be achieved. Justice, equality, liberty and fraternity are most sought concepts embodied here. By further narration, it is made clear that justice must be provided in all the spheres of social, economics and political Liberty is given of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship – making it to reach at the very root.

However, the concept of equality in matters of opportunities and of status is not based on Similarity concept but is to be followed with classification. And, the equality among the equals is real motto.

On the other hand, while explaining the nature of political system, it says a “Sovereign, Socialist, Secular, Democratic, Republic” state to India. Socialistic pattern is not meant for nationalisation but for equal distribution of wealth and resources. Secularism has positive meaning which includes respect for all religions.

This is the philosophy of the Indian Policy as enshrined in the Preamble of the Indian Constitution.

(b) Discuss the meaning of “breakdown of constitutional machinery”. What are its effects.

Important Points for Answer:

• Meaning    

•Provisions

• Measures   

•Effects

Answer: The breakdown of Constitutional machinery in a State means that a situation has arisen 1 in which the Government of the State cannot be carried on in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution.

When the Constitutional machinery in a state breaks up, under the provisions of all or any powers of the State Government or other authority. The powers of the State Legislature to make laws remain suspended and these powers are exercised by Parliament. The President may authorise any expenditure from the Consolidated Fund of the State if Lok Sabha is not in session. The sanction for it remains pending for the authorisation of Parliament.

However, the President is not empowered to assume the powers of the High Court of the State. In such a situation, Parliament can confer powers to make laws on the President, for the State. The President can delegate such powers by authorisation of Parliament.

But, the Presidential rule in a State, as this is popularly termed, cannot run beyond the limit of three years in any case it can be extended by the period of ‘Six months’ at a time by Parliament. But, beyond the period of one year, the certificate from the Election Commission, of the effect that due to difficulties in holding general elections to the Legislative Assembly of the State, it is necessary to extend the Presidential Rule.

It converts the Federal System of our Polity into unitary system for the time being.

Q. 7 Answer any one of the following (in about 250 words) :        30

(a) Discuss how the Constitution of India provides equal rights.

Important Points for Answer:

• Constitutional provision

• Equal Rights

• Fundamental Rights

• Other provisions

Answer: The Indian Constitution has made various provisions for the equal rights to all citizens, of which some rights are expressly declared as the Fundamental Rights and some other rights aiming equality are implied in the Constitution.

For example, the declaration, in the Preamble, that India is a socialist state means removal of inequality of wealth and provision of equality, in implied term. In the same way, secularity is to remove partiality of religions and to treat all religions equally.

Article 14 of the Constitution provides equality before law and equal protection of law as a fundamental right. In the same way, no discrimination can be practiced only on the grounds of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth in matters of education and such grounds are provided for removing discrimination in matters of public services. Untouchability is removed and titles are abolished to make all persons equal.

Even in matters of political participation, the Constitution has, since its conception, provided universal franchise under Article 326.

Provisions relating to freedom of expression and speech are also aimed at giving freedom to every citizen to express and bring out their dissatisfaction, even against the State.

In Part IV, the Directives also contain that men and women are to be treated equally. Same wages are to be provided for same work.

Though, reservation is a provision under the Constitution, it is not inequality but a tool to bring equality in the society. Classification has the same purpose.

All these provisions in our Constitution are aimed to provide equality to all persons in our country, not only to the citizens but to non-citizens also in some matters.

(b) How does the Indian Constitution seek to maintain independence of the Public Service Commission?

Answer:  The functions of the Public Service Commission are very important one and hence the independence is necessary to be maintained.

To maintain its independence, the following provisions are made in our Constitution.

   1.       The member of the Public Service Commission holds office for the term of six years or until he attains the age of 65 years in case of UPSC and 62 years in case of State Public Service Commission.

   2.       He is ineligible for reappointment.

   3.       He can be removed by order of the President on the ground of misbehaviour. For such removal, the President is required to refer the matter to the Supreme Court for enquiry. The procedure of enquiry is same as in the case of a Judge of the Supreme Court or the High Court.

   4.       Other grounds for the removal of a member are :

insolvency,

any other paid employment during the term of office,

being unfit to continue in office by reason of infirmity of mind or body.

   5.       He is barred from taking interest in any contract or agreement of the Government.

   6.       They are prohibited to hold office under the government of India or the Government of the State concerned, in accordance with their post in the Public Service Commission, even after they cease to be the member.

             All these provisions make the office of the members of the Public Service Commission free from political interest and influence, making the Public Service Commission an independent body.

Q.8 Answer any two of the following (in about 150 words each) : 2 × 15 = 30

(a) Define Money-bill. Discuss how it is passed in the Parliament.

Important Points for Answer:

• Meaning    

•Procedure

Answer: Money Bill is a special kind of financial bill as defined in the Constitution under Article 110. The Money bill contains only those provisions dealing with all or any matters enumerated in Article 110 (1). However, the certificate of the speaker of Lok Sabha is necessary for a bill to be a Money Bill and he is the final authority to decide it.

The Money bill contains any provision regarding tax, borrowings, guarantee, the Consolidated Fund or the Contingency Fund of India or the public account of India and incidental financial transactions.

To pass a Money bill in Parliament :

it can be introduced only on the recommendations of the President, and in Lok Sabha only.

The Council of States has to pass it within fourteen days of the receipt. If it does not return the bill within fourteen days, the bill is deemed to be passed by the Council of States.

The Council of States has power of recommendations but its recommendations are not binding upon the House of the People in matters of the Money bill.

(b) What is a Finance Commission? Discuss the main functions of the State Finance Commission.

Important Points for Answer:

• Compositions         

•Provisions

• State Finance Commission  

•Functions

Answer: A Finance Commission is a Constitutional body which reviews financial position and makes recommendations. Under Article-280, the President and under Article-2431, the Governor sets up a Finance Commission.

The Governor sets up a State Finance Commission every five years to review the financial position of the Panchayats and to make recommendations to the Governor.

It recommends regarding :

distribution of net proceeds of the taxes, duties, tolls and fees between the States and the Panchayats.

What taxes, etc. may be assigned to or appropriated by, the Panchayats.

The grants-in-aid to the Panchayats from the Consolidated Fund of the State.

It also recommends the measures to improve the financial position of the Panchayats. Apart from these, the Governor may refer to the Finance Commission any other matter also.

The functions of the Commission are recommendatory in nature and not binding on the Governor or the State Government.

(c) Discuss how state governments can exercise control over panchayats.

Important Points for Answer:

• Panchayat

• Control of State Government

Answer: Panchayats are formed as the basic units of governance by the 73rd Amendment Act – 1993 which provides many powers to them for their autonomy in governance. Article 40 one of the Directive Principle of the State Policy of our Constitution provides to constitute Panchayats at village level.

However, some controls over their administration is vested in the State governments.

The State Government is empowered to see that all classes are given equal representation, policy of reservations are followed and elections are held from time to time and on free and fair practice. It can also audit the accounts of the Panchayats and it distributes funds to all panchayats from its fund and thus also it can have a control over their financial transactions.

The taxes by Panchayats are imposed to collect revenue for their local administration, the State government. The State government makes the election commission to prepare a list of the voters in the constituencies of panchayats.

Thus, through various constitutional provisions, the state government controls the panchayats in their administration and work.

Q. 9 Answer the following (in about 20 words each) :         5 × 2 = 10

(a) What is Habeas Corpus?

Answer: It means “you have the body”. It is a writ issued to effectuate the presentation of the person detained, against the proper authority. It can be issued both under Articles 32 and 226, both by the Supreme Court and the High Courts.

(b) What are the constitutional restrictions imposed upon the power of borrowing of the state governments?

Answer: It can borrow U/ A-293 only within the territory of India. It has to provide security of its Consolidated Fund. It cannot borrow, if there is any outstanding to the Government of India or to which the Government of India has given security, without its consent.

(c) What is the special facility provided to the linguistic minorities under Article 350 A?

Answer: Article 350 A provides facility of primary education in the mother tongue to the children belonging to linguistic minority groups. The State and local authorities shall endeavour to provide it.

(d) How can a judge of the Supreme Court be removed?

Answer: A Judge of the Supreme Court of India is removed by the President by an order, after an address of Parliament following the procedure under Article 124 (4), on the ground of proved misbehaviour or incapacity.

(e) How is the Election Commission of India constituted?

Answer: The President of India appoints the Chief Election Commissioner and other members of the Commission from time to time under Article-324 of the Constitution of India to constitute the Election Commission of India.

Q. 10 Write on any one of the following (in about 250 words):

(a) The Inter-State river water dispute has once again assumed centre-stage after the Punjab Assembly’s Bill terminating all previous accords on river waters. Discuss.

Important Points for Answer:

• Bill – detail

•       Dispute

• Constitutionality     

•       Position

Answer: In Indian Constitution, the Inter-State river water is the Central subject under Seventh Schedule’s Union List, Entry 56 and under it the Centre Government has establish a Inter-State River Water Dispute Tribunal under Article 262 to solve any dispute in this matter. The Cauvery Water dispute among the peninsular states and Satluj, Yamuna – Water disputes in the North have been at the Central stage from time to time.

Recently the Punjab Assembly passed a Bill terminating all its previous accords on river waters, which got the assent of the Governor and became a law. The question that acquired the ground of debate soon is whether the Act of Punjab Assembly is constitutionally valid.

Earlier an Act of Karnataka invalidating the order of the Cauvery was Tribunal was declared ultra-vires and void, hence unconstitutional.

Punjab contends that Ravi, Beas and Satluj passes through Punjab territory only and the water requirements of Punjab itself are not fulfilled, so it is not bound to distribute waters to Haryana, Rajasthan and Delhi. Recently the Supreme Court has ordered the Central Government to report on the construction of Satluj-Yamuna link Canal Work, by July 13, 2004. So, the Punjab Assembly passed the Punjab Agreement (Abolition) Act, 2004.

This Act has the effect of invalidating provisions, of the India-Pakistan Indus Agreement 1960, in which Rajasthan is declared a riparian state to have benefit of the river water, but the Act of Punjab Assembly provides to exclude Rajasthan, too, from the benefits of water.

The question has emerged that Rajasthan was given benefit of river waters by the Central Agreement since 1960 and Haryana was a part of Punjab, can Rajasthan be excluded by Punjab overriding the Act of the Central Government? Can a state after division exclude the other part, a newly constituted state from water benefits? If it is so, the emerging demands of new small and separate states will have to be aloof from many resources.

It is now upon the Supreme Court to check the Constitutionality of this Act of the Punjab Assembly.

(b) What is PURA? Discuss its major objectives.

Important Points for Answer:

• PURA – detail, objectives

Answer: PURA is Providing Urban Amenities in Rural Areas. A suggestion by the President Dr. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam, to develop India by 2020.

In Indian National Science Congress’ 90th Conference in Chandigarh, January 2004, Dr. Kalam presented his concept of PURA to succeed in the VISION-2020 goals and objectives, providing India new heights and achievements, developed status and economy.

PURA includes components – Health, Education, Transportation, Electricity, Entertainment, etc. By connecting group of villages with ‘Ring Road’ around them, joining to the nearest town, many industrial sectors can be established near to them.

Easy access to facilities available in cities is main objective to raise the standard of living in villages having 25 to 50 thousand population in the region.

India has about three fourth component of its population in rural areas, neglecting their development, India cannot become a developed nation by 2020, which is the main goal of PURA—to made India a developed nation by then – cannot be achieved. So, PURA prioritises rural development.

An another benefit to be achieved by PURA, is to develop village-groups or regions as small industrial units so that they can be transformed into producers of basic industrial goods also in addition to agricultural producers.

It is hoped that such development of economy, facilities and education in the region, they will be able to get employment, services of better transportation and health, and availability of better education in their complex will prevent migration of people towards cities from the rural areas.

It is also declared by the NDA government that PURA will be implemented as a national programme for India’s all over development and progress towards achieving the goal of becoming a developed country by 2020.

Q. 11 Write on any two of the following (in about 125 words each) :      2 × 10 = 20

(a) Explain UNDP Report on human development in India.

Important Points for Answer:

• Report       

•Indian position

• Indicators

Answer: United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) prepares ‘Human Development Report’ annually. In the Report of 2004, based on the theme related to ‘Cultural Liberty and Diversity in the World’, it provides following facts related to India.

India is ranked 127th position among total 177 countries.

In Gender related Development Index, India ranks 103 among 144 total nations.

The rate of living standard development was 0.595 in 2001.

Life Expectancy in India is 63.7 years.

In GDP development, India ranks 117 in the world.

Poverty Index ranks India 148 among 195 countries of the world.

The report indicated to Gujarat riots to prove despair among communities. However, the report has positively narrated cultural liberty, linguistic, cultural, economic and regional diversities and the progress achieved by harmonising them.

(b) What is WTO? What are India’s objections to its overall functioning?

Important Points for Answer:

• WTO – detail          

•Its functions

• Indian contention

Answer: The World Trade Organisation WTO – came into existence from the last round of GATT in 1995. It is the main international organisation to promote and regulate international trade. The main objective of WTO is to provide boundary less and world market for goods and services produced in any market of the world.

India objects to some principles and manners of work in WTO. India contends that it has not taken into consideration the specific conditions of developing and poor countries while allowing free trade access to the developed nations. Many problems of economic growth arises if it is allowed, resulting in exploitation of poor and developing markets.

It has remained an organisation for the promotion of only developed country interest, argues India.

So, India wants some liberal and favourable policies in developed countries for goods of poor and developing countries. So that they can compete with them. Provisions for antidumping should be made so that markets of developing and poor countries do not over flow with goods and services from developed nations breaking away their economy.

(c) Discuss the utility of e-governance in the Indian context.

Important Points for Answer:

• e-governance – meaning      

•Spread

• Utility–benefits

Answer: Electronic-Governance, means to reach the facilities and services of the Government to citizens through electronic medium. This system will provide all information in electronic form. All documents will be stored and send through information technology making communication and procedure time quick and less expensive. More efficient services can be delivered with this technology and public work will be more accurate and reliable. Direct contacts can be built up and conferences can be held even at far distance places.

At a time, documents can be produced on computers and can be worked upon without delay of time. This leads to easy disposal of work without piling stakes of files in Government offices. Transparency can be maintained regarding the schemes.

But, in India, most of population and even Government officers are not computer literate which will limit its benefit till India becomes hundred percent computer literate. Yet, it offers various possibilities of easy governance and efficient governance through electronic governance.

Q. 12 Write notes on any two of the following (in about 125 words each) :          2 × 10 = 20

(a) Housing for all by 2010 is the goal set by the National Habitat Policy. How far is it achievable?

Important Points for Answer:

  • Policy–details                                      
  • Provisions
  • Objectives                                            
  • Measures
  • Evaluation                                           
  • Conclusion

Answer: Though Housing a state subject, the Union Government is responsible for policy formation. According to the National Housing and Habitat Policy – 1998, the target is to facilitate construction of twenty lakh additional units every year, especially for the economically weaker sections and lower income groups of the society. Of these, twenty lakh units, seven lakhs are to be constructed in urban areas with remaining thirteen lakhs in the rural areas.

The scheme envisages to provides houses with allied basic services to all, based on the “House for All” policy of the Government.

Though the policy aims are very noble and essential for the social development of India, the scheme has no effective distribution of the houses prepared and even implementation is deficient in this field.

One another obstacle is that at the rate of twenty lakh houses per year, the rising population and houseless people’s need cannot be fulfilled to achieve the target of House for All by 2010.

However, only if rate of housing is increased, its implementation and distribution is made efficient apart from reforms in the policy, the target can be achieved nearly in 2010.

(b) “Is greater spending on education linked to higher literacy?” Discuss.

Important Points for Answer:

• Education–requirement

• Spending – need to enhance

Answer: In India, literacy is defined as ability to read and write in any one language in a person above the age of seven.

If a person, above seven years of age can write but cannot read, is not literate according to the definition.

It has been surveyed that many families do not send their children to school cannot afford to the cost of uniform, books etc. If such services are provided along with scholarships, literacy can be raised.

In many remote and village areas, only one teacher handles the school, sometimes, there are no buildings and the school is running in any open compounds, if a money is spent to raise these basic facilities of building, classrooms and availability of teachers, literacy can be raised.

Programmes are required to create awareness among people about need of literacy, programmes for this goal can increase literacy.

Though in these ways, greater spending can raise literacy but some administrative and attitude base changes are also required to really implement various policies and schemes

(c) What is Enterprise Resource Planning?

Answer: For development, of any sector, we require resources as basic needs and then to plan their use for better result. Enterprises, to develop in the economic competition of the market must be established and managed based on proper planning.

This concept of Enterprise Resource Planning has emerged to succeed in developing small scale industries and other units.

Planning of availability of raw material, financial and physical resources, facilities of power supply, transportation and policies would help in growth of enterprises. Information related to market, competition, infrastructure availability, human resources, technological development, latest machinery, etc. and their proper use and management in the enterprise would help to grow economy, through sustainability achieved in the basic units and enterprises.

Q. 13 Write about the following (in about 20 words each) : 5× 2 = 10

(a) ISRO

Answer:  Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) was established in 1962. It is responsible for  all space programmes and research in India with experts on space technology.

(b) Central Vigilance Commission

Answer:  Established in 1964, the commission is vested with power and authority of eradication of corruption in central departments and units. It is now a constitutional body.

(c) NDDB

Answer:  National Dairy Development Board working under the Department of Animal Husbandry  is expert body for the development of Dairy and Dairy products in India.

(d) Hiren Mukherjee

Answer:  Ex-member of Parliament, educationist and communist leader of India passed at the age of 97 years. He was honoured with Padma Bhushan and Padma Vibhushan awards.

(e) Pareechu Lake

Answer: It is lake in Tibet, on the northern border of India which cause alarm in Himachal Pradesh of dangerous flood due to accidental and unprecedented rise in its water level recently.

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