Time Allowed: Three Hours       Maximum Marks: 300

Candidates should attempt All questions strictly in accordance with the instruction given under each question.

The number of marks carried by each question is indicated at the end of the question.

Q. 1 Answer any one of the following questions (in about 250 words):    30

(a) What in your opinion were the positive steps taken by the British to modernise India ?

Important Points for Answer:

•       Types of reforms—legal, social, administrative, infrastructure and communications, education

Answer: Though the British aim was to exploit India as a colony and drain its wealth to Britain to make itself richer. Even then too, in the course of their rule, they introduced some reforms in India for their convenience in ruling it. These reforms which have benefitted India are :

Legal : The concept of rule of law and modernisation of judicial system was introduced by them. They dealt all persons equal before the law irrespective of their caste, sex, etc, exceptions may exist.

Social : Indian traditions and customs were covered with orthodoxy and they were modernised by the British to some extent by law or teachings or influence. Sati system, child marriages, religious customs, etc. were removed from society.

Administrative System : They introduced civil services in India and later on they were made open for Indian candidates also by the Charter Act of 1853 through competitive exams.

Infrastructure and Communications : In 1853, Railways, metalic roads, bridges over rivers were built which gave new pace to Indian transportation and through that trade, etc. For communication they introduced Post, telegram in 1853 as faster means of communications.

Education : Lord MaCaulay modernised education system in 1853 and India was delivered western and english education which in fact led Indians to think of western Philosophies, politics and liberalism. This invited a period of renaissance India.

Apart from these, many charters, council acts etc. introduced some reforms in in India. Indian leaders learnt political lessons from British. Even today we follow the British legislative system in our governance.

(b) Examine the policy of Subordinate Union towards Princely States. Account for the shift from the policy of Subordinate Isolation.

Important Points for Answer:

• Policy of subordinate union and its result

• Policy of subordinate isolation and its result

• Their causes and impact

Answer: The policy of Subordinate Union was adopted by the British Government towards Indian Princely states from 1857 to 1935. They abandoned the policy of annexation and accepted right to adopt heir. The Act of 1858 transferred powers into the hands of the crown. The authority of Princes over their territory were not accepted as their right but as a gift from the paramount power. The Queen adopted the title of ‘Kaiser-i-Hind’ and later on Lord Curzon cleared that princes exercises their control as agents of the crown. The Government had right to interfere in internal spheres of states as well as external controls over them. Even Lord Curzon’s approach was of the view that the princes were required to work side-by-side with the Governor General of India. All these new schemes resulted in a integrated Indian political system. Further, the Chamber of Princes divided the Indian states into three categories.

   (i)        Directly represented

   (ii)       Represented through representatives

   (iii)      Jagirs or feudal holdings

The shift was made to take princes in confidence as under the policy of subordinate isolation. The company annexed states whenever and whichever possible. Six states were annexed by Lord Dalhousie including Satara, Nagpur, etc.

This policy of subordinate union was adopted to use these princely states as break waters in political storms if arise in future. They were given comparatively liberal treatment due to their loyalty to the British Government in the 1857 Revolt.

Q. 2 Answer any tivo of the following questions (in about 150 words each):          15 x 2 = 30

(a) In the Montagu-Chelmsford Report communal representation and reservations were not only retained but considerably extended.” Comment.

Important Points for Answer:

• Report – provisions

•Communal differences

• Effect on Indian movement  

•Response of leaders

• Consequences

Answer: The Morley-Minto Reforms of 1909 had accepted the demand of Muslims for separate electorates and representation in excess of their numerical strength. Muslims were given separate electorates and 8 seats reserved for them of total 27 elected non-official seats. This communal representation and reservations were accepted in the Montagu-Chelsford Report also. It introduced bicameral legislature in both the Houses, seats for separate electorates were included. Now the Act provided for reserved seats for Sikhs also. The number of such seats were also increased. Such policy was adopted for Muslims and Sikhs and was for their upliftment according to the reform.

The base of reservation was widened. It was the real position that policy was retained to divide Indian people in more and more groups to make them weak.

 (b) Evaluate Subhash Chandra Bose’s contribution to India’s freedom.

Answer: Subhash Chandra Bose was selected in Indian Civil Services but he joined the Disobedience Movement under the influence of Gandhi. He became an active Congresee. He was also elected the President of Congress in 1938 and 1939. But due to differences with Gandhi, he resigned from Congress Presidentship and formed his Forward Block in 1940.

Due to his activities, British had held him under house arrest in Calcutta. But he secretly left India in March 1941. He approached Russia and Germany for help in India’s freedom. He went to Japan in July 1943 and provided leadership to the Indian National Army. He organised soldiers and formed provisional government in October 1943. This provisional Government was recognised by the axis powers. The INA attacked the North Eastern borders and even captured a portion but due to Japanese biased policy and adverse weather conditions, they had to surrender.

Subhash Chandra Bose provided an influential leadership and kept the spirit of nationalism burning during the slack period of national movement in India.

(c) Why and how did the Congress come to accept the partition of the country ?

Important Points for Answer:

•       Partition–necessity, situations   

•       Attitude of Congress

•       Conclusion

Answer: Congress failed to integrate Muslims into the nation. The partition of the country was accepted as an inevitable evil. Violent riots of Hindu-Muslims had erupted in the country. The direct action call of Jinnah resulted in bloodshed of masses. To check these communal riots, the congress had to accept the partition.

It was accepted as a price for immediate independence because all other efforts had failed to materialise.

Gandhi had accepted muslims right to self determination in muslim majority provinces.

It was argued by some leaders that smaller, unified and strong India would be better and stronger than a bigger but weak India. Jinnah had accepted Pakistan shortened than earlier demands. Princely states had not been given sovereignty rights would have proved dangerous for Indian security and integrity.

All these situations led congress to accept partition of India.

Q. 3 Write about the following (not exceeding 20 words each):     2 × 15 = 30

(a) Yajnavalkya Smriti

Answer:  It was written during the Gupta period. It throws light on various aspects of Indian religion and society.

(b) Sutta Pitaka

Answer:  This Buddhist text contains all sermons delivered by Buddha throughout his life in the form of an epic.

(c) Bhagawati Sutra

Answer:  It is a Jaina religion’s holy text. It contains details about Mahavira, the founder of Jainism.

(d) Gangaikonda – Cholapuram

Answer:  Founded by Rajendra Chola as his capital city in Tamil Nadu to memorise his victory over north India.

(e) Nizamuddin Auliya

Answer: A famous Sufi saint of Sultanate perod. He popularised Sufi doctrines among Hindus and Muslims. Amir Khusro was his desciple.

(f) Raidas

Answer: A famous saint of Medieval Bhakti movement. He belonged to lower caste. He was desciple of Ramananda.

(g) Calcutta Madrasa

Answer: To study teachings of Muslim law and related subjects, Warren Hastings set up it in 1781 in Calcutta.

(h) Jagat Seth

Answer: A banker of Bengal who conspired with British to help them in deposing Siraj-ud-Daula in the battle of Plassey.

(i) Bhawani Mandir

Answer:A journal published by Brindra Kumar Ghosh in 1905. It planned out revolutionary activities in India.

(j) Baba Ram Chandra

Answer: A leader of peasants who organised them to revolt. He led peasant revolts in Uttar Pradesh, during the freedom movement.

(k) Pandita Ramabai

Answer: Founder of Poona Seva Sadan in 1904 to educate women. She dedicated her life to upliftment of women.

(l) Sir Thomas Roe

Answer: A representative of King James I of England. He was sent to India to get permission for trade concession.

(m) Moplah Rebellion

Answer: A violent movement of farmers in Kerala during 19 th century. It was targeted towards Zamindars.

(n) Tavernier

Answer: This French traveller arrived in India during the reign of Shahjahan. He wrote an account of his time.

(o) Darul-Uloom

Answer:  An anti-British Islamic Semanary founded by M. Q. Nanawatawi and R. A. Gangohi in 1867.

Q. 4 Answer any two of the following (in about 125 words each): 10 × 2 = 20

(a) What are the resource bases available for the economic development of the newly created States of Jharkhand and Uttaranchal?

Important Points for Answer:

• Resources of both States

• Prospects of development

Answer: After the creation of separate states of Jharkhand and Uttaranchal, the Central Government has provided big amounts to them in the name of developmental assistance, for their administration and economy.

Naturally available abundant resources with both the states are also helpful in their economic progress.

Uttaranchal is a hilly state, carved out of Uttar Pradesh, which has many natural and forest resources. Tourism is a developing industry in it. Mineral resources are also available. It has less population and so economic development can be progressed fastly. Jharkhand, on the other hand, cut out from Bihar, is mainly area with rocks and hills, having many minerals under them. Jharkhand is considered with resources of mineral as one of the richest state, potentially, if the growth of economy is well planned and directed.

Both States having various types of resources, have bright pros.pects of economic growth, henceforth not achieved due to political reasons.

(b) Elucidate the factors contributing to the growing need for water harvesting in India, both rural and urban.

Important Points for Answer:

•       Water Harvesting

•       Conclusion

•       Usefulness

•       Indian context–rural, urban

Answer: In India, the rainfall is generally irregular and uncertain. Moreover, most of the rainfall occurs in two or three months of monsoon while the rest time of the year remains dry or with less rainfall. In such climatic conditions, in India, water harvesting can fulfill the following purposes.

Irrigation : In rural, agricultural lands where water will require for irrigational purposes but no parrenial river exist, the rain water can be stored by check dams in ponds or tanks.

Drinking water : In both the rural and urban areas, potable drinking water shortage is felt in many parts. The rain water, if percolated in the ground, can be availed at such time.

Maintain the level of ground water : By checking, the flow of water, stabilised water can be percolated to recharge the ground water level and make it rise high. Well irrigation can be practiced with this method in dry areas.

Prevention of soil erosion : Flowing water erodes soil cover of the earth and depositing the silt into rivers and sea. Checking water flow at some distances slows the speed and lessens the power of erosion.

All these factors have increased the need for water harvesting in India, both rural and urban.

(c) “Political boundaries and regional boundaries need to be co-terminus.” Do you agree!

Important Points for Answer:

•       Meaning          

•       Reasons

•       Conclusion

Answer: Boundaries means frontiers of states, between states and countries. Political boundaries may expand to less or more than the regional boundaries.

Political boundary shows the area of administration under one government, demarcated either geographically or politically. While the Regional boundary is a geographical concept of boundaries which divides areas of landmass.

It can be said that while partitioning any country or state, the cultural aspects should be taken into consideration. Unification of cultural integrity is required to maintain political boundary safely.

The political boundary may cover areas very far from the region under administration also. Archaepologers are examples that show that though regional boundaries end on each separate island, the political boundary does not end, and cannot end if the culture and traditional integrity is maintained, though India is an exception with variety of cultures.

So, it is not considered to be necessary to co-terminate political and regional boundaries.

Q. 5 Write notes on the following (in about 20 words each):         2 × 5 = 10

(a) Regurs

Answer: It is a type of black soil. It is ideal for cotton crop due to its higher moisture retaining capacity.

(b) Karewas

Answer: It is a strip of land on the border of Jammu and Kashmir. It is made of older alluvial soil and disected by many streams into separate blocks.

(c) Negative impacts of shifting cultivation

Answer: Shifting cultivation results in exhaustion of land minerals of a particular type, making it barren and uncultivable for a period. It causes deforestation.

(d) Causes of droughts in India

Answer: Causes of droughts in India are failure of monsoon, uncertain and uneven distribution of rainfall, deforestation, mismanagement of situations.

(e) Significance of Lake Chilka

Answer: It is developed for fishing and prawn culture, under the project of UNDP. It is a coastal lake in Orissa made of brackish water.

Q. 6 Answer any one of the following (in about 250 words each): 30

(a) Comment on the financial relations between the Union and the States in India. Has post- 1991 liberlization in any way affected it ?

Important Points for Answer:

•       Relations of Union-States – constitutional provisions, financial

•       Dependency and autonomy of States

•       Supremacy of Centre

•       Changes of policy

•       Conclusion

Answer: The financial relations between the Centre and the States are controlled by the Constitutional provisions. The Union List mentions the sources of revenue for the Union. The goods and services which the Centre can tax upon are mentioned here. In the same way, the State List mentions items which the States are empowered to tax upon to collect revenue.

Income tax, except agricultural income, custom duty etc. are sources of Union’s revenue. Land tax, sales tax, etc., are State’s subject.

But apart from these two, there is a provision in the Constitution according to which the Union Government levies some taxes which are collected and appropriated by the State Governments.

These are not the final and substantive provisions in themselves, as Article 280 requires to constitute a Finance Commission for the distribution of revenue between the Union and the States, and after 73rd and 74th Amendment, there is a provision for the Constitution of The Consolidated Fund of the State from which resources are to be provided to the Village, Panchayats and Municipalities.

These are the normally governed financial relations without any special circumstances. But under Article 360, in case of Financial Emergency, these relations can be drastically changed.

Even though not generally as a rule, but customarily, the Union Government supplement the financial resources of the states by :

Grants-in-aid and

Advancement of Central loans.

Control of the Centre is maintained under the constitutional provisions by imposing restrictions over the States in raising loans, they are, in some conditions, required to take Central permission.

After the liberalization of 1990s, the Union Government has acquired more importance in developing industries and economic growth. The laws has been liberalised to prevent state interferences to the investors and so a little change has been introduced but it has not affected the financial condition of the states, rather improved.

(b) Is it possible to distinguish between judicial review and judicial activism in India? Does the recent behaviour of the Indian judiciary partake more of judicial activism? Argue with suitable examples.

Important Points for Answer:

•       Judicial review 

•       Judicial activism

•       Indian judicial trend     

•       Conclusion

Answer: Judicial Review means the interpretational and observer role of the judiciary over the Legislature. In India, the judiciary is the final authority for the interpretation of Constitution. If the Legislature transgrasses the powers given to it by the Constitution, the Judiciary can prevent it by declaring the act or action ultra-vires.

This power is called Judicial Review. While Judicial Activism is the concept how actively and quickly the judiciary performs the act of judicial review. The readiness that the courts have achieved in exercising its power to uphold the values of the constitution have been generally come to the extent that judicial review has gradually acquired the form of judicial activism in India.

We can site the following examples, to support the view that Indian judicial behaviour, in recent times, partake more of judicial activism.

Public Interest Litigation (PIL) : The courts have over thrown or at least liberalised the concept of locust standi to allow any public spirited person or organisation to bring to the notice of the court any matter of injustice and violation of constitutional rights of any downtrodden and unprivileged classes of society.

The Court has expanded the scope and amplitude of Article 21 to cover many basic rights under it, so that giving them the status of fundamental rights, they can be enforced against the state also, even by PIL.

In many cases, the court has acted suo moto to save the constitutional provision of rights.

All these leads to conclude that at least the inclination of the court is towards the judicial activism.

Q. 7 Answer any one of the following (in about 250 words):         30

(a) Would you say that the implementation of the Panchayati System in the last ten years has led to a real restructuring of the Indian polity ?

Important Points for Answer:

•       Panchayati system        

•       Changes brought

•       Importance      

•       Evaluation

•       Conclusion

Answer: The Panchayati Raj System came into existence in 1993. It is a Directive Principle of the State Policy enshrined under Article 40 to organise village panchayats as the root level institutions.

The implementation of the Panchayati Raj System has, in many ways, changed a lot, the governance of the country. It has decentralised the governance. It provides to constitute Gram Sabhas at village level. The Panchayati Raj Institutions have started to work as units of democratic set up of our country. They hold elections, do their administration, collect and regulate financial systems of their own, make policies and implement them at the root level and thus train the people for the political system of the nation.

Regular elections, reservation of seats even for women, have really create a great awareness as compared to the first forty three years of our freedom. By no other way, we could have taken the co-operation of villages and grass root level people in the Governance, except by the Panchayati Raj Systems.

No matter, yet there are some rigid problems which lie at the base of this system, too, but these problems have not been able to cover the real-change brought about by the Panchayati Raj.

They really led the country to reconstructuring of the polity. It gave way to a common people participation in real polity rather than being a mere observor of the system after voting in the elections.

(b) Give your views on the right to freedom of religion as enshrined in the Indian Constitution. Do they make India a secular State ?

Important Points for Answer:

•       Right   

•       Constitutional provision

•       Secularism       

•       Conclusion

Answer: Our Constitution provides Right to Freedom of religion under Article-25 to 28 as the fundamental rights. Freedom of Conscience and free profession, practice and propagation of religion, freedom to manage religious affairs, freedom as to pay of taxes for promotion of any particular religion, and freedom as to attendance at religious instruction or religious worship in certain educational institutions are provided as the part of this right under Articles 25 to 28.

This right gives all necessary freedoms as from practice to development of a religion. The religion is a matte’ of faith and so a person can develop faith towards any ethics or conducts. He is to respect his faith by the freedom of conscience and is also free to pre‘ it to others by the freedom of profession, propagation, etc.

However, without freedom as to management of the religious affairs this would have been without great impact.

Q. 8 Answer any two of the following (in about 150 words each): 15 × 2 = 30

(a) What are the constitutional limitations on the free movements of Indians throughout the country?

Important Points for Answer:

•       Free movement – a fundamental right

•       Limitations – constitutional provision

Answer: It is to be explained that the freedom of movement is provided as a fundamental right under Article 19(1) of the Constitution. This freedom is only for the citizens of India and not available to other persons.

This right provides right to move freely throughout the territory of India or to reside and settle in any part of the country.

This right to freedom of movement is not absolute right but Article 19(2) – (6) provides that this freedom can be restricted on the grounds of the interest of the general public and for the protection of any Schedule Tribe.

These restrictions can be imposed by law of the State or the Central Government but the ground provided for must be one of the mentioned under clause 2(6) of Article 19. On any other ground, any restriction, if imposed, on free movements of Indians throughout the country will be void. Moreover, these restrictions must be reasonable and related to the public interest.

(b) How has the Indian State tackled the trade-off between environment and development!

Important Points for Answer:

•       Development    

•       Degradation of environment

•       Awareness       

•       Measures taken

Answer: Though we have to accept that in some decades of the starting, we were not much concerned about the environment protection and conservation but only concentrated on development, economic development, exploiting the natural resources to the extent that imbalance in them was caused. We used the available potential in such a thoughtless way that many components of environment witnessed a serious threat.

But, soon India realised and started to grow in sustainable manner, so that environmental degradation can be prevented and remedied.

India participated in the Stockholm Declaration of 1972 and then continuously participate in every international conventions and summit on environment.

It has passed many legal acts to protect environment related to :

   –         Water Pollution Act – 1972

   –         Wild Life Act – 1972

   –         Air Pollution Act – 1981

   –         Environment Protection Act – 1986

All these laws are aimed at saving environment. India has declared many forest areas as Sanctuaries, National Parks and some Places as Biosphere Reserves.

All industries have to get Environment certificate, to the effect that they do not cause harm to it beyond the permitted level. Environmental measures have been enforced upon all industries and units to balance the development with conservation and protection of environment.

(c) What are the steps that the Election Commission may take if a recalcitrant State Government wants to put off Assembly Elections ?

Important Points for Answer:

•       Election Commission – powers, measures

•       States’ action – effectiveness

Answer: The Election Commission has power of superintendence, direction and control of the preparation of the electoral rolls for all elections, including the legislature of every state, and also to conduct elections.

If the State legislature wants to put off Assembly elections, the Election Commission may take required steps to hold the elections according to the Constitutional provisions and laws made by Parliament in this regard.

It is to prepare electoral rolls, the delimitation of Constituencies and other necessary matters for securing the elections.

The Parliament may provide the Election Commission with powers to take corrective measures in such a state.

The Election Commission has power to hold elections from time to time and so, there will be no effect of the state action even if it does not want to hold elections.

Q. 9 Answer the following questions (in about 20 words each):     2 × 5 = 10

(a) What is meant by ‘double jeopardy’ ?

Answer:  It means no prosecution or punishment to any person for more than once for the same offence. Indian Constitution, Article 20(2) makes provision of this effect.

(b) What are the protections afforded to Scheduled Tribes in the Fifth Schedule of the Indian Constitution ?

Answer:  It contains provisions for the administration and control of Scheduled Areas and Scheduled Tribes, under Article 244 of the Constitution.

(c) In what ways can the President of India ascertain the views of the Supreme Court on a particular bill ?

Answer:  Under Article 143, the President can ask for advisory opinion of the Supreme Court, even I on a bill.

(d) What is the common point between Articles 14 and 226 of the Indian Constitution ?

 Answer:  Both Articles 14 and 226 of the Indian Constitution are available to every person for redressal of arbitrariness of the State.

(e) Who and what does the Indian Parliament consist of ?

Answer:  The Indian Parliament consist of the President, the Lok Sabha (Lower house) and the Rajya Sabha (Upper house).

Q. 10 Answer any one of the following questions (in about 250 words):

(a) Discuss the impact of globalisation on higher education in India.

Important Points for Answer:

•       Globalisation

•       Higher education–benefits, demerits

•       Final conclusion

Answer: Globalisation has given boost to the higher education in India by opening horizons of progress in every sectors. For example, by Globalisation, IT sector has progressed by leaps and bounds and so many software technicians and IITans have got glorious opportunities of prosperous career. This has encouraged students for pertaining higher education and educational institutions for imparting modernised and skilful education which can prepare workers and officers to compete in the world.

BOPs have also given various opportunities in this field.

Foreign Investment has played a great role in modernising and developing education. The funds of Government was limited and not enough to make such world level educational services available to Indian students.

Multi National Companies are also taking interest in providing education and government j has also liberalised policies to allow private colleges and schools.

Not only impact on economic side by Globalisation but also on the knowledge part has been impacting educational growth by visits of faculties from foreign countries. Educational institutes invite and send experts for the purpose of more interaction in this direction, making Indian education aware of the world requirements.

Various modern techniques like multi-media and digitization have also improved the educational level in India. Expensive libraries, laboratories and infrastructure with latest instruments and equipments have certainly help education level to grow.

Not only all these positive effects but also some negative aspects have been invited in Indian educational system, like commercialisation of education making it out of reach of poor classes and withering Indian tradition and ethos. But these can be carefully avoided without losing any benefit of global education which has opened interchange of students with many countries.

(b) What is disaster management ? Discuss the steps required to tackle natural disasters.

Important Points for Answer:

•       Disaster management – meaning, requirement

•       Steps suggested

•       Natural disasters

Answer: Disaster management is concept of compensating the loss and rehabilitating public and property affected by any disaster, whether man-made or natural. Disaster management also includes preventive steps in the direction to make such preparations and take such precautions that minimum loss is sustained due to the disaster.

There are, yet many, natural disasters which cannot be prevented by men even after such a progress in science and technology. Such disaster occurring without any control of mankind can be managed by proper planning.

Various natural disasters and steps to tackle them can be enumerated as under :

   •         Flood : Over flow of water causing loss of life and property are both natural and anthropogenic.

             The flood forecasting stations can be established to get prior warning. First such station was established in 1959. Now about 157 stations are there in the country. People can be transferred at safer places.

   •         Cyclones : These are forced winds blowing violently. Weather satellites can forecast cyclonic conditions and then only way would be to evacuate the possible way area.

   •         Drought : Non occurrence or less precipitation which may cause failure of crops and shortage of water. It also can be managed by taking contingency measures. Remote sensing satellites are useful for this purpose.

   •         Earthquakes : The vibration of earth cover due to pressure from beneath or some other reasons, much loss of lives and property can occur.

             Best way is to build up houses and other buildings with quakeproof methods of engineering. It can be forecasted by some scientific instruments.

   •         Tsunami : It is waves from seas and oceans coming violently with huge water mass destroys the whole area. Tsunami warning system can help forecasting its occurrence. That Evacuation of the probable area can be managed quickly as a preventive measure.

Q. 11 Answer any two of the following questions (in about 125 words each):          10 × 2 = 20

(a) Explain the implications of the recent Supreme Court verdict on reservations in private and minority educational institutions.

Important Points for Answer:

•       Reservation    

• Issue involved    

• Verdict    

• Implications

Answer: The Supreme Court verdict has ordered to remove the fee regulations and quota, provided by the draft for weaker sections in private, unaided and educational institutions.

The Court has given its verdict to the effect that merit should not be done away with in such private and minority educational institutions by the regulations of the Government. The judgement has presented the Government from interfering into the matters of admissions, in absence of any malpractices, in the unaided educational institutions.

Two types of effects are possible by this order. One and the positive is that merit and intellectual level of the education and thus higher quality will be possible. While on the other hand, management quotas can be misused by such institutions to earn more fees and donations.

And, in absence of fee regulations, poor students will not be able to get admission in such institutions.

(b) What is the energy independence ? Discuss how India can be transformed into an ‘Energy-independent Nation.’

Important Points for Answer:

•       Energy independence – requirement, sources

•       Steps and measures for energy-independence

•       Indian condition

Answer: Energy independence is self-reliance in resources of energy for various domestic uses. Many forms of energy available to fulfill the requirements of the nations, at sufficient level, is called energy independence.

India can be transformed to an ‘Energy Independent Nation’ by following measures:

exploit domestic conventional energy resources with full efficiency.

manage them according to demand and availability.

conserve energy resources with proper policies

utilize capacity of the fuels to derive maximum energy from them with the use of efficient and latest technology.

explore oil and natural gas resources available indigenously.

to use energy saving devices in day to day life for optional use.

reduce dependency upon less available and conventional energy resources and maximise the use of renewable and easily available technology for sustainable growth.

(c) What is eco-tourism ? How could it be promoted in India ?

Important Points for Answer:

•       Eco-tourism – meaning

•       Steps towards India

Answer: Eco-tourism is the concept of developing tourism with due consideration of the environment. The environment should not be disturbed when we develop the tourism industry, neither by wastes nor by preparing tourist place and not by disturbance to the components of environment by the tourists.

It can be promoted in India by :

Combating environmental problems at the places of tourist interest.

At the places of tourism, a section should be reserved for maintaining natural environment.

At various national parks, zoos, mountains, biosphere reserves and such other places, restrictions on tourist activities should be kept to check them disturbing the ecological balance of the place.

By providing better conservated and promoted natural environment, we can attract more tourists.

Because of its natural beauty and diversity, India has better chances to promote eco-tourism.

Q. 12 Write notes on any two of the following (in about 125 words each):          10 × 2 = 20

(a) Sethusamudram Project

Important Points for Answer:

•       Project – details

•       Importance

Answer: This project is proposed because there is a sandstone reef, called Adam’s bridge at Pamban bear Rameshwaram. It is not possible for ships, therefore, to navigate from there. It will link Palk bay and the Gulf of Mannar. It is 300 mt wide and 20 km long channel costing about 2000 crore rupees.

It is a navigational project joining the Bay of Bengal, the Palk Strait and Arabian Sea. It is to reduce the navigable distance of ships avoiding journey circumferencing Sri Lankan Island. It will lessen time taken in journeying, through sea route, from east coast to west coast, by larger ships, conserve fuel resources.

It will also develop ports on both the coasts by increasing frequency of ships.

It is proposed to produce electricity also through this project which would be available to the coastal areas.

In bilateral trade with Sri Lanka, it can help to develop relations, economic, cultural and track II based diplomacy.

The project encarves the whole travelling path through Indian territorial water avoiding confrontation or insecurity in transportation.

Environmentalists however, say that it may damage bio-diversity of the Andaman and Nicobar coast and coral reefs. It may also damage ecological balance of coastal areas.

(b) Causes of soil erosion and its control in India

Important Points for Answer:

•       Soil erosion      

•       Causes

•       Indian condition           

•       Steps to control

Answer: Soil erosion is washing away and removal of the cover of the earth by water, wind, etc. Types of erosions, geographically, are as :

Run-off erosion : This erosion is caused by rills and gullies, in Chambal, Betwa areas.

Sheet erosion : due to run-off process of winds and water.

The erosion is caused by water flow and wind blow. These reasons have intense effects now as the deforestation has exposed the earth to them.

Control over them can be maintained by increasing the forest cover of the earth by afforestation programmes, mulching programmes implementation to maintain the moisture in the soil, checking the rumiing of water by building check-dams in their way, social forestry over the governmental and waste lands to hold the soils together by the roots of the trees, building programmes in open fields so that blow of wind can be prevented and flow of water can be reduced.

Tree plantation is considered to be the best way to control the erosion, of any type and by any cause.

(c) Use of Information Technology in health management in India

Important Points for Answer:

•       IT – use

•       Health sector

Answer: Information Technology can be helpful in many ways, ranging from getting latest and recent knowledge and technological know how via conferences, distribution of tele medicine for performance of operations by robots.

Tele-medicine, that is consulting doctors via information technology, diagnosing the patient and prescribing medicine, has made it possible to deliver expertise services even to rural areas.

Robots have been prepared using latest technology, controlled by computers to perform operations under the instructions of the doctor. This technique can help to simultaneously perform more than one operations by a single doctor.

For medical science experts, it is quite necessary to update their knowledge. World level conferences can be held to train and guide doctors by foreign experts without journeying and attending classrooms.

Indirectly, the Information Technology has been helpful in creating awareness via media about health maintenance apart from some of the direct uses and utilities mentioned above.

Q. 13 Write short notes on the following (in about 20 words each):        2 × 5 = 10

(a) Equal rights for women in parental property

Answer:  By amendment to The Hindu Succession Act 1956, women are made entitled to parental property, however this is not applicable to a joint family.

(b) National knowledge Commission

Answer:  The commission is set up under the chairmanship of Mr. Sam Pitroda to make India knowledge producing, sharing and consuming nation.

(c) Genetically modified seeds

Answer:  These are hybrid seeds produced by combining good qualities of two different genotypes to make the crop more nutritious.

(d) Ban on bar dancing

Answer:  Maharashtra government banned bar dancing to curb vulgarity and alcoholism and to check anti-social activities.

(e) Rehabilitation of street children in India

Answer: They are required to be handled with great care by the Government policies and schemes and with the help of NGOs to provide them opportunities to develop and grow.

Don’t miss new articles