Time Allowed : Three Hours      Maximum Marks : 300

Candidates should attempt All questions strictly in accordance with the instructions given under each question.

The number of marks carried by each question is indicated at the end of the question.

Q. 1 Answer any two of the following (answer to each question should be in about 150 words): 2 × 15 = 30

(a) Present a complete picture of India’s efforts for a permanent seat in the UN Security Council.

Important Points for Answer:

 •      UN Security Council – permanent seat   

•       India’s efforts

•       Progress          

•       Present position

Answer: India wants and deserves a permanent seat in the UN Security Council. A formula to expand the Security Council is being prepared.

India has started efforts in this direction by adopting various policies to secure its permanent candidature.

India has formed a group with Japan, Germany and Brazil, collectively known as G-4, who want permanent seats for themselves. This G-4 has prepared a draft resolution in this regard.

India has also campaigned this cause at various meetings, summits, conferences and forums to win support from nations of the world and has succeeded in this attempt to a greater extent.

In bilateral talks and relations also India discusses this point and gets support from friend countries.

A collective talk of G-4 with the African Union is going on, however with a very slow motion to secure affirmative votes of the countries of the Union. African Union has also prepared a resolution for a permanent seat, collective, in the Security Council.

All these efforts of India have yield better fruits in form of affirmative support of the UN member countries to back-up the candidature of India for permanent seat in the UN, Security Council.

(b) Explain the political and economic implications of the Indo-Iran gas pipeline.

Important Points for Answer:

•       Indo-Iran gas pipeline

•       Importance

•       Implications – political, economical

•       Prospects

Answer: Indo-Iran gas pipeline is proposed having great impact on the eco-political equation in Indian sub-continent and also over the world.

The pipeline project will effect India by providing gas-energy security and good relations in neighbourhood with Iran. It also profits Iran by a beneficial deal and opening more scopes for its trade relations with India, one of the fastest growing economy of the world. By securing energy source, India can hope for a sustained economic growth.

Pakistan is also getting benefit of this project as the pipeline is passing through Pakistan and it will get transit fees and maintenance charges worth billions of dollars. It will also prove one, more important Confidence Building Measure.

Politically, this agreement has forwarded India towards a strategic office. As the nuclear tension between Western countries and Iran is increasing day by day, India is proposed to work as a mediator between the two. Iran is to be persuaded by India, though impliedly and informally, to come to the table for talks while the western powers are to be convinced to think for the cause of Iran and defuse the tension by solving the problem with peaceful manners.

(c) Examine the developments in Afghanistan in the post-Taliban period.

Important Points for Answer:

•       Afghanistan-Taliban issue, development

•       Conclusion

Answer: The fall of Taliban in 2001 has yield a path for the development of Afghanistan, It was chosen to lead the country towards democracy. The UN sponsored “Bonn Conference” which created a council of 30 members for internal administration. For internal security, an International peace force was deployed under the UN mandate. As the head of the interim administration, Hamid Karzai was chosen.

For a formal governance set up Loya Jirga – the grand assembly, assembled to prepare a constitution in December 2003. In January 2004, the Constitution was ready and was adopted as a law.

According to the Constitution, Afghanistan is a democratic country with Presidential system of government, having two-house Parliament. In the lower house of parliament, 25% seats are reserved for women. Men and women are given equal rights under the Constitution.

During the phase of this political development in the country, it was also developing in the field of international relations, internal administration, economy and infrastructure. India has helped by financial aid to the country and has provided technical assistance also. The country held its first direct elections in October, 2004 and Mr. Hamid Karzai won it.

Q. 2 Write about the following (answer to each question should be in about 20 words):                                  5 × 2 = 10

(a) Indians in China

Answer: With liberalisation of both economies and increased trade, Indians have turned to China increasing number of Indian businessmen and workers in China.

(b) Cyber-terrorism

Answer: Hacking, stalking and entering viruses are forms of Cyber-terrorism to create economic strategic loss and political propaganda. This is spread through internet and computers.

(c) Military rule in Myanmar

Answer: Military Generals are ruling Myanmar with Than Shwe as the Chairman of State Peace and Development Council. Movement for democracy under Aung San Sun Kyi is continue against the Military rule.

(d) Camp David Accord of 1978

Answer: The USA mediated Peace agreement between Egyptian President, Sadat and Israel’s Prime Minister Mechanem Begin to maintain peace in the middle-east.

(e) Future of Indian expatriates in the Gulf

Answer: Restrictions placed on migrant communities resulted in return of many expatriates to India from Gulf nations but the demand is rising in the field of IT and knowledge sectors for Indians.

Q. 3 Write about the following (answer to each question should be in about 20 words):                                  5 × 2 = 10

(a) Full convertibility

Answer: Domestic currency convertibility into foreign currency and vice-versa without any restriction is called full convertibility.

(b) Physical Quality Life Index

Answer: It is given by Jim Grant. It uses indices :

   (i)        adult literacy,

   (ii)       Infant Mortality Rate,

   (iii)      Life Expectancy.

It is a social development index of nations.

(c) Differences between absolute poverty and relative poverty

Answer: According to UN parameters, a person earning less than one dollar per day is absolute poor. If persons cannot get even minimum requirements of the life, they are under absolute poverty. Relative poverty is in comparison to other classes of society. Even a person may not be absolutely poor, he may yet be relatively poor in his society.

(d) India – US nuclear pact

Answer: India has agreed to put its all civilian nuclear facilities under the IAEA Inspections and Safeguards while the USA agreed to supply India with fuel for them under Civilian Nuclear Cooperation Pact.

(e) Medical tourism

Answer: By providing modern and skilled solutions and facilities with cheap rate and higher care for health problems, India is trying to attract patients to India for treatment. It is termed as medical tourism.

Q. 4 Answer any one of the following (in about 250 words) : 30

(a) Discuss the causes and ramifications of hunger in Africa.

Important Points for Answer:

•       Africa – hunger, reasons, ramifications

•       Present scenario

Answer: Many reasons prevail for the hunger and other curses in Africa. Many countries freed from Colonial bondages in the second half of the Twentieth century are under political evils. They are fighting against the problems that prevail in the social, economical, political and administration fields.

We can divide the causes of African hunger under the following heads :

Political unstability : After the independence, many dictatorship and military rule have floated in African countries. There are many civil wars to disturb the peace of the continent. Non-stable governments are also reasons why they have not been able to provide food security.

Social reasons : Due to lack of literacy, awareness and employment, there is overwhelming poverty in these countries.

Various causes which can be enumerated as undemocratic rule, corruption, failure of administration to effectively exploit and distribute the resources available, underdeveloped agriculture, waste of power and resources in tribal wars and civil upsurges, etc. as the main hurdles in their progress and development.


migration of people on mass bases.

clashes to occupy food generating agricultural areas.

aggrevated problems of epidemics, AIDS, etc.

International Organisations aid of food and other basic requirements by UNICEF, WHO and others.

Developed countries coming to assist them and getting benefit of mineral rich areas by exploiting them.

G-8, developed nations’ group helped by waiving loans and debts apart from increasing aid to the poorer countries.

It has been the opinion of the world that democratic rules should be established in the African countries so that stability in governance can be achieved and proper utilisation of International aid and domestic resources apart from exploiting the potentials, can be made possible.

(b) What are the reasons for industrial sickness in India ? Suggest suitable remedies.

Important Points for Answer:

•       Industrial sickness – reasons, measures, remedies

Answer: Industrial sickness is explained as the situation of an industry in which its entire net worth is eroded; it has suffered cash losses for current and preceding financial year equal to or exceeding its net worth, is the total of its losses.

The Sick Industries Companies (Special Provisions) Act 1985 deals with the sick industries. In India, the reasons for Industrial sickness are found mainly as : External and Internal causes.

The external causes like non-availability of energy resources, raw-materials, changes in government policies, increased competition, reduced demand or increased supply making the industry market losses.

Among internal causes we can include faulty planning, mis-management, financial constraints, unskilled labour to work with the modern technology, non-efficient machinery, process, labour force or management.

As remedies for the sick industries, the government provides with liberal policies, financial assistance from banks and other institutes, exemption from taxes, etc.

Apart from the steps being taken by the Government, we can suggest the following remedies for the sick industries :

The units should be provided with financial and management assistance, by expert groups.

Management should be taken over by the group of experts for a certain period of time to remove faults.

Mal-practices must be punished strictly.

Technological upgradation should be introduced and required assistance should be provided.

Market zones for them can be created, export promotion can be provided by policy measures.

Subsidies and raw material availability can be improved.

Supply of power, transportation, infrastructures, management can be made more efficient.

Q. 5 Answer any two of the following (answer to each question should be in about 150 words): 2 × 15 = 30

(a)  What is the role of external financial assistance in Indian economy ?

Important Points for Answer:

•       EFA–importance, merits and demerits

•       Indian position–contribution

Answer: Since Economic Reforms, post-1991, India has experienced large flow of external investment in form of finance. The growing investment has reduced the requirements of External Financial Assistance (EFA) after the 1990s crisis.

In pre-1991 era, India had to depend upon the EFA even for importing food-grains, and other requirements of the nation. But fast growth of the economy and billions of dollars in form of foreign investment has stop India taking such EFA, except from a few countries like Japan, Russia and some of the European countries.

External Financial Assistance has been given by the World Bank, Asian Development Bank and some other international organisations to India.

However, India’s dependancy over EFA has been reduced but its role in India’s development has been very important. In developing infrastructure, raising basic facilities to create an environment to attract the investors, providing social-services like electricity, drinking water, irrigation, development of science and technology and many other areas, India has emerged out as developing fast on the basis of these External Financial Assistances, to a larger extent.

(b) Enumerate the objectives of Latin American Reserve Fund. Do you favour such a fund for Asian countries ?

Important Points for Answer:

•       Fund – details   

•       Objectives

•       Suitability for Asia        

•       Suggestions

Answer: The Latin American Reserve Fund was formed in 1991. It is successor of the Andean Reserve Fund. This fund is established to correct payment imbalance of the member countries and for that it provides loans upto four year. This fund co-ordinates the monetary, exchange and finance policies. This fund has, also objectives of developing growth of trade between the member countries and for that it promotes liberalisation of trades and payments.

This fund has, Bolivia, Colombia, Equador, Peru and Venezuela as its member countries.

Such a fund can be proposed for Asian countries also as, post 1997 economic crisis has affected many countries in this region. The fund is to provide loans in time of crisis and also to encourage trade relations between the member countries. Development of this region can be boosted by such fund and in time of crisis, which is quite frequent phenomena now a days because of world trade integration and competition. Though SAARC and ASEAN are organisations for trade growth and ASEAN Regional Fund has been established, more staunch can be done by establishing Asian Reserve Fund on the terms of the Latin American Reserve Fund.

(c) Examine the functions of the European Free Trade Association.

Answer: The European Free Trade Association (EFTA) was established on 3rd May, 1960. It signed the Vaduz Convention in June 2001 to liberalise the trade relations amongst the EFTA countries. It is the responsibility of the EFTA to oversee the operation of Free trade area among the member nations.

It performs the following functions namely :

to achieve free trade in industrial goods among EFTA countries; to cooperate with EU.

it formed European Economic Area (EEA) by the Agreement with EU.

to ensure free movement of goods, services, capital and labour throughout the EFTA and EU member countries.

to ensure the implementation of agreements among the EE A – EFT A member countries it has established a Surveillance Authority and Court.

the EEA agreement recognises EU rules on company law, consumer protection, education environment, research, etc.

The EFTA was founded by Australia, Denmark, Norway, Portugal, Sweden, Switzerland and U.K. but after the formation of EU, now it has four members, Iceland, Lichestein, Norway and Switzerland. The main aim and objective of the EFTA is to eliminate internal barriers in non-agricultural goods.

Q. 6 Answer or write about the following (in about 20 words each):        15 × 2 = 30

(a) What is Mekong – Ganga Co-operation ?

Answer:  In 2000, in Laos six nations of the Mekong-Ganga rivers region formed a group. India, Laos, Cambodia, Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam – countries grouped for economic cooperation.

(b) What is IFC ?

Answer:  International Finance Corporation, an organ of the World Bank group aimed at growth of private government enterprises.

(c) Crude oil price and Indian economy

Answer:  Rising crude oil prices increases burden of import bills upon India affecting its balance of trade account.

(d) What is Gandhian economy ?

Answer:  Gandhi concepted for village and agriculture based economy, village industries and allied activities to grow, making villages a self-sufficient units with full employment.

(e) Second Green Revolution

Answer:  This aims at increasing productivity of various crop in sustainable and balanced manner so that regional growth and environmental balance can be maintained.

(f) Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya Yojana

Answer:  For SC, ST, OBC and minorities girls, this scheme was launched to set up residential schools for elementary level education in 2004-05.

(g) What is Euro-control ?

Answer:  This is norm for emission from vehicles pollution. It measures level in stages like Euro I, II and III. In India, Bharat I, II, and III are used.

(h) Dow Jones

Answer:  New York based stock exchange. Shares listed in New York are traded and this index is sensitive to their ups and downs.

(i) ‘Bluetooth’

Answer:  It is a wireless technology for data transfer from one device to another, connecting computers, mobiles etc. Working in short distance.

(j) MFN status to India by Pakistan

Answer:  Most Favoured Nation status is yet not accorded by Pakistan to India, which would end discrimination in trade.

(k) The notion of development of under-development

Answer:  It shows down world development i.e. negative growth of GDP. Social standards, etc. when a nation is pushed towards under development.

(l) Cost-push inflation

Answer:  It is rise in prices due to increase in the cost of production. It may result because of :

rise in wages.

rise in profit margin.

rise in prices of raw material.

imposition of heavy taxes.

Some or all of these factors.

(m) What is Green GDP ?

Answer:  Green GDP concentrates not only on economic growth but also on environmental issues. It is for the development of economy in sustainable manner maintaining environment balanced. When we deduct environmental depreciation from GDP, we get Green GDP.

(n) What were the terms of reference of the Abid Hussain Committee ?

Answer: The Committee was related to Small Scale Industries and Village Industries, to suggest measures for their growth and remove weaknesses.

(o) What is structural unemployment ?

Answer: Due to change in production methods, like introduction of new technology, demand of labour fall short to the supply. It causes unemployment, called Structural unemployment.

Q. 7 Answer any two of the following (answer to each question should be in about 150 words):  2 × 15 = 30

(a) Detail the salient features of project ‘Anthareeksha.’

Important Points for Answer:

•       Anthareeksha – details, features

Answer: “Anthareeksha” is space. Every person now can travel into the space due to this commercial project “Anthareeksha”. This project is launched by “Scaled Composist” company of the USA. It has prepared a space-shuttle named “Spaceship One”. It is a shuttle which can travel a person around in the space and return on the earth. Michael Melvine was the pilote who travelled successfully in this shuttle in the space. Founders of the company, Paul Allen and Burt Rutan are hopeful to increase this facility and make it avail commercially with reduced cost in near future.

(b) Will a grand axis of India, China and Russia challenge the unipolar supremacy of the US? Elaborate your views.

Important Points for Answer:

•       Unipolarism     

•       Political scenario

•       Axis-formation 

•       Influence

•       Possibilities

Answer: After the end of the cold war, America has been the sole military, economically and politically influential super power in the world, changing the international political equations to unipolarism. This supremacy of the US has, in fact, disturbed the democratic structure of the world politics, in UN, WTO and other international institutions and affairs.

If India, China and Russia come together, as the possibilities are there and the progress is in this direction, they can form, together, an axis with having almost half of the world population, majority of the countries under their leadership and fastly growing economies. These factors, apart from having great political influence, technological development and other positive factors, can lead them to form a second super-power axis, to really democratize the world again.

However, Non-Align India cannot come into groupism with these communist friends, but only in matters of leadership, to give and raise voice of poor, developing and under developed nations, India can have co-operation in the form of this unbounded axis. And this axis just needs to be democratic and not Anti-US.

The need of time is to reduce centralisation of international power by lessening US influence. This can be performed by this grand axis.

(c) Explain the China – US textile war.

Important Points for Answer:

•       US-China relations       

•       Issues

•       Textile trade

Answer: China is a major exporter of textile to the US. Both countries have their bilateral trade agreements in force for some years, even before China’s entry into the WTO.

From May 2005, the question arose on the quantitative restrictions put by the USA on imports of such textile, especially cotton goods from China. China claims that these restrictions are against the quota-system provision of the World Trade Organisation’s multi lateral trade agreement. While the Bush Administration claims that it is to protect the interests of domestic industrialists and in accordance with the bilateral agreements that exist between the two.

The US Committee on Implementation of Textile Agreement has taken this decision and the Government does not seem to be willing to remove these protectionist measures.

China contends that, through the WTO, these restrictions should be removed and Chinese trade interest should not be restricted. Even it has expressed dissatisfaction by declaring that such measures by the US may affect the Sino-American Trade relations if the arbitrariness is not removed.

This textile war between two major market players of the world has posed a question against the utility and effectiveness of the WTO.

Q. 8 Answer or write about the following (answer to each question should be in about 20 words):          5 × 2 = 10

(a) What is Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM) ?

Answer: It is a concept based on a Composite Index. It includes three areas :

   (i)        Economic participation and decision making.

   (ii)       political participation.

   (iii)      Economic resources.

(b) What is the concept of copyleft ?

Answer: Copyleft is a group of licenses. It enable every person to use, modify or redistribute any copy of works. It is applied to software, art and other copyright works.

(c) What is a rogue state ?

Answer: This word is used by the USA and allies for those states who violates democratic principles or uses or develops hidden projects of biological nuclear or chemical weapons.

(d) Repo market

Answer: Re purchasing options are traded in this market for a short time period. Repo is Re Purchasing offer by the RBI.

(e) What is banana war ?

Answer: It is a matter of dispute between the US and EU, arose due to biased trade policies to banana growers of former colonies in comparison to the Latin American growers.

Q. 9 Answer the following, by expanding or explaining (answer to each question should be in about 20 words) :         5 × 2 = 10


Answer: Organisation of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries. Arab countries with petroleum asset organised to save their economical and trade interests.

(b) IFAD

Answer: International Fund for Agricultural Development

The fund assists nations to develop and modernise agriculture to increase food production towards food security.

(c) UPU

Answer: Universal Postal Union

To develop and combine services of communication of the world, now under the UN.

(d) SAVE

Answer: The SAARC Audio Visual Exchange (SAVE) Committee is one of the original areas agreed at the inception of the SAARC. It aimed at increasing the awareness of each other among the peoples of the region and disseminating information about Member Countries was established by the Council of Ministers at its Third Session (New Delhi, June 1987). The Committee has been entrusted with the task of producing and implementing the SAVE Programmes

(e) ODA

Answer: Official Development Assistance (ODA) is a category of development aid. It is administered with the promotion of the economic development and welfare of developing countries as its main objective, and it is concessional in character and contains a grant element of at least 25% (calculated at a rate of discount of 10%).

Q. 10 Answer any one of the following in about 250 words :        30

(a) Describe the sources of ionizing and non-ionizing radiations and their effects on the biotic components of the atmosphere.

Important Points for Answer:

•       Sources

•       Effects

Answer: Ionizing radiation are of two types, caused either by (1) Particles or by (2) electromagnetic rays. However, in both types, atoms carry enough energy to ionize an atom or molecule in atmosphere by completely removing an electron from its orbit.

Ultra-violate rays, X-ray of high energy, Gamma-rays are some of the sources of ionizing radiation.

In cases of nuclear weapons, gamma rays of atom bombs and explosions etc. emit such energy. Cobalt-60, Caesium-137, Americium-241, Iodin-131 etc. are some particle sources of ionizing radiation.

Non-ionizing radiation is any type of electromagnetic radiation that does not carry enough energy to ionize atoms or molecules by completely removing electron from their orbit.

Visible light, Infrared, micro-wave, radio wave etc. are sources of non-iodizing radiations. They are less dangerous for human health and so used in medical field for surgical and diagnostical approach.

These radiation have proved very dangerous for the stability in atmospheric balance. They cause atoms or molecules of atmospheric components ionized and so they react with other ions creasing many a types of dangerous chemicals in atmosphere.

It also harm genetic composition of biotic organisms in atmosphere and then they may be transferred to dangerous form to other lives on the earth.

Recently, some conventions and protocols have been signed and are being implemented to prevent such type of radiations which could pose a great threat to the existence of life on the earth.

(b) What is digital convergence? Examine its implications for modern society.

Important Points for Answer:

•       Meaning           •           Benefits

•       Implications

Answer: Digital convergence is transformation of analog data to digital representation. Various types of chemical or physical datas can be transformed to digital data. Such digital data are, then available on computer and other mediums. These data are now accessible and can be stored, manipulated, or edited according to the requirements. This digitization of information of various forms is called convergence. It provides accuracy, accessibility and efficiency in work.

It brings benefits of the growth of IT sector to use of common men. Satellites, mobiles, etc., are also used.

Main and foremost feature of digital convergence are that digital images or sounds from various sources can easily be combined, filtered, edited or otherwise, altered for variety of purposes, so that easy communication, reproduction of information, use of the same information simultaneously at various places, easy, quick and efficient access to everybody effective representation and wide networking can be achieved.

This technology may prove helpful not only in e-governance of the country making the system transparent and to the reach of common people but also in weather forecasting for coastal areas and fisherman and farmers about rainfall and conditions of humidity, very much required to them. Connected with satellites, equipment can provide services like expertise satellite education and medical services to remote areas also.

This technology, useful in scientific research, industry, governance, entertainment, education, medicine and astronomy, has widened the scope of human knowledge and reach.

Q. 11 Answer any two of the following (answer to each question should be in about 150 words each):    2 × 15 = 30

(a) Why do environmentalists regard asbestos and polythene as pollutants?

Answer:  Pollutants are those matter which make any component of our environment dangerous for life. Asbestos and polythene are two non-biodegradable matters. They do not decay by biological actions and remain as wastes.

Asbestos is a mineral fibre which is hard and so used as a construction and covering material. It is also used as an insulation and fire retardant. Small particles of asbestos float in the air invisibly. They get inhaled by us and accumulate in our lungs causing lung or chest cancer. They cause a disease called Asbestosis.

Polythene is also a commonly used non-biodegradable material. They are used as hand bags, covers and packets. They are made up of Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) which dangerously affect our health. It can cause various diseases like Raynand’s syndrome, angiosarcoma, brain cancer or arcostrloloysis.

Due to these reasons, environmentalists regard them as pollutants and advice to reduce their use.

(b) What is the therapeutic cloning ? Describe briefly the method and its potential applications.

Important Points for Answer:

•       Therapeutic cloning – meaning, technique

•       Applications – possibilities

Answer: Therapeutic cloning is to clone human tissues or organs using stem cells but not for the purpose of creating a baby. Thus, therapeutic cloning, in other words, is a limited use of the human cloning technology.

It can be achieved by getting an egg from a woman and then entering DNA from any other person, this stem cell will grow into desired type of tissue. Stem cells are necessary for cloning. Stem cells can be provided by the person himself, they are reproductive. The Parkinson’s disease, diabetes and other diseases can be cured with the use of this technique.

The heart patient can be cured by therapeutic cloning. It would be possible, in future, to replace the whole organ of the patient on failure of any. For example, a patient of Leukaemia can be cured by cloning the stem cell, may be taken from his own body, into the bone marrow. And thus, the need of any donor of bone-marrow can be done away with.

In short, the therapeutic cloning process can prove helpful in curing any disease by replacing the degenerative ill cells of the tissue or organ by newly cloned cells.

(c) Why is hydrogen being acclaimed as the fuel of the future ?

Important Points for Answer:

•       Hydrogen–source of energy

•       Future prospects

Answer: Hydrogen (H) is the main concern as an alternative future source of energy for scientists in the world. Hydrogen is present in abundant amount in water (H20). Hydrogen from the sea water can be used as a source of energy. It gives three times more energy than petrol.

Other important property is that Hydrogen when combust with Oxygen, gets converted to water and so no question of pollution arises.

When other conventional sources of energy are at danger of being exhausted hydrogen gives no such doubt. As the availability of sea water is reliably sufficient it is an inexhaustive source of energy.

Various uses of hydrogen are possible as a fuel. It can run a motor, can produce electricity and can be used as a domestic fuel also. Hydrogen is being used in space programme. It is available in every part of the world in one or another form. It is also, used in nuclear energy and spin-off in defence.

Because of all these qualities hydrogen is acclaimed as the fuel of the future and technological research for its uses are being conducted by scientists.

Q. 12 Answer the following (in about 20 words each):        5 × 2 = 10

(a) What is an exabyte ?

Answer. It is a unit of a large storing capacity of a computer. It can store data of a billion gigabytes size.

(b) What is VIRUS ?

Answer: VIRUS stands for Vital Information Resources Under Siege. It is a set of instruction which can be used to operate the data of another user. It is an illegal act.

(c) What do the following stand for ?

   (i)       XML

   (ii)      MASER

   (iii)     SECAM

   (iv)     TIPS

Answer:        (i)        XML   :         Extensible Mark-up Language

                    (ii)       SECAM         :         Microwave Amolification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation

                    (iii)      SECAM         :         Sequential Couleur a Memoire (Sequential Colour with Memory)

                    (iv)      TIPS   :         Technology Information Pilot System

(d) What is avatar ?

Answer: ‘Avatar’ is a project to design and develop a hyperplane which is half rocket and half aircraft in India. It will take off like a plane, fly into low orbit of the Earth and return to the base station executing its mission.

(e) What is Wikipedia ? Answer: It is an encyclopedia on internet available in multi-lungual form, biggest till the date.

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