Time Allowed:       Three Hours Maximum Marks: 300

Candidates should attempt All questions strictly in accordance with the instruction given under each question.

Q. 1 Answer any one of the following (in about 250 words) : 30

(a) Regardless of distance in time, there were lots of similarities between Lord Curzon and Jawahar Lal Nehru. Discuss.

Important Points for Answer:

• Time

• Similarities in:
• administration, • reforms, • development, • industries, • foreign policy,
• partition

Answer: Lord Curzon’s time is 1899 to 1905 A.D., while Nehru worked for India both in pre and post independence era.

Conditions against them were, of course, different. Then too, their attitude show us many similarities in their nature and method of work.

Administration : Both were firm administrators. Curzon worked for the interest of British India and Nehru for the interest of India and both of them worked efficiently. They were able to work in spite of having differences with system. For example, Curzon did not fully agree with Parliamentary and Viceroy-in-Council matters. Nehru, on the other hand, had differences with Congress over the issues like socialism, international stand, policy objectives, constitutional reforms, etc.

Reforms : Curzon reformed the police administration and judicial system. Nehru, during his interim government also tried to do it. Both Curzon and Nehru make some structural changes in army by dividing it into commands.

Development : Curzon constructed canals on rivers Jhelum, Chenab and Bari. Nehru constructed Bhakhra dam. Curzon recommended to set up the Railway Board.

Industries : To develop industry or commerce, Curzon set up a department. Nehru followed the policy of public sector industries to boost industrial development.

Foreign policy : Curzon was expert in this area and so was about Nehru. To make India interferenceless territory, he had some attempts against possible infiltration of Russia, France or Germany. While Nehru gave Panchsheel providing principle of non-interference.

Partition : Lord Curzon ruled the controversial partition of Bengal in the interest of British India’s peaceful rule. Same had been done by Nehru regarding the partition of India-Pakistan for peace and development of India.

Thus, we can find out many similarities among them in their nature, method of work, rule, administration etc., at least, from a single point of view.

(b) How did the Government of India Act, 1935 mark a point of no return in the history of constitutional development in India ?

Important Points for Answer:

  • Constitutional Development  
  • Provisions of Act – 1935

• How a point of no return ?

Answer: In India, constitutional development can be traced back to about 1861 Act or if we go back, yet, to the Regulating Act of 1773.

But the Act of 1935 made some important provisions which were directly adopted in the Constitution of India with or without some modifications.

The Act provided to establish an All India Federation including all provinces at that time under the paramountcy of the British Crown. Same was there in our Constitution.

The Governor-General was to administer federal subjects with the assistance and advice of a Council of Ministers. These ministers were to be chosen from and were responsible to the federal legislature. Now the Constitution provides for the same mechanism under the President of India and Centre’s Council of Ministers.

This Act introduced responsible government both at the Centre and the Province which is intact now in our Constitution.

Bicameral Legislatures were introduced in some provinces. Provinces were made autonomous in their respective subjects. Now too, our States are autonomous by the authority under Constitution.

The Act made provision for a Federal Court at Delhi. Now the Constitution makes provision for the Supreme Court of India, which is vested with all the functions of the federal court.

Lists were introduced in this Act. This provision made separation of power between the Centre and Provinces. Now our Constitution provides for three lists, dividing power between Centre and State Governments.

All these provisions were so important that there was no return from them but the Constitution adopted them, though not in toto. So, it can be said that the Act marked a point of no return in the history of Constitutional development in India.

Q. 2 Answer any two of the following (in about 150 words) :        2 × 15 = 30

(a) What was the attitude of Indian Industrialists towards the Indian National Congress in the pre-independent era ?

Important Points for Answer:

  • Industrialist 
  • Congress-industrialis2ation

• Attitude

Answer: In the pre-independence era, industry in India grew at slow rate. Some industrialists cum- patriots established industries. Jamnalal Bajaj, G. D. Birla, Ambalal Sarabhai were some of them.

It is evident from the National Movement that Congress widely boycotted foreign goods. This led as an alternative to grow Indian industries. Therefore, Indian industrialists, who flourished under patriotic feelings, helped Congress.

They even joined and financed Congress. Jamnalal Bajaj remained exchequer of Congress for his life time.

Congress supported Swadeshi goods and by turn, Swadeshi industries. Indian industrialists influence, to some extent, power of Congress by providing it with finance and the society with Swadeshi goods.

To support the program of Congress, they had their free industrial policy without interference of the British rule. FICCI was established by them in 1927 and supported Congress directly.

Though, later Congress turned Socialist, to some extent, but this does not show more diversion from patriotism – pro-congress attitude of Indian Industrialists.

(b) Critically assess Sir Tej Bahadur Sapru’s views on Indian Nationalism.

Important Points for Answer:

  • Sir T. B. Sapru’s views         
  • Assessment

Answer: Sapru, under the influence of Gokhale believed in Constitutional means of agitation. But they were not in concurrance with the extra-constitutional methods of agitation that were adopted by Congress later on.

Sapru wanted to accept Jinnah’s proposals and concede some more seats to him, if peace and agreement could be procured through it. But here he failed to understand Jinnah’s attitude.

He wanted India as a federation of the whole territorial units, under the British rule, by Indian Constitution. It shows appreciable feelings of unity in him.

As a liberal leader he favoured formation of interim government and he opposed creation of “Pakistan” as a separate state. He was with national feelings of undivided India. He always tried to make Indian National Movement more participatory in nature. He educated people for public opinion. His national spirit was filled up with deep patriotism.

(c) Characterise the main features of Indian Renaissance.

Answer: Indian Renaissance was started under the influence of the British or Western thinkers. It was characterised by the following features :

It was influenced by Western thinkers.

It gave rise to study of English literature, thoughts, philosophies and books of history.

Indian past was studied in a new way.

Reinterpretation of Indian religious texts and rituals was made. This exposed irregularities and mal-practices in our religion prevailing at that time.

Under Raja Ram Mohan Roy and others, it started new movements for socio-religious reforms. Sati abolition, prevention of child marriages etc. were preached and movements gained force.

Different classes of Indian society looked at such reforms with varied perspectives.

It has some influence over political movements in India and later on it was perfectly adopted by political movements gained force.

Different classes of Indian society looked at such reforms with varied perspectives.

It has some influence over political movements in India and later on it was perfectly adopted by political movements.

Q. 3 Write about the following (not exceeding 20 words each) :    15 × 2 = 30

(a) Kalhana

Answer: Kalhana was a 12th century Kashmiri poet and historian. He was the celebrated author of ‘Rajatarangini’. He wrote this book during 1147-1149. He was in Harsha’s court, of Lohar dynasty. He received help in writing the book from his father Champak who was the minister in the kings court.

(b) Panini

Answer:  He was a Sanskrit grammarian from Gandhara, near modern day Peshawar. His grammar of Sanskrit consists of four parts : (i) Shiva Sutras (phonology), (ii) Ashtadhyayi (means eight chapters) (morphology), (iii) Dhatupatha, (iv) Ganapatha.

(c) Yakshagana

Ans. It is a typical folk form of drama. It is a true people’s theatre. It is an amalgam of the sky with the earth. It is an ancient form of art. It includes song, dance and drama and is popular in Uttara, Malenadu and Dakshina Kannada districts of Karnataka.

(d) Natyasastra

Ans. It was written by Bharat Muni. It covers aspects of dance-drama. It is a book on principles of art, in Sanskrit.

(e) Tabaqat-i-Nasiri

Ans. It was written by Minhaj-us-Siraj in 1260, during the early medieval period of Delhi Sultanate. In Tabaqat-i-Nasiri, he starts with the account of earlier prophets and ancestors of Muhammad, leading to birth of Islam.

(f) Madhura Vijayam

Answer: Madhura Vijayam (of 1350s) is related to Kampana’s expedition. This was against Madhura Sultanate in the time of Bukka-I.

(g) Pandurang Mahatmya

Answer: It is a holy literary work by Sridhar. It is divided into 10 Adhyayas and celebrating the virtues of Pandharpur, probably the greatest centre of pilgrimage in Maharashtra.

(h) Prithviraj Raso

Answer: Composed by Chand Baradai, Prithviraj’s court poet. It narrates life of Prithviraj – III, of Chauhan Vansa who ruled Ajmer and Delhi. It is an epic. It is a source of information of the Kshattriya community of northern India.

(i) “The Insider”

Answer: It is a novel published by former Indian Prime Minister, Mr. P.V.Narsimha Rao in 1998. It is controversial book which follows a man’s rise through the ranks of Indian politics. It throws light on political conditions during his period.

(j) Ali Sardar Jafri

Answer: He was an Urdu poet and received famous Jnanpith Award. He took part in freedom struggle and was a famous person of literature. He contributed to highlight the cause of the oppressed class and realities of life through his works.

(k) Aruna Roy

Answer: Her name is related to the Right to Information Act. She received the Magsaysay Award. Her contribution in public life is notable in RTI development.

(l) Dr. J.C. Daniel

Answer: Father of Malayalam cinema. He brought cinema to Kerala. He had produced “Vigathakumaran”, first film in Kerala. He himself scripted and directed it.

(m) Balwant Gargi

Answer:  For his play “Rang Manch”, he received the highest literary award of the Sahitya Akademi. He is a Punjabi dramatist and short story writer.

(n) Dr. Jayant Narlikar

Answer: He is a distinguished astrophysicist and cosmologist of India. He is conferred with the Padma Vibhushan Award. He set up IUCAA in Pune in 1988.

(o) Shashi Tharoor

Answer: India nominated him as a candidate for UN Secretary – General election. Later he withdrew his candidature. He was the first Indian to be nominated for this post.

Q. 4 Answer any two of the following (in about 125 words) :        2 × 10 = 20

(a) Bring out the prospects of development of alternative energy sources of India.

Important Points for Answer:

  • Alternative energy resources 
  • Prospects of development in India

Answer: For a vast country, like India, energy crisis is a big hurdle in its development.

Some alternative energy sources like solar, hydel, biogas, geo-thermal, wind, etc., are available here. These sources have great potential of development in India.

Its total capacity is assumed as about 8000 MW in 2006. It is also expected that by 2012, total capacity of alternative sources will be about 20,000 MW.

At present, part of alternative energy sources is about 6% of the total energy requirement. India has second position in the world1 in Biogas plants. It has also wide potential of solar energy due to its vast sunny territory.

Many rivers provide facilities for development of hydel-energy. Sea shore and open fields can be utilized to produce wind energy by installing wind-firms.

CNG, Bio-diesel etc. are new fields in this area but are widely popular.

India is technologically developing on this front to utilize its optimal resources of alternative, unexhaustive, renewable energy sources, which are environment friendly.

(b) Blue Revolution has definite advantages in India but it is not free from environmental impacts. Discuss.

Important Points for Answer:

•       Meaning          

•       Scope

•       Environmental impact

Answer: Blue Revolution relates to the production of fish. India is the third largest producer of fish (2nd largest in Inland fish) in the world.

Blue Revolution is proposed to increase fish production on scientific line. This can be

Blue Revolution is proposed to increase fish production on scientific line. This can be made possible due to its 7517 km long sea shore and big rivers like Ganga, Brahmaputra, etc.

Environmental impact over Blue Revolution can fade away India’s hope for progress.

Oil trade, that is mostly carried out through the Indian ocean threatens survival of fish in times of oil spills.

Chemicals flown in the ocean and rivers have also produced a threat for the growth of fish.

In India, climate is generally hot and so, fish can not be kept fresh without facilities of refrigeration.

Kerala and Tamil Nadu practice sand mining. Its dust causes adverse effects on fisheries.

(c) Why do the rivers of west coast not form a delta ?

Important Points for Answer:

  • Nature of rivers of West Coast          
  • Requirements to form a delta

• Why do not form delta ?

Answer: Generally west coast rivers are fast flowing. They do not have perennial flow of water. Their path is generally rough. They do not pass through plains. They have steep side flow, sometimes causing water-falls.

To form a delta, the flow of river must contain a slow flow of water. Water quantity is required to be large and must bring a big amount of alluvial. These rivers should be perennial in nature, generally.

So, it is not possible for West Coast rivers to form delta because they generally do not allow its silt and alluvial to be deposited on its coasts. But it drifts away them in the sea. Therefore, the rivers of West Coast do not form a delta.

Q. 5 Write notes on the following (in about 20 words each) :        5 × 2 = 10

(a) Mixed economy

Answer: Here both private and public sectors play their role. This is a combination of capitalism and socialism. Also called as a mix market or command economy.

(b) Winter rains in India

Answer: In coasts of Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh, rainfall is received in winter. Cause for it is western disturbances in North India. It benefits some crops.

 (c) New Moore Island

Answer: India has possession of this island since 1970, the time of its birth. It is a controversial island between India and Bangladesh. It is an uninhabited Island.

(d) National Water Grid

Answer: The idea is connected with interlinking of rivers. To provide water, to water deficit areas and to reduce devastating effects of floods in surplus areas, it is proposed to prepare a National Water Grid.

(e) Hussain Sagar

Answer: Hazrat Hussain Shah Wali constructed this lake. It is situated in Hyderabad. It was constructed during the rule of Ibrahim Kuli Kutub Shah.

Q. 6 Answer any one of the following (in about 250 words) : 30

(a) What is right to life and personal liberty ? How have the courts expanded its meaning in recent years ?

Important Points for Answer:

• Right to life and Personal Liberty

• Cases expanding its meaning

Answer: Article -21 of the Constitution of India provides to every person ‘Right to life and personal liberty’ as a fundamental right.

According to this article, no person can be deprived of his life or personal liberty except in accordance with the procedure established by law.

Starting from the case of Menaka Gandhi – 1978, the Supreme Court has constantly expanded meaning and scope of Article-21. In this case natural justice was included under the scope of Article-21. It also included here a right to live with human dignity. M. C. Mehta’s case opened a new horizon by including pollution free environment as a component of the right to life.

Similar importance was given again when it was interpreted to cover the right to education in case of Unnikrishnan v. Union of India – 1993.

Also by various cases, the Supreme Court has covered many other rights under it.

Right to free legal aid and speedy trial is a part of right to life.

Even a prisoner has right to speedy trial and legal aid. Fair procedure cannot be denied to him.

Even the court has awarded compensation to the victim whose right under Article-21 has been violated here important is Rahul Shah’s case.

Combining Article 21 with various other rights under Part III and Part IV of the Constitution, a new dimension has been started by the court to protect a person’s right to life and personal liberty.

As, without education, pollution free environment, air and water, shelter, health care, food and such basic requirements, the Article would be dead words of a book, all these provisions are rightly covered under it along with others.

(b) On what grounds can a member be disqualified from either House of Parliament ?


Important Points for Answer:

• Provisions of the Constitution         

• Amendments

Answer: Article – 102 makes provisions for such disqualification. The grounds are as follows :

   –         If he holds any office of profit, he shall be disqualified. Such office may be under Central or State Government.

   –         If a competent court declares him of unsound mind.

   –         If he becomes an undischarged insolvent.

   –         If he is not a citizen of India or if he later voluntarily accepts citizenship of any other state.

   –         If any law of parliament disqualifies him.

Apart from these grounds, he also may be disqualified under the Tenth Schedule, for the following grounds :

   –         If he voluntarily gives up membership of any political party.

   –         If he votes against the political party or abstains from voting in favour of the party, whose member he is.

   –         If he joins any political party after his election without being elected as a member of that party.

   –         If a nominated member joins any political party after six months.

The schedule was amended by 85 th Amendment Act of 1985 which made provision that if a group of members accounting one-third of the existing party splits from the party and forms a new party or joins any other party, then this will not be a ground for disqualification of such members.

But again by 91st Amendment Act – 2003, the provision has been omitted and so split is a ground for disqualification.

All these are grounds provided in our Constitution for disqualification of a member of either House of Parliament.

Q. 7 Answer any one of the following questions (in about 250 words) :   30

(a) What is the ‘strategic partnership’ between India and United States of America ? What are its implications for both the partners ?

Important Points for Answer:

• NSSP – nature, scope          

•Implications – on India, on USA

• Benefits

Answer: NSSP–Next Step in Strategic Partnership is announced between India and USA as a major initiative in bilateral relationship. This strategic partnership does not limit itself only to defence and political matters but also covers economy, technology and cultural matters.

This started when in Jan. 2004, both nations agreed for co-operation. This agreement focussed mainly on

   –         Civil nuclear activities – Civil space programme – Trade in high-technology This makes provisions for cooperation through specific agreements and steps on bilateral basis from time to time.

The NSSP has, at first, mainly concentrated on non-proliferation and trade issues, especially export control.

Its implication for both countries will surely result into benefits.

In terms of nuclear programme,

   –         Strategic partnership will have effect to legitimate Indian nuclear programme and after a period of time, recognising India as a nuclear power.

   –         India’s requirement of technology and nuclear materials can be fulfilled via NSSPs.

   –         India will get a strong position in Asian political-strategic equations and its relations with countries of European Union will get positive support by this agreement.

   –         Russia, France, Australia, etc. will get green signals to deal with India in nuclear technology and material trade.

   –         India’s requirement of energy will be met by development of nuclear energy programme. US support will play a critical role in such development.

On the other hand, USA will get an access to Indian economy and would be able to exploit its vast potential.

USA’s interest in creating balance in the regional block will also be fulfilled.

USA will be able to reduce Indian contact with Iran for energy by helping India to create alternative nuclear energy resources.

Thus, the strategic partnership will benefit both countries in strengthening political ties, building economic ties and trade relations, mutual cooperations, fighting terrorism by a joint mechanism and other fields.

(b) Discuss economic backwardness as a major challenge of Indian democracy. Can democracy and development go together smoothly ?

Important Points for Answer:

• Indian economic backwardness

• Democracy and development–how related ?

• Its impact of democracy

• Conclusion

Answer: India is not having equal economic development for its all classes and in its all parts. It is the main reason why Indian democracy cripples slowly.

Economic backwardness in many parts of India have resulted in poverty, under-nutrition, lack of proper education, health awareness and facilities of development. In such circumstances, a citizen is not and cannot be expected to be able to participate in the process of democratic governance of the country.

Therefore, due to economic backwardness, a large part of Indian public remain out of democratic process and so nation is not running as a true democracy.

If every citizen can take part in process of democracy without any influence or compulsion, without any threat and with well aware information and knowledge, only then a democracy can succeed.

Here, economic backwardness has become a real challenge to our democracy. Democracy and development are inter-related phenomena. Only if full democratic governance is implemented, requirements of people can be known.

Democratic country pays equal attention to every requirements of all classes of citizens, irrespective of their level and number.

Development can be achieved only after satisfying all basic requirements. Development is all over upliftment of social, political, cultural, educational and economical levels of public life.

To achieve development, democratisation of a nation can help and boost the process.

It can be said that it is the basic requirement and result that democracy and development can go together smoothly, only together and not otherwise.

Q. 8 Answer any two of the following questions (in about 150 words) : 2 x 15 = 30

(a) How would you differentiate between the passage of a Constitution Amendment Bill and of an Ordinary Legislative Bill ?

Important Points for Answer:

• Constitution Amendment Bill – procedure

• Ordinary Legislative Bill – procedure

Answer: Article – 368 provides procedure for the passage of a Constitutional Amendment Bill. According to it, such bill can be introduced in either House of Parliament. It must be passed by

   –         a majority of the total membership of that House and also by

   –`        a majority of not less than two thirds of members present and voting.

There is no provision for a joint sitting for such Amendment Bill.

While the procedure to pass an Ordinary Bill is as following :

   –         It can, also, be introduced in either House and it can be introduced by a Private Member also.

   –         No prior recommendation of the President is required for an Ordinary Bill while such recommendation is pre-requisite for a Constitutional Amendment Bill.

   –         In case of failure of the bill due to lack of majority, a joint sitting under Article – 108 can be called upon.

   –         Rajya Sabha can amend it or reject it.

An Ordinary Bill can be rejected, approved or returned for reconsideration of Parliament by the President, but he is not empowered to do so in case of a Constitutional Amendment Bill.

(b) How does the Inter-State Council establish co-ordination between States ?

Important Points for Answer:

Inter-State Council 


Co-ordination : a function

Answer: Our Constitution makes provision vide Article – 263 for establishment of an Inter-state council. This was established by the President in 1990.

This council is to perform the following role :

   –         The President may confer upon its function to discuss any Inter-State dispute and find out solution.

   –         It may investigate and discuss subjects involving interest of states and/or union.

   –         As the Chief Ministers are members of this council, they may express and save public opinion of each state in solution of any dispute.

   –         This council may recommend for formation of such policies that would serve common interest of states.

The President can establish such council and define nature of role and functions to be performed by it.

In times of growing inter-state trade and other relations, coordination is must between them. This council can perform this role. Each state can express its interest and involving them, a common policy and understanding for them can be made possible here. Such coordination is possible when representatives of every state come in contact on a common platform. This Inter-State Council provides a platform for such co-ordination.

(c) Is the High Courts’ power to issue ‘writs’ wider than that of the Supreme Court of India ?

Important Points for Answer:

• Provisions 


Answer: Article-226 provides that High Courts have powers to issue writs. This powers can be used to enforce any fundamental rights or any other right.

Article-32 declares that it is the duty of the Supreme Court to issue an appropriate writ to enforce any of the fundamental rights.

It can be compared that the High Courts can issue writs even to enforce any other legal rights also, whereas the Supreme Court can enforce only fundamental rights.

Both can issue writs of the nature of Habeas Corpus, Mandamus, Prohibition, Certiorari, or quo warranto.

However, it must be noticed that a person can avail of the right under Article-32 as of a right because it is a fundamental right whereas Article-226 do not confer any duty upon the High Courts to issue a writ. It is simply dependent upon discretionary power of high courts.

However, in matter of areawise jurisdiction, the Supreme Court has wide power whereas the High Courts’ jurisdiction is limited to any particular area.

Q. 9 Answer the following questions (in about 20 words each) :    5 × 2 = 10

(a) Explain the following terms :

(i) Dissolution of the House

Answer: President can end the business of the House of People, by dissolving it.

(ii) Prorogation of the House

Answer: Termination of the session of the House.

(iii) Adjournment of the business of the House

Answer: Postponement of the business of the House for a specified time by the Speaker or the Chairman of the House.

(b) What is Consolidated Fund of India ?

Answer: Under Article – 266, Consolidated Fund of India is created by Parliament. All revenues, loans, repayment and interests of loans are deposited in it. Authorisation of Parliament is required to withdraw any amount out of it.

(c) To what extent can the President withhold his assent to a Bill already passed by the Parliament ?

Answer: At first he can return a bill once for reconsideration. If it is passed again, he must assent it. Otherwise he may choose to withhold his assent.

(d) What is India’s ‘Look East’ Policy ?

Answer: To boost economic, trade, technology and other area of cooperation with neighbouring countries of South East Asia, Look East policy was formed by the Prime Minister of India.

(e) What is meant by ‘empowerment of women’ in India ?

Answer: To uplift economical, social, political and educational status of women. To create possibilities for their progress by provisions and policies of government.

Q. 10 Answer any one of the following questions (in about 250 words) :           30

(a) What are the social and economic consequences of abolishing child labour in India?

Important Points for Answer:

• Child labour          

•Abolition of child labour – result

• Social consequences           

•Economic consequences

Answer: India is facing the curse of child-labour. A large number of children have to work as child labourer in industries or other places of works like hotels, stalls, shops, etc.

Laws have been made to abolish child labour from India. Various schemes and programmes have been formulated to meet this end. But yet it is a far goal to be achieved.

If the child labour is abolished, India will have to face some consequences in socioeconomic fields.

In social field, they are required to be educated. If they have no work to do, their poor families will not be able to meet requirements of life. Even to some families starvation will be a result.

Apart from this, children will require enough nutrition. Activities for their upliftment will be a first priority. But the position does not appear that government will be able to provide food, clothes, shelter and education on its own if children do not earn.

Adult members will have to replace the children. Children are always low-paid. An adult cannot afford to work for such low payment.

On economic front, there are some protests from USA and European countries regarding child labour in India. After abolishing it, Indian export will grow.

But earning amount of a family will be reduced. As children support their families, income deficiency will result in poverty.

Employers of children will not be able to employ an adult person because of their inability to pay higher wages.

Even after working, some children afford their own food and education, this burden is then to be handled by their poor parents. Economic conditions of Government is not so sound to afford all these costs.

This will result in higher cost of wages to small scale industries and small employers. All these seem to lead that perhaps it is also not possible for India to abolish child labour immediately.

(b) Explain the implications of the implementation of Intellectual Property Clauses in our patent law regime after joining the WTO.

Important Points for Answer:

• Intellectual Property clauses           


Answer: The Patents Act of 1970 has been amended and implemented with effect from 1st January, 2005. The Indian Patents (Amendment) Act – 2005 makes provisions to fulfill the obligations of the WTO.

After joining the WTO, we were under obligation to respect the TRIPs (Trade Related Patent Rights) Agreement of WTO. Therefore, India amended the Patent Act to protect Intellectual Property Rights of other nations’ companies.

It now covers all fields of technological intellectual property rights related to drugs, food and chemicals.

Indian Pharmaceutical Companies will have to suffer a lot. Many companies will not be able to export their drugs. However, to save them, it is provided that they will not be liable retrospectively. They are free to export even patented drugs to least developed countries (LDCs).

Other chemical and food industries will now require to submit to other big farms who have patented for a product.

It is possible to contract with the companies who have patented for any drug or chemical or food item and then to produce that item. It means contract based work as an agency can be taken by them.

Of course, research in drugs and chemicals are expensive and long term process. Only big firms are able to do it and so it is not possible for India’s small companies to have patent rights registered in their work field. This alteration creates difficulties for Indian economy.

Q. 11 Answer any two of the following questions (in about 125 words each) :          2 × 10 = 20

(a) Explain full convertibility of Indian Rupee.

Important Points for Answer:

• Convertibility – meaning     

•Current Account

• Capital Account

Answer: Convertibility means a system of transaction where a country’s currency becomes a convertible in foreign exchange and vice-versa.

Full convertibility of Indian Rupee was proposed to promote foreign trade and investment in India, especially in post-reform era.

Current Account Convertibility is a system by which Indian Rupee has been made fully convertible in current account transaction related to goods and services, since 19 th August, 1994.

Capital Account Convertibility implies convertibility of currency of a nation into bonds, shares as assets of another country. In India, RBI had appointed a committee in 1997, under Mr. S. S. Tarapore to give suggestions on full convertibility of Indian Rupee in Capital Account. It recommended some phases for it. But the Finance Ministry has ruled out any possibility of in capital account convertibility in near future.

However, it must be noted here that full convertibility helps every exchange of one currency into another. That facilitates trade and transaction among nations.

(b) What are the linkages to be developed under the Knowledge Revolution for Rural India Plan ?

Important Points for Answer:

• Plan          


• Prospectives

Answer: The Knowledge Revolution for Rural India Plan is a part of larger Plan to make India a developed nation. “Every Village a Knowledge Centre” plan was born out of policies at M. S. Swaminathan Research Centre.

The plan, to succeed, at primary stage requires linkages among private sectors, NGOs, Cooperative Societies, various R & D institutions and government agencies. The launching of the National Virtual Academy for Food and Security and Rural Prosperity is an initiative in this direction.

To bring knowledge, livelihood and prosperity, Information and Communication Technologies are to be used.

Various linkages in the form of Schools, Colleges, Research Centres, Special Training Centres are parts of this plan.

Apart from these, centres and hubs of technologies, information and knowledge via radio and televisions will also play their parts to link Rural India with main sources of information and knowledge.

(c) What do we understand by ‘Doha Round’ of talks ?

Important Points for Answer:

• Explanation


• India’s stand

Answer: ‘Doha Round’ of talks is related to the World Trade Organisation. In this special round of talks at Doha, various matters related to agricultural subsidies and trade barriers were discussed.

To implement free and fair competition in world trade, it is necessary to reduce the level of agricultural subsidies provided by the developed countries to their farmers. This does not allow a free competition and so agricultural products of developing and poor nations cannot compete with them.

Moreover, export subsidies were also proposed to be phased out, in agricultural products. Quota-free access to commodities exported from developing countries and reduction in trade barriers were proposed in Doha Round of talks. But most of these proposals are yet to be agreed upon and accepted by the developed countries. Only then boundary-less trade can be made possible among the nations of the world.

Q. 12 Answer any two of the following questions (in about 125 words each) :          2 × 10 = 20

(a) Explain the social constraints in bringing about gender equality in Indian society.

Important Points for Answer:

• Gender equality     

•Social constraints

Answer: Gender equality is a great challenge for Indian society. Apart from various traditional customary problems various social constraints are also there. They are :

In patrimonial, male-dominated society of India, female have always been subjected to domestic expressions. They are psychologically dominated by male. This creates lack of confidence among them to face social challenge.

They are not well aware of economical and political systems. So they cannot participate in such fields without proper training. It requires a long time.

They are not aware of legal provisions favouring and protecting them.

They, if come out of houses to participate in the mainstream of society, male would unable to handle children and other household works on their part.

Female are regarded as machines to produce children and satisfy sexual instincts of male at night. This attitude is yet to be changed.

Proper upliftment of women is much required in Indian society.

Note: India ranks 108 among 174 countries in the UNDP’s Gender Development Index.

(b) What are the problems related to the rehabilitation of the mentally challenged persons in India?

Important Points for Answer:

• Mentally challenged persons           

•Rehabilitation programmes

• Problems

Answer: Mentally challenged persons are suffering from some deficiency of brain or nervous system.

They are to be protected and rehabilitation is required through government programmes.

Various schemes and policies are required to be implemented through efficient machineries.


Traditionally they are looked at derogatorily.

India lacks facilities for their cure and rehabilitation.

As medical practices, there is not well developed system of cure for mentally challenged persons. Well trained psychiatrists are not available in India in required number.

Government fund is not allocated in proper amount.

Proper family care and attitude is not available to them. They are not attended with due care.

According to Psychiatrists, if proper treatment is delivered, they can be well cured, but people are not aware of such treatments.

(c) Bring out the issues involved in implementing compulsory primary education in India.

Important Points for Answer:

• Compulsory Primary Education      


Answer: Even the Constitution makes provision for compulsory primary education to all children between the age of 6 to 14 years.

But no success can be predicted in near future. Because, there is higher drop-out ratio. Children are not aware of education benefits and so is the case with parents. So they are not willing for education.

Poverty and compulsion of work makes it impossible for some children to have education. Even proper facility of schools, buildings, teachers and funds are not available in our country.

Psychologically trained teachers to encourage children for education are not available. Though many policies and schemes are there for compulsory primary education, proper implementation machinery and willingness on bureaucracy is not available.

Q. 13 Write about the following (in about 20 words each) :

(a) Business Process Outsourcing

Answer: BPO – It is method where a company based in Country A, purchases services from another Country B by establishing its base there or otherwise.

(a) Female foeticide

Answer: By sex determination, sometimes if the foetus is found of a female child then it is destroyed in the womb, called femal foeticide.

(b) RCI

Answer:  Rehabilitation Council of India. It is a council to supervise the rehabilitation process after various development project makes displacement of people.


Answer: United Nations Industrial Develbpment Organisation. This provides technical and financial assistance to developing and undeveloped nations for their Industrial development.

(d) S. Chandrashekhar

Answer: Subramanyam Chandrashekhar, an India astro-physicist who gave Shekhar limits theory regarding development of stars. He is a recepient of 1983 Physics Nobel prize.

Don’t miss new articles