Time Allowed : Three Hours      Maximum Marks : 300

Candidates should attempt All questions strictly in accordance with the instructions given under each question.

Q. 1 Answer any one of the following (in about 250 words) :        30

(a) What was the character of socio-religious reforms in the 19th Century and how did they contribute to the national awakening in India ?

Important Points for Answer:

•       Reforms in the 19th century       

•       Character

•       Contribution in national awakening

•       Positive

•       Negative

Answer: In the 19th century various factors led to socio-religious reforms in Indian society. Western influence and education played a vital role in this awakening.

These reforms aimed at abolition of social evils like Purdah system, child marriage, polygamy, polytheism, female infanticide, restriction on widow remarriage, sati etc. It also reformed religious rigidities, dogmas, superstition, idolatory, caste hierarchy, obscurantism, etc.

These reforms came through various movements and acts. Movements like Brahmo Samaj by Raja Rammohan Roy, Prarthna Samaj, Young Bengal Movement by Derozio, Women empowerment by Ishwarchandra Vidhyasagar and others played important role in reforming social and religious spheres of India in 19th century.


They aimed at removing the superstition in religion,

helped in reducing caste rigidities,

spread education,

some were revivalist in nature which awakened past glory of India, like Arya Samaj by Dayanand Saraswati,

some movements aimed at religious upliftment and consciousness,

social practices were aimed to be purge of ill-habits and effects,

movements like Wahabi Movement, Aligarh Movement, Deoband Movement were concerned with Muslim socio-religious reforms, which sometimes became critical to national interest, same was the case with some Hindu religious movements like Bharat Dharma Mahamandal, which preached Orthodoxy.

some legislations like Hindu Widows’ Remarriage Act-1856, Age of Consent Act-1891, Bengal Regulation of 1829 banning Sati etc. were also influenced by social reforms.


These movements were not directly aimed at national awakening. Many of them were limited in their sphere except some all India movements like Ramakrishna Movement  Arya Samaj and Theosophical Movement. But yet they positively contributed

in liberating individual

in making worship and religion more personal affairs

in reducing caste-based and religion based differences

in strengthening secularism

in providing a base for social modernisation

And, ultimately increasing, as summing up all these effects, national consciousness.

Some negative contributions, like

having narrow social base, increasing differences as side effects,

indirectly contributing to increase mystic vision,

leading communal differences among Hindus and Muslims etc.

They also limited the scope of their contribution in national awakening.

Concluding as a whole, it is true that these reforms helped in national awakening in the time where no other means were available for that purpose.

(b) The crisis of the colonial order during 1919 and 1939 was directly linked to the constitutional reforms, disillusionment and militant anti-colonial struggles. Elucidate.

Important Points for Answer: 

• Crisis in Colonial order

• Constitutional Reforms

• Disillusionment

• Militant anti-colonial struggles

Answer: During 1919 and 1939, the colonial order faced a threatening crisis in India as all over the world. Even before the end of the first world war, some revolutionary activities had created a trouble in colonial order.

At the end of the first world war in 1919, the Government gave India the Government of India Act-1919. This was wholly unsatisfactory and was protested commonly by all groups and leaders.

Though the protest of Rowlatt Act and Jallianwala Bagh incident was of much importance in this crisis, yet another major protest after the Khilafat and Non-Cooperation Movement was the Anti-Simon agitation which became violent.

Again, the Civil Disobedience and Dandi March were the major crisis creating actions for the colonial order.

To get rid of these crisis and as a response to them, some constitutional reforms were awarded by the British Government.

Like, the Act of 1919 enlarged the Indian membership in legislative council and also introduced dual government system. Again, Simon Commission was introduced to recommend measures to amend the Act of 1919 but it was severely protested. But the Government of India Act-1935 gave a popular election and federal structure to the Indian polity. Election was participated by Indian parties and they formed government in the Centre and provinces.

On the other hand, these crisis break away the illusionments of Indians towards the British rule. The Act of 1919 disappointed freedom fighters. British style of reforming Indian Constitution without respecting Indian opinion e.g. Constitution of the Simon Commission was also a shock. Now Congress adopted ‘freedom’ as its goal in 1929. Also the illusion that the League represented the Muslims and Congress to the Hindus was also done away with by the result of the 1937 elections.

As response to these crisis, encouraged by them, some activists choose a violent path of struggle to get rid of colonial rule. They killed unpopular British officers, looted government treasures and committed robberies like Kakori-1925, etc. Bhagat Singh, Rajguru anti Sukhdev threw a bomb in Central Assembly and let themselves hanged in 1931.

Thus, we can sum up that colonial crisis during 1919 to 1939 was responsible for awakening Indians for more constitutional reforms – even to the extent that Indians themselves tried their Constitution in the form of the Nehru Report-1928. These crisis also encouraged militant struggles. All these happened because this period helped in disillusioning the old beliefs regarding Indian conditions and British supremacy.

Q. 2 Answer any two of the following questions (in about 150 words each) :   15 × 2 = 30

(a) What are the salient features of the Government of India Acts of 1858 and 1909 ?

Important Points for Answer:

• Salient features of:

• Government of India Act 1858

• Government of India Act 1909

Answer: Salient features of the Government of India Act – 1858 :

It transferred to the British Crown the powers of Company to govern India.

The administration was to be run by Her Majesty, through the Secretary of State for India, assisted by the Council of India.

Council of India had 15 members, 8 appointed by the Crown and 7 elected by the Court of Directors.

The Court of Directors and Board of Control were abolished.

The Council of India-was an advisory body, with the Secretary of State as its Chairman.

This act made India a direct colony of the British Crown.

Salient features of the Government of India Act-1909 :

It is also known as the Morley-Minto Reforms.

It increased the number of elected members in the Imperial Legislative Council and the Provincial Legislative Councils. However, overall majority of non-elected members remained intact.

Even elected members were to be elected indirectly by electoral college, elected by local bodies.

Separate electorate was introduced. Muslims were allocated 8 seats, British capitalists 6 seats, landlords 2 seats and general electorate were allocated 13 seats out of total 27 non-official seats of total 68 seats in Imperial Legislative Council.

Muslims were also provided representation in excess to their strength.

Powers of legislatures were enlarged to enable it to pass resolution and ask questions and supplementaries, but yet not able to vote upon the budget as a whole.

One Indian was to be appointed to the Viceroy’s executive council.

This was criticised by Indian freedom fighters.

(b) Do you think Mahatma Gandhi’s support to Khilafat Movement had diluted his secular credentials? Give your argument based on the assessment of events.

Important Points for Answer: 

• Khilafat Movement

• Anti-secular element

• Justification

• Conclusion

Answer: The Khilafat Movement had nothing to do with the Indian politics. It was a purely Islamic movement supporting the cause of Khalifa of Turkey on religious bases, against the British Government. It rose out of the defeat of Turkey and allies in the first world war against the British and allies.

Gandhi had always advocated for secular politics. He was against the use of religion as an agenda. But supporting the Khilafat issue was severely criticized by many leaders as diluting his secular credentials.

But Gandhi was justified. Because the League had started to advocate itself as a Muslim representative organisation and branding the Congress as a Hindu body. This issue gave a chance to wash away these branding blames. Again, here the nation saw an unprecedented Hindu-Muslim unity during 1919 to 1922. Both community spiritedly opposed the British. And after it, Gandhi never supported religion based politics. He even opposed the partition on religious bases.

So, it can be concluded that it was not an anti-secular act by Gandhi but only an opportunity to cement the Hindu-Muslim unity to make Indian politics more participatory and really secular, i.e. supported by all religions equally.

(c) Evaluate the contribution of revolutionary terrorism represented by Bhagat Singh to the cause of India’s struggle for independence.

Important Points for Answer:

• Revolutionary Activities

• Contribution

Answer: Bhagat Singh was one of the youth who opted for a violent way to get rid of the British rulers and to end exploitation. He provided a good leadership to such youth. He was one of the founder of the Hindustan Republican Association. They undertook revolutionary activities like robberies, killing of unpopular officials, e.g. murder of Saunders’, bombing in Central Assembly as the main influencing act. They believed in sacrifice for the cause of nation.

Their way, especially that of the group led by Bhagat Singh, created a new wave of national spirit among people when there was an environment of soothing struggle. Youthas well as other ages were inspired by his heroic acts. He did not only created an unvisioned violence but he was really a visionary of exploitationless world order. His ideas and act inspired people as well as leaders. On the eve of his execution, even British officials like Lord Irwin was afraid that nation may rose in a huge protest. Even Gandhi was given an insulting welcome on his way to Karachi by showing black flags.

This was a person who not only created violence but also violated the belief of British rule that they will be able to rule India easily.

Q.3 Write about the following (not exceeding 20 words each):      2 × 15 = 10

(a) Age of Sangam Literature

Answer: During the time of third century B.C. to first century B.C. Tamil literature flourished to give a classic age of literature in South India. It was during and among the ruling of the dynasties, namely, Cholas and Pandyas.

(b) Bhakti

Answer: It is a form of worship in Hinduism. Along with Gy ana (Knowledge), Karma (Action), Bhakti (Devotion and Prayer) is one of the way to Moksha. It is to devote oneself to the deity and to worship god. 15th century A.D. is the time when Bhakti was at its peak.

(c) Ashtadhyayi of Panini

Answer: It is a book of grammar written by Panini. This book contains eight (Asta) chapters (Adhyaya) of Sanskrit Grammar. Panini was from Gandhara. The book also narrates contemporary social, political, economic and cultural account.

(d) Charvakas

Answer: A totally materialistic/philosophy. It does not accept even the existence of God. It believes neither in Karma nor in Dharma. It was established by Charvaka Rishi, it is also known as Lokayata Philosophy.

(e) Ajivikas

Answer: Established in nearly 6th century B.C. by Maskari Gosal, it was a community that believed in determination and did not believe in existence of God.

(f) Gandhara Art

Answer: Gandhara art developed in 1st and 2nd century B.C. in Gandhara region due to confluence of Indian and Greek art. It is mainly related to idol making. This architectural art is one of the most beautiful in India.

(g) Mlechchhas

Answer: Mlechchhas were tribes not believing in brahmanical religion. They also not followed Vedic religion. They were living out of towns.

(h) Lingayats

Ans Lingayats worship Lord Shiva in the form of ‘Linga’. This Veerashiva community was founded by Vasava, a brahman. This is a form of Shaivism.

(i) Megasthenes

Answer: Ambassador of Seleucus Niketar in the court of Chandra Gupta Maurya. He wrote ‘Indica’, which gives a vivid account of Indian society of that time. But he could not understand Indian social system perfectly, so it is defective.

(j) R. C. Dutt

Ans.The author of “the history of economics” in British India. He was an economist. He also played a role in explaining how British exploited India economically.

(k) Nagarjunakonda

Answer: Situated in Andhra Pradesh at present, it derives its name from the great Buddhist philosopher Nagarjuna. Here is also an ancient Buddha stupa of Maurya age.

(l) Pastoralism

Answer: Pastoralism is a form of nomadic life, where people depend on cattle as their main source of livelihood. They wonder from one place to another in search of fodder. Initial vedic period belongs to pastoralism.

(m) Rudramadevi

Answer: A Kakatiya dynasty lady ruler of Warrangal. She ruled for more than three decades. She was the first lady ruler of India.

(n) Sati

Answer: Sati was a socio-religious evil practised among various Hindu communities. Here a widow burns herself along with the dead body of her husband on the funeral pyre.

(o) Ramanuja

Answer: A religious preacher of Bhakti movement. He gave slogan of ‘Brahma Satya, Jagat Satya’. He preached ‘Visista-advaitavada’.

Q.4 Answer any two of the following questions (in about 125 words each) :          10 × 2 = 20

(a) Explain how the Himalayan and the Tibetan highlands play an important role in the development of the South – West monsoon.

Important Points for Answer:

• Development of S-W Monsoon

• Role of Himalayan and Tibetan Highlands

Answer: In hot season of April-May, the landmass of Indian sub-continent gets heated by the sun rays. This decreases pressure and increases temperature of the land in comparison to the water bodies of the Indian ocean and Arab Sagar. As a result, air on Indian landmass goes up developing jet stream and moisturised air from Arabian sea approaches India on the starting of June from South-west direction causing rain.

The Himalayan and the Tibetan plateau are highlands. They help in getting much heat and so decreasing pressure. Then they prevent the moisturised winds blowing from water bodies. So, they give rainfall in India. They are important for maximum rainfall in north Indian states and north-west land rainfall. These highlands not only help in getting rain but also help in getting for a longer period. Otherwise, the winds would have crossed India and duration and amount of rainfall would not be as high as it is.

(b) Technological changes have brought in a major shift in the use of roads as transport corridors in India. How far do you agree with this view?

Important Points for Answer:

• Use of roads

• Technological changes

• Shift

Answer: Roads are considered the “Life line” of transportation system in India. Indian roads are increasing in length due to their rising importance and use. Today, there is about 33 lacs km of roads. Of which only 2% of National Highways carries nearly 40% of transportation. This is due to good quality of these NHs.

Technological changes have given a boost to transportation facilities. Even air-travelling is now much easier and cheaper. Railway has also assumed more importance. These have effects on road transport. But improving quality of all weather metallic roads, Golden quadrilateral and East-West, North-South national corridor, Express highways etc. have sustained importance of roads. Moreover, modern technologies in road vehicles also help in it. Subways and flyovers are also technological changes that lead roads to claim for more importance.

The shift is due to demand of good quality road that is hurdle free and cost and fuel saving. Therefore, there is a shift in road use as transport corridors.

(c) Explain the nature and causes of growing slum problems in the metropolitan cities of India.

Important Points for Answer:

• Slums in metropolitan cities

• Nature

• Causes

Answer: In India, number of metropolitan cities are increasing and with that increases slums attached to them. Accordingly, about 1440 lacs of people today, live in slums. The nature and causes of slums are as below

Nature :

They develop at the outer edges of cities, on sides of roads and other cheap places;

They lack pure drinking water facilities;

There are no sanitation system maintained properly;

They are dirty places without hygienic air, space or light;

Dwelling facilities are also not properly liveable;

Disease and mortality rates are high;

Law and order is also not properly maintained.

Causes :

Unemployment in rural area drift people to cities in search of job and without property they became slum dwellers.

Development of industries and services are mainly concentrated in cities.

Cities have no space to accomodate immigrates in proper facilitated space so this result in increase of slums.

Lack of proper management and implementation of law on the part of town authorities.

Q.5 Write notes on the following (in about 20 words each):          2 × 5 =10

(a) Special Economic Zone (SEZ)

Answer: SEZs are territories which are excluded from normal rules and regulations of the sovereign land for the purpose of economic development. There is also some tax benefit. It is implemented from April 2000.

(b) Inceptisol

Answer: It is a kind of brown soil. It contains less aluminium and iron, so it is brown. New land classification includes it.

(c) Jarawas

Answer: Jarawas is a Andaman-Nicobari tribal community since ancient times. This community is at the risk of extinction now. So government is worried for their conservation.

(d) Indira Point

Answer: Indira Point is the southern most land point of India. It is an island. It is the part of Andaman and Nicobar situated in the Indian Ocean.

(e) Causes of Chambal Ravines

Answer: The flowing river current towards lowlands from the hills of Chambal causes soil erosion in its way, creating ravines. This is the cause of Chambal Ravines.

Q.6 Answer any one of the following questions (in about 250 words) :    30

(a) What is a Constitution ? What are the main sources of the Indian Constitution ?

Important Points for Answer:

• What is a Constitution ?

• Sources of Indian Constitution.

Answer: Wade and Philips defined a Constitution as : A Constitution means a document having a special legal sanctity which sets out the framework and the principal functions of the organs of the Government of a State and declares the principles governing the operation of those organs.

It is also said that the Constitution is the supreme law of the land which cannot be violated even by the Government. It is an Umbrella Legislation.

Sources of Indian Constitution

Parliamentary System : India adopted the Parliamentary system of government. One of the main reasons was that this system was familiar to India. This was adopted from the United Kingdom.

Again, related to this, the Legislative procedure and the Parliamentary privileges were directly adopted from the United Kingdom.

Republican model was chosen from the Constitution of France.

The procedure of amending the Constitution is adopted from South African Constitution.

Federal structure of Government is directly inherited from the Government of India Act-1935.

Some features related to judiciary, like the Supreme Court—its organisation and powers, judicial review and the provisions of the fundamental rights are inspired from the U.S.A. Constitution.

Legal processes like “Rule of Law” and the “due process of law” are accepted from U.K. and U.S.A. respectively.

          Similarly, procedure established by law is taken from Japan.

The post of Vice-President of India is similar to provisions of the Constitution of USA.

The Directive Principles of State Policy are ensourced from Ireland and the Emergency provisions are from the Constitution of Germany.

Again, federal aspects like the Concurrent list is derived from Australian system.

Federation with a strong centre is mainly Canadian tendency.

Fundamental duties are taken from the Russian Constitution.

Thus, Indian Constitution has taken many features borrowed from other systems of the world to make it more comprehensive and effective.

(b) Bring out the differences between the Fundamental Rights and the Directive Principles of State Policy. Discuss some of the measures taken by the Union and State Governments for the implementation of the Directive Principles of State Policy.

Important Points for Answer:

• Difference between the Fundamental Rights & Directive Principles of State Policy

• Measures

Answer: These are the following differences between the Fundamental Rights (FRs) and the Directive Principles of State Policy (DPSPs).

First and the foremost difference is that the FRs are justiciable in a court of law and DPSPs are no so.

The fundamental rights are negative instructions to the state that it shall not taken away on abridge any of the rights provided in Part III except following the procedure of the Constitution, while the DPSPs are positive in the form and are directions to the State to enact legislations to give effect to them.

DPSPs in Part IV are essential in the governance of the country for achieving the goals enshrined in the Preamble of the Constitution of India.

Fundamental Rights are very basic for all over development of a person as a human being.

Article 12 to 35 provides the FRs, Article 36 to 51 deals with DPSPs.

Implementation measures : Zamindari, Jagirdaris etc. old institutions of hereditary proprietory have been abolished by the Government under Article-39 (b) which provides for distribution of ownership and control of the material resources of the community to the common good.

Untouchability is now a punishable offence under the Constitution aiming at equality.

The Government has fixed minimum wages for workers and has also modernised the labour laws, to improve the conditions of labourers, this is to implement Article-42 providing for just and human conditions of work.

Panchayats have been established by the 73rd and 74th Amendments in 1992 under Article-40.

For promotion of cottage industries, the government has established All India Khadi and Village Industries Board, Small Scale Industries Boards, Silk Board, All India Handicrafts Board, All India Handloom Board etc. and other boards.

Compulsory education to children between the age of 6 to 14 has been made a fundamental right under Article 21-A. Many states have enacted laws to prohibit slaughters of cows and calves
(Article 48).

Separation of judiciary from the executive under Article-50 is also implemented in some states like Punjab, Gujarat, Haryana, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh, etc.

To protect monuments and places and objects of national importance (Article 49), Ancient and Historical Monuments and Archaeological sites and remains (Declaration of National Importance) Act, 1951 has been enacted.

By adding a new Article 31C to the Part III Article 39(b) and (c) have been given supremacy over the Fundamental Rights.

Nationalisation of Banks in 1971 and Land Reforms are also similar measures.

Even the judiciary has adopted a trend to evolve some of the DPSPs to the status of the FRs to made them justiciable.

Thus, the Centre and the State Governments have implemented various DPSPs through suitable measures.

Q.7 Answer any one of the following questions (in about 250 words) :    30

(a) What is Regionalism ? In which way regionalism has affected the Indian polity ?

Important Points for Answer:

• Regionalism

• Effect on Indian Polity.

Answer: Regionalism is a tendency of people to feel more affinity to their territory, language, culture and social habits. They give more importance to their own territorial region in comparison to other parts of the nation.

This tendency creates feelings of doing more and getting more for the interest and development of own region. Though it helps in development and growth of a region by its people but on the other hand, it also creates feelings of ignorance or neglecting towards other regions. This hurts the all over development of a country like India.

India is a country with various diversity. In geographical, historical, social, cultural and linguistic fields such differences can be seen among various regions of India. These differences lead to politically different ideologies and give rise to regional political parties to protect and preserve specific interest of a region. Since 1990s, India notices tremendously increasing role of regional political parties.

Even we can find its genesis in the protest of Hindi as a national language by the South Indian states, in the era of coalition government, we can see that allied parties in the government pressurises the main ruling party to tilt its policies in the interest of any specific regions. It many times, subsides national interest.

Moreover, such regionalism has became a big hurdle in two party politics and stable government. Today, regional parties are growing importance. They mostly stuck to their region specific demands.

Inter-state water disputes, emerging demands of new states and sometimes region specific violent struggle are evils of regionalism.

Vidarbha, Telangana etc. are demanding their own separate states. North-eastern groups are even demanding for freedom – or at least autonomy in the forms of ‘Nagalim” and ‘The Great Assam’.

It is admitted that nationalism must be respected over regionalism and so national spirit should be spread.

(b) What are the main determinants of voting behaviour in India ?

Important Points for Answer:

• Voting behaviour

• Indian determinants

Answer: Voting is essential process in a democratic set up. Parties try to capture maximum number of votes to come in power to govern the state. To this end, they have to develop and determine the voting behaviour of the voters. In India, the study of last 57 years of democracy show the following factors as determining the voting behaviour :

Castism : Various castes are represented by a person as the main agenda of election. This is the most ancient and most widely used factor. Rajputs, Harijans, Brahmins etc. are some of the mostly used castes as agenda in electoral process.

Religion : Secondly comes religion Hinduism, Islam, etc. are mostly used. The league had started representing Islamic community. Though in a secular state like India, it must not be used. Yet it is a fact that religion plays a vital role especially where both followers are situated in a constituency.

Regionalism : It is getting more and more importance since 1990s. Demanding separate region, promoting region specific interest, claiming representation to end exploitation etc. are the emerging causes from regionalism that determines voting behaviour.

Language : At state level politics, language does not play a big role but at national level, it is a deciding factor. For example, Anti-Hindi agitation in South India was one such method.

Race : Sometimes and in some regions, yet race plays a role like in North Eastern states, it will be very tough to get elected by any South Indian and so is the case with South India also.

Charismatic personality : Some political leaders magnetise a huge mass to attract votes. Like Jawahar Lai Nehru, Indira Gandhi etc. They due to their personal influence of behaviour, look, style and ideology attract a number of voters.

Incidences : Some important and sudden events and incidences can change the equations in politics. Like, proclaiming emergency was such an incident that drove Indira Gandhi out of power and so Janta Government could come to power.

Ideology : Some political ideologies play a deciding role like Communism, Socialism, democrats etc. in Kerala and West Bengal, its tough to ride out Leftists because people have communist ideology in their tendency but it is limited to those states only.

Development : It is an agenda that is practised in developed democracy. When development is used as a factor, it is a sign of old and smooth running democratic system. It is admitted that this is the main and desirable factor that should play a big role in determining the voting behaviour.

These are the determining factors of voting behaviour in India.

Q.8 Answer any two of the following questions (in about 150 words each) :          15 × 2 =30

(a) What are the exceptions when the President of India is not bound by the aid and advice of the Council of Ministers ?

Important Points for Answer:

• Position of the President of India

• When can President exercise discretionary powers ?

Answer: In India, the President is nominal head of the state while real executive powers are vested in the Prime Minister, who is the head of the Council of Ministers.

The President of India is bound to follow the advice of the Council of Ministers. But in the following exceptional situations, he can exercise his discretionary powers.

The President can require the Council of Ministers to reconsider the bill sent to him under Article 111.

He can ask for information from the Prime Minister regarding functioning of the Government (Article 78).

The President generally appoints the head of the party that wins majority of the seats as the Prime Minister but in situations where no party can claim absolute majority to form a government, he can use his discretion to appoint a person as the Prime Minister but he has to give a time to prove that person his majority.

The Council of Ministers is answerable to the Lok Sabha, if any government loses the support of the Lower House, the President is not bound to follow the advice of such Council of Ministers.

Except these situations, the President has to follow the advice of the Cabinet Ministers and he has no authority to exercise his powers personally.

(b) What is pro tem speaker?

Important Points for Answer:

• Pro-tem Speaker

• Constitutional provisions

• Importance or functions

Answer: The Pro tern Speaker is a temporary and operative person on the chair of the Speaker of the Lok Sabha on State Legislative Assemblies. He is to work for a limited period.

Till the new speaker and deputy speakers are elected after the election, a Pro tern speaker is chosen. Newly elected house is yet to elect its speaker. So to run activities till he is elected, the house chooses one of them with an agreement to work as a Pro tern speaker. Even on other situations, where the posts of the speaker and deputy speaker lie vacant e.g. death, resignation etc. In such situations, a Pro tern speaker is to handle the activities of the House.

Except in routine work, the Pro tern speaker has not as much a power with himself as the speaker. He is to run the activities for a limited period and so he cannot or at least does not exercise the serious powers of the speaker like defection, etc.

But in regular routine, he enjoys same powers, position, privilege and immunities as that of a speaker.

(c) Under what circumstances, Parliament may legislate on State subjects ?

Important Points for Answer:

• Parliament’s powers

• When it can legislate upon the State subjects ?

Answer: In normal circumstances, the Centre and the State cannot interfere into the fields of eachother. But in exceptional circumstances, as provided herein, Parliament can legislate upon the state subjects :

Article-249, when the Rajya Sabha by a two third majority passes a resolution giving Parliament such power in national interest.

During proclamation of emergency under Article 250. Such law remains in effect for six months after the emergency ceases to operate.

When two or more states passes a resolution that it is desirable to have a law passed by Parliament on any specified matter in State list. This is power given by consent.

Even to give effect to treaties and international agreements, Parliament can enact a law under Article 253. Here, normal distribution of power does not stand in the way.

In case of failure of the constitutional machinery in a State, under Article 256. When the Parliament declares that the Government of the State cannot be carried on in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution.

In these situations, the Parliament gets power to enact a law upon the State subject.

Q.9 answer the following question ( in about 20 words each ):      2 × 5 = 10

(a) What is criminalization in politics?

Answer: Criminalization of politics means to use criminal force for political purpose by the politicians either in winning elections or other political works. It also suggests increasing number of criminals in politics.

(b) How is the President of India elected ?

Answer: The President of India is elected by an electoral college, consisting of the elected members of both Houses of Parliament and MLAs, through a transferable vote in the form of secret ballot under Article 55.

(c) What is casting vote ?

Answer: When any bill or motion is being voted in a legislature, and both sides gets equal votes than the Presiding Officer has a right to cast a vote on either side, it is called Casting Vote.

(d) What is the difference between Council of Ministers and Cabinet?

Answer: The Cabinet is the inner circle of the highest rank of Ministers of any government while the Council of Ministers is a larger circle that includes more ministers.

(e) What is the importance of Right to Constitutional Remedies ?

Answer: To give effect to any of the fundamental rights, the right to remedy is essential. Without right to remedy (under Article 32 and 226), the fundamental rights would be of no use. It is considered as the soul of the Constitution.

Q. 10 Answer any one of the following questions (in about 250 words) : 30

(a) What were the main recommendations of the Platform for Action (PFA) adopted at the Beijing Women Conference, 1995 ?

Important Points for Answer:

• Main Points

• Main Recommendations


Answer: The 1995 Conference will adopt a “Platform for Action”, analyzing obstacles to women’s advancement and recommending steps for overcoming them. They are intended to mobilize society to meet the challenges and demands of the next century.

In 1985, when goals to the year 2000 were established at the Nairobi Conference, known as the Nairobi Forward-looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women to the Year 2000, those goals were an appeal for government strategies to address the impact on women of government policies in areas such as employment, education, industrial investment, housing, transportation and the environment.

The Platform is intended to speed up the process of making the Forward-looking Strategies a reality, by proposing actions to be taken by policy makers and by women and men at the grass roots.

The proposed actions have realistic and quantifiable targets; the average woman could ither undertake them herself or ask her political leaders to do so.

They focus on ten critical areas of concern: poverty; education and health; violence against women; the effects of arpred or other kinds of conflict; economic participation; powersharing; insufficient mechanisms to promote women’s advancement; human rights; mass media; and environment and development.

The goals of the Forward-looking Strategies, which were intended to be implemented by the year 2000, are deliberately ambitious. In the legal domain, they include equal rights for women, the abolition of slavery and prostitution, establishing a legal minimum age for marriage and punishing female infanticide.

At the social policy level, the Strategies call for access by all women to maternity leave, maternal health care, family planning, nutrition and education, as well as for increased national health budgets.

Governments are asked to develop incentives for the provision of child care and to start campaigns for equal sharing of domestic responsibilities.

The percentage of women in politics and management is to be increased, and there is a call for legislation to prevent violence against women and eliminate female circumcision.

(b) Discuss the steps to get rid of child labour in India.

Important Points for Answer:

• Child labour

• Steps recommended

Answer: Child labour is a blame upon the Indian democracy. It is a curse upon the society that children in the age of ‘study and play’ have to work to earn money.

Indian poverty has made it compulsory to employ children in payable work as self-employment to meet the ends of the family. Many a times, children have to work due to compulsion by their drunkered parent.

Steps must be taken to prevent the child labour, as the children are the future of our country. They must be provided with opportunities of education, skill-building and their development. Crores of children work today and policies and plannings have failed to achieve their goals.

So, following steps must be taken :

Implementation of legislations properly.

Stringent punishment to employers.

Social awareness regarding evil effects of the child labour upon the future of thesociety and that of the child and family itself.

Alternatives to the abolition of the child labour in the form of Funds for their rehabilitation and compensation for the loss of income to the vulnerably poor families.

Welfare funds by the government can be established to take care of such children.

Proper facilities of free education to such children.

They should be provided free meal and scholarship apart from free books and literature of their study.

They can be given vocational education so that at the age of earning, they should not have to search for a job which is tough to find.

Child labour policy should be re-examined to make it more effective.

A Commission should be set up in each district to monitor the implementation of related laws and to create awareness in the society’.

Where possible and necessary, alternate employment should be provided to an adult from the family of the child so removed from labour.

The employers violating the laws should be forced to deposit an amount in a fund which can be utilised to remove this curse from India.

Hazardous industries are already banned from child employment and now domestic work is also banned.

Related bills and acts can be drafted or amended in such a way as to make them more operative rather than more oppressive.

At the base, social awareness is must to remove child labour, so education in such vulnerable localities can help to improve their conditions.

A Commission can be set up to recommend on this aspect and the directions of the Supreme Court given in the case of the M.C. Mehta case can be followed.

Q. 11 Answer any two of the following questions (in about 125 words each) :           10 × 2 = 20

(a) What is stealth technology ?

Important Points for Answer:

• Stealth technology

• Purpose & Use

Answer: Stealth technology is a sub-discipline of electronic countermeasures which covers a range of techniques used with aircraft, ships and missiles, in order to make them less visible (ideally invisible) to radar, infrared and other detection methods.

It is a defence technology used in preparing fighter planes, sub-marines and other vehicles for the purpose of war through land, water or air medium.

The instruments using stealth technology cannot be traced by the enemy radars or other detective systems, so they can safely attack their target.

Enemy cannot destroy such weapons because of failure in locating them as wrongful location given to them.

At present, America, Russia have such stealth technology. Some other nations are also developing it. If this technology is developed and used widely, they can change the nature of war. It can result in only destruction and no prevention.

So, stealth missiles, planes, tankers or ships are being developed to attack from any front. Anti-stealth radars or other tracing instruments have yet not been developed by any country.

(b) Differentiate between Natural and Cultural heritage.

Important Points for Answer:

• Natural heritage

• Cultural heritage

Answer: Natural heritage are those which are gifted naturally to mankind. Like rivers, mountains, desert, vegetation etc. are natural gifts. Streams, lakes, vegetations, animals, fields may also be natural heritage. Everything that is natural is not heritage. Only those natural things which have specific importance to the area or nation as a whole. In India, some biosphere reserves like Sunderbans, Nilgiri etc. are recognised as natural heritage.

On the other hand, those sites which are developed by mankind during the course of evolution of cultural civilisation can be included in cultural heritage. Some form of art, music, painting, dance, architecture etc. In India, Lai Killa, Kathak dance, Bhagwad Gita are included in Cultural heritage.

UNESCO prepares a list of Cultural and Natural heritage every year.

Thus, certainly, natural heritage is gifted to mankind without any human efforts while the cultural heritage are man-made.

(c) What is value-based politics ?

Important Points for Answer:

• Value based politics

• Importance

Answer: Value-based politics means political ideology and practice that is based on certain values like secularism, national benefit, truth, welfare state, democratic preservation, etc. Such value-based politics is necessary to create an ideal democracy. Idealistic ideology can lead a corruption free politics.

So, value-based practice can help in national development. It is aimed at national, social and human interests. It does not use corruption, criminal force, men or money power, regionalism, religion or caste, language or race as the agenda of politics.

It is also seen that value-based politics is a sign of developed democratic and social order. It is sadly confirmed that India at present is much far from value-based politics. Today, no party in India is strictly following an ideology. They can give up any ideals and that too, to any extent for power or position.

Therefore, value-based politics is required to be developed in India.

Q. 12 Write notes on any txvo of the following (in about 125 words each) :10 × 2= 20

(a) Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS)

Important Points for Answer:

• The Scheme

• Main Objectives

• Main Provisions

Answer: The Integrated Child Development Sevices Programme aims at providing services to preschool children in an integrated manner so as to ensure proper growth and development of children in rural, tribal and slum areas. ICDS is a centrally sponsored scheme.


To improve the nutritional and health status of children in the age group of 0 to 6 years.

To lay the foundations for proper psychological, physical and social development of the child.

To reduce the incidence of mortality, morbidity, malnutrition and school drop-out.

To achieve effective coordination of policy and implementation amongst the various departments to promote child development.

To enhance the capability of the mother to look after the normal health and nutritional needs of the child through proper nutrition and health education.

The delivery of sevices to the different beneficiary groups is as follows:

Beneficiaries Services

   1.       Children below 6 months of age i. Immunization, ii. Health Check-up, iii. Referral Services

   2.       Children between 6 months to 3 years of age i. Supplementary Nutrition ii. Immunization, iii. Health Check-up, iv. Referral Services

   3.       Children between 3 to 6 years of age i. Supplementary Nutrition, ii. Immunization, iii. Health Check-up, iv. Referral Services, v. Non-formal pre-school education

   4.       Expectant and nursing mothers i. Health Check-up, ii. Immunization of expectant mothers against tetanus, iii. Referral Services, iv. Supplementary Nutrition, v. Education on Nutrition & Health

   5.       Other women 15 to 45 years i. Education on Nutrition & Health

   6.       Adolescent girls between 11 to 18 years of age (Under Kishori Shakti Yojana)
i. Education on Nutrition & Health, ii. Supplementary Nutrition, iii. Awareness generation on women and children rights

(b) Prime Minister’s 5-point agenda for India’s development as a knowledge society.

Important Points for Answer:

• 5-points agenda

  • India as a Knowledge society

Answer: To develop India as a knowledge society, the Prime Minister has given 5-point agenda.

These are related to :

Information Technology : to develop and get benefit of the IT sector in telecommunication, medical, engineering, economic services and other fields of science and technology.

Education expansion : to aim at expanding educational services and access to all to the education to create education oriented society.

Networking : to expand a world wide network of telecommunication and broadcasting services to interact with the world community.

Interconnection : interconnection among the power based technologies, economic flora and information related topics.

Law and implementation : to educate people and to create such an environment where there is close contact between people and government and a law and order situation is maintained.

These were the themes of the PM’s 5-point agenda aimed at making India a knowledge society.

(c) The Lokpal Bill

Important Points for Answer:

• Lokpal Bill

• Main points

Answer: The Lokpal Bill is aimed at getting rid of the corruption in the political system. This is based on the system of Ombudsman. The bill is yet not passed and it is most sought bill by educated people.

Main points and features are :

It creates a quasi-judicial authority, namely the Lokpal, who shall be selected by a committee under the chairmanship of the Vice-President.

A person who is or has been the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of India can be appointed as the Lokpal. He shall be co-operated with other members.

The Lokpal shall have authority to hear an application of complaint against any of the Member of Parliament and also a Member of the Council of Ministers.

The President and the Vice-President are kept out of the authority of Lokpal’s jurisdiction.

Even the Prime Minister is brought in the scope of his jurisdiction except regarding his working in the fields of National Security or National Systems.

If the Chairman of the Lokpal is blamed and charges against him are proved, then he may be removed from his office.

This system, if established would help in improving administration and governance of the nation.

Q. 13 Write short notes on the following (in about 20 words each) :2 × 5 = 10

(a) Yakshagana

Answer: Started by Vijayanagar artists in the 14th and 15th century, this form of dance is a local art of South India.

(b) PACE

Answer: PACE is a super computer. It is developed by the Department of Research and Development Organisation to develop and design missiles, fighter aircrafts and other strategic services.

(c) Footloose Industries

Answer: These industries are those which are movable to some extent. Not attached to any particular place or religion, they have an advantage of greater mobility.

(d) The Statue of Liberty

Answer: Situated in New York, U.S.A., it is a symbol of liberty of mankind. It depicts a lady with a torch in her raised hand. It was established on the American Independence.

(e) Genome

Answer: A collection of genes in an organism. This is responsible for the hereditary qualities of it. It is situated within DNA.

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