Candidates should attempt ALL questions strictly in accordance with the instructions given under each question.

Q. 1 Answer any two of the following (answer to each question should be in about 150 words):15 × 2 = 30

(a) Indo-Russian Defence Co-operation

Important Points for Answer:

• Areas        


• Co-operation


India entered into treaty of peace, friendship and co-operation in August 1971 with the Soviet Union as a concrete step in defence co-operation with it.

This twenty years treaty helped in expanding scope in defence co-operation. It continues even after USSR’s disintegration with Russia.

Both nations have worked jointly in R & D, manufacturing & marketing in defence field.

Both are jointly engaged in producing fifth generation of state-of-the-art fighter jet.

Brahmos missile is another milestone in this field. It is supersonic anti-ship cruise missile.

India has agreed to join Russian programme of developing a next generation fighter, by Sukhoi-planned to make its maiden flight by 2009.

Recently during President Putin’s visit to New Delhi on 26th January, 2007 both expressed need to expand India-Russia-China trilateral co-operation.

Both expressed strong support to the UN Security Council Resolution 1737 on Iran’s nuclear issue on international defence field.

Russia will transfer technologies and licences for the production of sophisticated military equipments, namely T-90 main battle tank, 50-30 MK-I fighters, etc.

Russia also co-operates in Navy, Air Force and Army fields of India.

Thus, Russia has helped strengthening India’s defence power and India has proved a big customer to Russia.

(b) India’s response to political crisis in Bangladesh

Important Points for Answer:

• Political crisis in Bangladesh

• Indian Response


When the term of Begum Khaleeda Zia led Government of Bangladesh National Party (BNP) ended in 2006, political crisis started.

The President declared emergency in January, 2007 and also he appointed Dr. Fakhruddin Ahmed as the Chief Advisor to the caretaker government. He also formed a new interim government.

To this political crisis, India responded very positively in the interest of Bangladesh. After this emergency Indian External Affairs Minister Mr. Pranab Mukherjee visited Dhaka in February 2007 and held talks with top leadership.

In June, 2007 Foreign Secretary level talks were held at Dhaka where India’s Foreign Secretary Shiv Shankar Menon addressed on “Creating A South Asian Identity : India-Bangladesh Relations”.

He said that the people of Bangladesh and their political parties should resolve outstanding issues through discussions and dialogue among themselves, rather than through external intervention or pressure.

India also believes that people should be able to exercise their franchise in free and fair elections. On this point, India supports ongoing electoral reforms.

India also favours Bangladeshi President’s attempt to make parties free of corruption.

India is ready to develop relations with Bangladesh and it wants the crisis must be solved with better result immediately.

(c) Elaborate on India’s Nuclear Doctrine.

Important Points for Answer:

Nuclear Doctrine

Main points

Answer: India declared its nuclear doctrine in 1999 after its second nuclear explosion. This doctrine is the policy that India follows regarding its nuclear programme.

The doctrine has following main points :

India shall not use first its nuclear weapons.

No use against any non-nuclear state.

Use only in case where Indian territory or armed forces are attacked by nuclear weapons or biological or chemical weapons.

Nuclear weapons shall be maintained under a Nuclear Command Authority under Political representatives.

India shall have always maintain a stock required for minimum deterrence.

India voluntarily declared ban on further nuclear test or explosion but it can revive the programme if national security so demands.

India shall always dialogue with other nations to make the world free of nuclear weapons and disarmament on equal basis.

India will also continue dialogue on treaty for reduction of weapons of mass destruction (WMD).

It is admitted that the Indian nuclear doctrine is perfectly in accordance with requirement of world peace.

It shall not surrender its right even under 123 Agreement to conduct nuclear tests, if situation demands so.

Q. 2 Write about the following (answer to each question should be in about 20 words) : 10


Answer: SAFTA – South Asian Free Trade Agreement. It is an agreement among SAARC members to develop free trade among them and to co-operate in economic development of each other and the region as a whole.

(b) India and East Asia Summit (EAS)

Answer: East Asia Summit was held in Cebu in 2007 which comprises ASEAN + 6 countries. India is one of these six nations. It is a platform for India to cultivate trade and economic relations with ASEAN members.

(c) Shanghai Co-operation Organisation (S.C.O.)

Answer: S.C.O. is established in 2001 by six nations – Russia, China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgystan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. It is for mutual co-operation in the fields of economic, defence and cultural sector.

(d) Panchsheel in India’s Foreign Policy

Answer: Panchsheel, five principles were enunciated by Jawahar Lai Nehru and Chou-en-lai, leaders of India and China, have became cornerstones of India’s foreign policy of peaceful co-existence in international relations.

(e) Relevance of NAM

Answer: Relevance of NAM : NAM – Non-align Movement has now assumed a multi-dimensional role in all over development of a state in various areas, with the passage of time, and has maintained its importance.

Q. 3 Write about the following (answer to each question should be in about 20 words)2 × 5 = 10

(a) Pravasi Bhartiya Bima Yoiana, 2006

Answer: This scheme guarantees insurance for death, accident, disability etc. to new Indians and others living abroad. It is for the welfare of those people who migrate abroad.

(b) Indian All-Women Contingent to Liberia

Answer: Indian women mission is praised by the General Assembly. The mission was related to the mission of rapid action forces in Liberia-2006. The Trained Women Battalions had performed their work well.

(c) Madheshis in Nepal

Answer: Madheshis in Nepal are a hindi speaking community having descent of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar community of India. They are mainly cultivators having land ownership. They are being attacked by Maoists.

(d) Know India Programme (KIP)

Answer: KIP is a programme to introduce Indian culture, social and religious practices, architectural and geographical beauties to the foreigners and thus to attract tourists to India.

(e) Ministry of Overseas Indian Affairs

Answer: MOIA is a Union Ministry. It is responsible for the issues related to overseas Indians, their tour to India, their investment and developments related to these issues.

Q.4 Answer any one of the following (in about 250 words): 30

(a) What is Dumping ? Evaluate the remedial measures taken by Government of India vis- a-vis WTO provisions regarding dumping.

Important Points for Answer:

What is Dumping ?

WTO provisions

Measures by India

Answer: Dumping is a process to sell goods to foreign market at very lower prices. When production of a specified goods increases to a level where a threat is posed to the domestic market of falling prices even to the level below than the stipulated prices, the country opts to sell those goods in abroad even at a thrown away prices to save loss to its producers. But such dumping causes loss to the country where the goods are exported to. So it also takes some remedial measures to protect its domestic producers.

Generally every country opted to put some quantitative restrictions upon the dumping and also charged high income tax. But according to changed guidelines of the WTO, such restrictions are prohibited now and so no country can impose quantitative restrictions upon imports.

Due to these prohibitions, now India adopts some preventive measures which are allowed under the WTO rules. So, India gives subsidy to its farmers so that their production costs can be brought down and they can compete with imported goods. Also as second remedial measure, India imposes countervailing duties and additional charges on the goods thus imported. These charges brings the prices of the goods up and so to make them dearer.

These measures help in making the domestic industries more competitive and due to competition and enhanced technological upgradation, consumers also get cheaper goods and with good qualities.

Indian Commerce Ministry has established an organisation called ‘Directorate of Anti- Dumping’ to tackle with the issues of dumping. Main threats of dumping to India is in the spheres of agricultural produces and manufactures that are alloted to the small sector industries.

(b) Comment on the relationship between credit availability and agricultural growth in India.

Important Points for Answer:

Agriculture in India

Requirement of Credit

Relationship between credit and growth.

Answer: In India, more than 60% of population still depends upon agriculture, directly or indirectly. Most of the cultivators are landless farmers or marginal farmers. They are not able to invest enough to get more production and use technological developments for their cultivation. This is one of the main reasons why Indian agriculture has less production per hectare and why facilities of technology and irrigation cannot be utilised properly.

Credit would transform the labour intensive agriculture into capital intensive venture. It will also lead to land reforms and increase management process. Credit will also prevent post-harvest loss, it is a known fact that the Green Revolution could give result due to investment in agriculture and related technologies. The states like Punjab, Haryana, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra which emphasise on agriculture credit are showing growth in agriculture. They have made available credit to their farmers. On the other hand, Orissa, Uttarakhand, Jharkhand etc. have not taken proper steps to avail credit to farmers and so cannot achieve success.

In India, many sources of credits like personal credits and non-governmental credits by money lenders have clutched farmers in the net of interest that has negative impacts of agricultural growth and proper steps are required to be taken. Suicide by farmers are consequences of it.

Kisan Credit Card scheme is one of the best government scheme in this direction. Commercial and scheduled banks can be given guidelines to credit loans to farmers on softer terms, lower rate of interest and no requirements of securities etc. Proportion of credit to farmers should be increased to the total loans.

Q.5 Answer any tivo of the following (answer to each question should be in about 150 words):

          15 × 2 = 30

(a) What is the meaning and aim of Social Forestry ? What are the main weaknesses noticed in Social Forestry Programme ?

Important Points for Answer:




Answer: The term ‘Social Forestry’ first used in 1976 by The National Commission on Agriculture, Government of India. It was then that India embarked upon a social forestry project with the aim of taking the pressure off the forests and making use of all unused and fallow land.

Government forest areas that are close to human settlement and have been degraded over the years due to human activities needed to be afforested. Trees were to be planted in and around agricultural fields. Plantation of trees along railway lines and roadsides, and river and canal banks were carried out. They were planted in village common land, Government wasteland and Panchayat land

Objectives of Social Forestry & Environment Wing :

Social forestry, schemes that have been started all over the country have made a considerable difference in overall forest cover in a short time. Afforestation outside the conventional forest area for the benefit of rural and urban communities. The main objective is to:

          1.       Improve the environment for protecting agriculture from adverse climatic factors,

          2.       Increase the supply of fuel wood for domestic use, small timber for rural housing, fodder for livestock, and minor forest produce for local industries,

          3.       Increase the natural beauty of the landscape; create recreational forests for the benefit of rural and urban population,

          4.       Provide jobs for unskilled workers and

          5.       Reclaim wastelands.

          6.       Finally, its object is to raise the standard of living and quality of life of the rural and urban people

4 Social forestry scheme can be categorized into groups :

4.1 Farm forestry                 • 4.2 Community forestry

4.3 Extension forestry          • 4.4 Agro- forestry

Weakness :

Lack of awareness about the programme among people.

Illegal use and cutting of forest trees and products.

Unsatisfactory implementation by state administration.

Corruption and misuse of funds.

Ignorance and avoidance of responsibility by people.

(b) Bring out the main objectives of Rashtriya Krishi Bima Yojana. The scheme is being implemented by which agency ?

Important Points for Answer:

Rashtriya Krishi Bima Yojana


Implementing agency

Answer:  On June 22, 1999 The Prime Minister Shri Atal Bihari Vajpayee dedicated to the nation a new Agriculture Insurance Scheme known as Bashtriya Krishi Bima Yojana. Rashtriya Krishi Bima Yojana is a national level insurance scheme for agriculture. It provides insurance cover protection to farmers against crop failing and reimburse loss to them.

Main objectives :

To provide insurance protection to farmers against natural calamities like drought, flood, fire or attack by pest which may result in crop failing or harm to crop.

The insurance is also aimed to encourage and motivate farmers to invest in agriculture without undue fear of such failure or harm to crop.

It is the main aim to cover even landless and marginal farmers under this scheme even though they may be indebted.

To guarantee good standard of living to farmers and prevent incidents of suicides in case of loss in agriculture.

To encourage farmers to cultivate food and cash crops apart from regularly cultivated crops.

This scheme is implemented by the agencies like New India Insurance, Oriental Insurance, NABARD and the United India Insurance Company Limited according to Indian Insurance Act-1956.

(c) Explain Mega Food Park Scheme of Government of India.

Important Points for Answer:

Mega Food Park Scheme – What is it ?


Answer:  Mega Food Park Scheme is a government scheme to develop retail market in food. To solve problems of food conservation and distribution, storage and transportation, this scheme is being promoted from April, 2007.

The Government has decided to establish 30 Mega Food Parks. These MFPs are places where farmers can sell their produce to retailers or to big companies or to customers directly. This is a consolidated form of mandis in villages.

This will help farmers to save their efforts of storing and conserving food after harvest. So, it will also help in preventing post-harvest loss. Because the food shall directly go either to consumers or to such sellers who have enough facilities to store them.

This will in turn, encourage retail marketing in food sector. Many big companies are showing interest in opening retail stores. Transportation and delivery system will be easier due to a specified location for a whole region for buying and selling of food products at Mega Food Parks.

The Commerce and Industry Ministry and the Ministry of Food and Agriculture are implementing this MFP scheme.

Q. 6 Write about the following (answer to each question should be in about 20 words) :2 × 15 = 30

(a) Explain the term Merit Goods.

Answer: Merit goods are products generally not distributed by means of the price system, but based on merit or need, because people although having perfect knowledge would buy the wrong amount of them. Merit goods are, for example, education and to some extent the health-care. They are provided by state as “good for you”.

(b) What is Cheap Money ?

Answer: Cheap Money is that money that is available at lower interest rates and easy conditions and also on softer terms.

(c) What is Countervailing Duty ?

Answer: It is a duty against dumping. This is aimed to raise the prices of the goods dumped and that is imposed to protect producers and farmers against evil effects of dumping.

(d) Wat is Hot Money ?

Answer: Funds which flow into a country to take advantage of favourable rates of interest in that country. These funds are highly volatile and subject to frequent shifts.

(e) Explain the Concept Trickle Down Theory.

Answer: It is a policy where emphasise is on the heavy industries and it is expected that it will trickle its benefits to the basic level, i.e. consumer goods industries.

(f) What is Stagflation ?

Answer: It is a state of the economy in which economic activity is slowing down, but wages and prices continue to rise. The term is a blend of the words stagnation and inflation. Stagflation occurs when inflation rises while output is either falling or at least not rising.

(g) What is Engel’s Law ?

Answer: This law signifies that groups with lower income spends a larger part of their income on food and other similar items and with increase in income proportion of expenditure over such items decreases.

(h) Meaning of CCIL.

Answer: CCIL is Clearing Corporation of India Limited. It is an organisation related to trade and commerce.

(i) What is Administered Price ?

Answer: Administered Price are fixed by government to keep control on rise or fall of prices of particular commodities so that vulnerable groups have not to suffer.

(j) What is Venture Capital ?

Answer: It is a capital invested in such business, company or project where risk of loss is high. Therefore such capital carries higher rate of interest.

(k) Explain the term Balance on Current Account.

Answer: It is net balance of export and import of goods and services – both visible and invisible during the period of a year. It may be positive or negative, i.e. surplus or deficit.

(l) What is Consolidated Fund ?

Answer: The funds where all receipts of the government is deposited except those deposited in Contingency Fund and the Public Accounts. This fund is put under the head of the state i.e. the President or the Governor, as the case may be.

(m) What is Budget Deficit ?

Answer: Budget Deficit indicates surplus of total expenditure over total income of an economy during a financial year.

(n) Explain the term Most Favoured Nations.

Answer: It is a status in International commercial relations. Where one state confers on another MFN status. It means henceforth that state shall be treated specially and exclusively in rules and policies related to trade and commerce.

(o) Meaning of Capital-Output Ratio.

Answer: Capital Output Ratio indicates how much capital shall be required to increase one unit of output of the product.

Q.7 Write about any two of the following (in about 150 words each) :    15 × 2 = 30

(a) Impact of globalisation on state system and its institutions.

Important Points for Answer:

•       Globalisation   

       Its impact on

•       State System     

       its institutions

Answer: Globalisation is a process of removing boundaries among states for the purpose of economic and cultural interaction. Countries are coming closer to each other due to globalisation and new concept of global human and global governance are emerging due to globalisation process.

State system is being greatly influenced by globalisation. States have to open their economies for this process. To develop the country, to get benefit of barrierless trade co-operative government systems are adopted. Number of trade groups and blocks are increasing. Bilateral and multilateral agreements are entered into to enhance trade. Multinational companies are coming into existence and they are getting larger and larger. WHO and IMF are organisations which are helping in the process of globalisation. Even states have to limit their sovereign decisions to such multi-lateral forums.

Also state institutions have to change their structures and organisation to get themselves accomodate with the process. Insurance, education, banks and finance, agriculture and PSUs have to make themselves more competitive, more qualitative to sustain competition given by the globalisation process.

(b) SAARC Summit 2007.

Answer: SAARC Summit – 2007

14th SAARC – South Asian Association for Regional Co-operation, was held in New Delhi, India on 3rd and 4th April-07.

It approved jointly the Delhi Declaration.

Summit decided in favour of establishment of a regional food bank, South Asian University and tele-medicine mechanism and early operationalisation of SAARC Development Fund (SDF).

Afghanistan was formally accepted as its eighth member.

A Mutual Legal Assistance Treaty at regional level was agreed upon with all members’ committing not to allow even fund raising by terror groups.

They emphasised need for connectivity among member nations, particularly physical, economic and people-to-people.

Also they agreed to harmonise customs procedures.

India allowed zero duty access to Least Developed Countries (LDC) of South Asia by the end of the year.

It was also decided to increase co-operation on national and regional telecom infrastructure and to utilize the potential of the IT and Communications sector.

Members welcomed decision of Bangladesh to host first SAARC Youth Camp in 2007.

Further, SAARC nations decided to earmark one rural community as SAARC village in each member state as innovative models of development.

India described this summit as “smoothest and least contentious.” The summit thus covered security, terrorism, trade, energy, connectivity and food security related themes for co-operation.

(c) The UN conference on Environment and Development (The Earth Summit)

Important Points for Answer:

• The Earth Summit

• Issues

• Main achievements

Answer: The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, also known as the Earth Summit (or, in Portuguese, Eco ‘92) was a major conference held in Rio de Janeiro from June 3 to June 14, 1992.

178 governments participated, with 118 sending their heads of state or government. Some 2,400 representatives of non-governmental organisations (NGOs) attended, with 17,000 people at the parallel NGO Forum, who had so-called Consultative Status.

The issues addressed included :

systematic scrutiny of patterns of production—particularly the production of toxic components, such as lead in gasoline, or poisonous waste

alternative sources of energy to replace the use of fossil fuels which are linked to global climate change

new reliance on public transportation systems in order to reduce vehicle emissions, congestion in cities and the health problems caused by polluted air and smog

the growing scarcity of water

An important achievement was an agreement on the Climate Change Convention which in turn led to the Kyoto Protocol.

Another was agreement to “not carry out any activities on the lands of indigenous peoples that would cause environmental degradation or that would be culturally inappropriate”.

The Convention on Biological Diversity was opened for signature at the Earth Summit, and made a start towards redefinition of money supply measures that did not inherently encourage destruction of natural ecoregions and so-called uneconomic growth.

The Earth Summit resulted in the following documents:

Rio Declaration on Environment and Development

Agenda 21

Convention on Biological Diversity

Forest Principles

Framework Convention on Climate Change

Q. 8 Write about the following (in about 20 words each) :          2 × 5 = 10

(a) G-8 Summit 2007

Answer: 33rd G-8 Summit was held in June, 2007 in Germany. This Summit had main themes on its agenda like : poverty in Africa, Climate change, environmental conservation, regional security etc.

(b) Hyde Act of 2006

Answer: Hyde Act is an enabling act that will be passed by the US Congress to allow co-operation between the USA and India on nuclear deal of July-2005.

(c) Global Governance

Answer: It is a concept of administering global issues like social, economic, environment and legal, political at international level through global governance.

(d) Operation Silence

Answer: To vacate Lai Masjid, Pakistani army implemented Operation Silence. It was targeted against fundamentalist terrorists.

(e) SAARC Human Rights Report 2006

Answer: India has topped the list in SAARC Human Rights Report-2007 regarding Least violating nation of HRs. Due to its huge population, it could top even after having Godhra incident. All over HR conditions are not good in the region according to the report.

Q. 9 Write about the following by expanding and explaining the objectives (in about 20 words each):      2 × 5 = 10

(a) ICT4D

Answer: Information and Communication Technologies for Development. It is a technology that is to be used for socio-economical development. It is a novel use of communication and information technology)’.

(b) BEMs

Answer: The purpose of a Building Energy Management System is to automate and take control of these operations in the most efficient way possible. It is therefore a vital tool in the University’s drive to improve energy efficiency and reduce fuel use and costs.

(c) IAEA

Answer: International Atomic Energy Agency. It is situated in Vienna. It is a watchdog institute of the UN over nuclear weapons and non-proliferation apart from assisting in peaceful civil use of atomic energy.


Answer: Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi Sector Technical and Economical Co-operation. It is an organisation of seven member nations situated on the Bay of Bengal for economical and technical co-operation.

(e) ECJ

Answer: European Court of Justice. It is the apex court in European Union to take care of human rights and legal issues in member states that are of regional importance.

Q. 10 Answer any one of the following in about 250 words : 30

(a) Explain the phenomenon of ozone depletion, its causes and effects. What effects are needed to reduce it ?

Important Points for Answer:

• Ozone depletion     


• Effects       

•Efforts to reduce

Answer: Ozone Depletion : Atmosphere of the earth consists of a layer of Ozone (03) gas at the height of 30 to 60 km above the earth. This ozone layer is essential for living beings. As this layer prevents the ultraviolet (OV) rays of the sunlight coming to the earth, it protects animals and vegetation from the dangerous effect of UV rays. But due to some causes, the depletion of 03 is noticed which pose a danger to mankind as well as other forms of life.

Causes : Human activities like industrialisation and others have polluted the environment. These pollutant contains chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) as an ingredient. These CFCs are the main elements causing depletion of Ozone layer. Chlorine, Bromine, Florine etc. halone gases are the main destroyers of 03. Due to refrigerator, plastic, paints and aerosol industries such compounds are produced. Electronics and optical industries also produce ozone destroying chemicals. UV rays separate chlorine from the CFC and this chlorine reacts with Ozone (03) and turns it into simple oxygen (02). At present USA, Europe, Chile, Australia etc. are at danger due to 03 depletion.

Effects :The Ozone depletion has various consequences dangerous to lives on the earth.

The UV can cause skin cancer and other diseases of skin. It increases temperature of the earth and therefore ice melts. This in turn raises level of the sea and may submerge the islands and the coastal areas causing damage to lives and property.

Efforts : To cope with this phenomena, international community has started efforts of reducing ozone depleting chemicals. For this, many agreements and conventions are signed. Vienna Conference of 1983, and the Montreal Protocol of 1987 are among these efforts. They prohibit production of CFCs. London Conference is also one of the important landmark in this direction. Kyoto Protocol 1997 is also related to that.

But for this, international consensus is required on technological measures. They require to develop ozone friendly technologies and to share it with other nations also.

(b) What do you understand by the term ‘biodiversity’ ? Examine the causes and consequences of degeneration of biodiversity.

Important Points for Answer:

• Biodiversity


• Consequences

Answer: Biodiversity means existence of various types of species of animals, vegetation and micro- organisms in a habitat. These diversity of living creatures make the habit, biologically diverse in resources. It contains various species, sub-species, and types. Different species and sub-species have different types of nature and qualities. These nature and qualities are exploited by mankind for his benefit and progress. For example, we use some types of vegetation for food purpose and some types of animals for transport at others for food also.

But this bio-diversity gets degenerating due to some or the other reason as narrated below :

Over exploitation of a particular type of specie gets them reduced to such a lower number to sustain.

Some species of birds are in danger due to hunting and/or loss of their natural habitats

Some animals are also on the verge of extinction because of hunting, loss of their natural  home in forests, etc.

Some species of animals and birds are used for medicinal and experimental purposes.

Some vegetations have lost their existence due to clearing of forests for mining, setting up of industries, agricultural or human dwelling purposes.

Some forests are being destroyed for urbanisation and with them gets destroyed habitation of many species of living beings.

Climate change also destroys species because some species cannot changes adapt to such changes.

Sometimes some natural calamity or sudden change in geographical set up may destroy species.


Such degeneration of biodiversity creates imbalance in the food-chain. This does not only affect the nature but also human being and their daily activities. Such changes also destroys other species dependant upon the diversity. For example, oceanic activities change chemistry of oceanic climate that destroy corals and some other organisms dependant upon them. India is one of the 12 countries with most bio-diverse area. So, naturally its economical, cultural and social activities are closely related to them. Extinction of any of them can destroy such practice. For example, the Royal Bengal Tiger, our national animal itself is at the verge of its extinction. Similarly destroying forests causes flood, reduction in precipitation and other consequences.

So, to sum up, we can say that biodiversity is a natural gift. That is getting degenerated due to mostly human activities. Such destruction must be stopped or evil consequences will follow.

Q. 11 Answer any two of the following (answer for each question should be in about 150 words):  15 × 2 = 30

(a) What are the alternative fuels available for the transport sector ? Discuss their characteristics, advantages and disadvantages in their utilisation.

Important Points for Answer:

• Alternative fuels     


• Advantages


Answer: Due to limited quantity of petroleum fuels, and its pollutant effects, it is necessary to find out alternative fuels for transportation.

CNG-Compressed Natural Gas



Solar batteries


Characteristics :

These fuels are not available ready-made, some process is required to derive them.

They are generally modern in their use.

They have yet not gained much importance in use.

They require technological upgradation.

Advantages :

They produce less pollutant effects.

They are generally renewable and non-exhaustible.

They are comparatively less expensive.

They are available domestically and we will not have to depend on imports.

Solar energy is much available in India.

Hydrogen has the largest calory value.

Bio-diesel will give economical activity to farmers.

Disadvantages :

In name of disadvantages, we can sum up some limitations in their use.

Hydrogen is explosive and problem of storage is also there.

Sunlight is available in less degree in monsoon and winter seasons.

More cultivation of Jethropa and other species of bio-diesel may occupy land necessary for food cultivation.

Technological upgradation is required.

Huge investment is required to change today’s petrol and diesel running vehicles to adopt such technologies.

(b) Explain the objectives and the current achievements of human genome project.

Important Points for Answer:

• Human Genome Project

• Objectives

• Achievements

Answer: It is a project to get information about gene-sequence and structure in human beings. This was adopted by America in 1988.

The human genome project has following objectives :

To decode the sequence of genes arrangement.

To trace genome structure in human cells.

To get information about proteins made and developed by human genes.

To keep watch on process taking place of generating and degenerating of proteins in genes and to find out functions and importance of various proteins in human genes.

To know how some diseases are caused and how some disorders are developed due to genes defects.

Current development in human genome project is :

That scientists are able to find out gene structure and some codes. Using some techniques in tracing out and repairing ailing genes will be made possible due to this project. It is now possible to treat some hereditary diseases. By using DNA interference, now many incurable diseases can be cured. This project has also achieved success in finding out roots and cures of many diseases.

(c) Discuss the missile technology initiatives undertaken by India.

Answer: For defence purposes, India started a missile development programme in 1983. DRDO (Defence Research and Development Organisation) is main responsible agency for it. India has developed various types of missiles through this initiative. Main among India’s missiles are Prithvi. It is a short range ballistic missile. It is a surface to surface missile with a range up to 250 km. Dhanus is ship launched version of Prithvi. It is also surface to surface missile. This naval missile has striking range up to 150 km.

Agni is a re-entry technology demonstrator missile. Agni-I, Agni-II and Agni-III are part of Agni project. It has capacity to beat 500 to 3500 km far targets.

Akash ia medium range surface to air missile while Trishul is also a short range surface to air missile.

Nag is anti-tank missile which has fire and forget technology.

Ashtra is air to air targeting missile. Brahmos is the latest anti-ship cruise missile developed in collaboration with Russia. It has a target range of about 290 km with 200- 300 kg of payload capacity. Surya is being developed as inter-continental ballistic missile by India.

Q. 12 Answer all the five (in about 20 words each) : 2 × 5 = 10

(a) What is firewall ?

Answer: Firewall is a technique for the security of computers. It prevents unwanted programmes and commands and allows only permitted ones.

(b) What is malware ?

Answer: It is a short form of malicious software. It is prepared to damage any computer system. Sometimes, it is considered as a virus but it is different from it in the sense that it does not spread like a virus.

(c) What do the following stand for ?

                    (i) MPEG               (ii) ISP                     (iii) HTML                (iv) ASCII


MPEG :         Moving Picture Expert Group

ISP     :         Internet Service Provider

HTML :         Hyper Text Mark Up Language

ASCII  :         American Standard Code for Information Interchange

(d) What is Root kit?

Answer: It is a key to operate a programme, able to destroy whole system and steal information from it.

(e) What is computer architecture?

Answer: It is a technique that can be used to make designs for various purposes. It is a software that helps using computer system in architectural areas.

Don’t miss new articles