Time Allowed : Three Hours      Maximum Marks : 300

Candidates should attempt All questions strictly in accordance with the instructions given under each question.

Q. 1 Answer any two of the following (in about 150 words each) : 15 × 2 = 30

(a) “The emergence of new social classes in British India was the direct consequence of the establishment of new social economy, new state system, administrative machinery and Western education.” Discuss.

Important Points for Answer:

  • New social classes
  • How emerged

Answer: After coming of British, India witnessed a new social order.

A new, middle class, english educated social group came into existence. They were not loyal to British. They used the English education to create awareness among Indians. They prepared a platform for national movement.

A high-class, english educated group, which was loyal to British, was a small number of people. They joined either British services or were directly related to the ruling system. Similarly, Zamindars and Princes were loyal to British.

And the remained Indians were illiterate farmers and other small entrepreneurs. They get exploited either by the British or by Indians.

These classes were dominating the old caste-based division of Indian Society.

Reasons behind these new classes were : British social policies like abolition of Sati, widow remarriage act etc. Economical changes also dragged people from their old-traditional village professions to urban industrial labouring.

Equality before law of the new judicial system wiped out earlier differences of Indian Society. Concepts of western education not only awakened Indians but also prepared them to research in their ancient history.

Concluding, it can be said that all new classes were direct result of British policies.

(b) “British vision of India had no single coherent set of ideas. On the contrary, the ideas were shot through with contradictions and inconsistencies.” Discuss.

Important Points for Answer:

British Policy


Indian situational reflection

Different ideologies

Answer: British crown assumed all responsibility of ruling India in its own hand after 1857 revolt. Uptil now, the Britishers interfere in social and religious matters of India but after 1857 revolt, they stopped such interference and assumed the policy of non-interference.

Various Governor-Generals also had their different sets of ideas regarding India, e.g. Lord Dalhousie’s Doctrine of Lapse, Lord Wellesley’s Subsidiary Alliance System etc.

Sometimes Britishers supported Hindus and another time Muslims. Towards Princely States, they first assumed suspicious policies but after revolt, they started to take interest in them.

During the time of national movement, their reactions were more opportunistic than based on policy. The Round Table Conferences were examples of it.

They reacted according to the Indian situations. Their soft or hard attitude towards Congress or Muslim League was just based on incidents that took place.

Various ideologies of British rulers have effected Indian administration and government. Partition of India was also passed from mutually controversial stages and policies of the Britishers.

(c) Non-Cooperation Movement gave new direction and energy to the National Movement.” Explain.

Important Points for Answer:

Non-Cooperation Movement

More people join national movement

Wide area covered

Answer: Non-Cooperation Movement was launched by the Indian National Congress which brought Gandhi as the most influential leader of Indian politics.

This movement expanded goal of Congress to ‘Swaraj’ from ‘dominion status’. This movement brought out rural-common people in the national movement.

Henceforth, all classes of Indian Society started to take part in national movement. Its united goals with the Khilafat Movement gave a hopeful scene of Hindu-Muslim unity in Indian politics.

New national symbols like Flag, Slogan, Dress and Language were accepted. Now the working method of Congress changed.

Vastness of objectives and simplicity of movement gave chance to all classes to participate. Even rural illiterate and farmers started to participate in National movement.

This was stopped by Gandhi after Chauri-Chaura incident. But this incident itself is an evident that people were fired by the national spirit.

Thus, a new energy and direction was given to the Indian freedom struggle by this Non- Cooperation Movement.

Q. 2 Write about the following (not exceeding 20 words each):     2 × 15 = 30

(a) Lakshmi Bai, Rani of Jhansi

Answer: Her kingdom Jhansi was captured by Lord Dalhousie by ‘Doctrine of Lapse’. She assumed leadership at Jhansi and fought in the revolt of 1857.

(b) Ilbert Bill

Answer: It was passed to give the Indian District and Sessions Judges, the same jurisdiction as the European judges. But due to British opposition, it was changed.

(c) Lala Hara Dayal

Answer: He set up the Ghadar Party at San Francisco in November 1913. He was also allegedly involved in bombing of Lord Hardinge II in 1906 in Delhi.

(d) Vaikom Satyagraha

Answer: Vaikom Satyagraha (1924-25) was a satyagraha in Travancore, Kerala against untouchability in Hindu society. The movement was centered at the Shiva temple at Vaikom, near Kottayam.The Satyagraha aimed at securing freedom of movement for all sections of society through the public roads leading to the Sri Mahadeva Temple at Vaikom.

(e) Indian States Commission

Answer: It was also known as State Reorganisation Commission. It was set up under the chairmanship of Fazal Ali after independence. It recommended formation of states on the basis of language.

(f) Bodhisattva

Answer: A person who attains nirvana by working for the welfare of the world and voluntarily postpones release from rebirth; also regarded as an incarnation of the Buddha, prior to his own birth in the world.

(g) Megasthenes

Answer: Megasthenes was the Greek Ambassador in the Court of Chandragupta Maurya from the Court of Selecus. He wrote “Indica”, an account of contemporary India.

(h) Brihadeshwara Temple, Tanjore

Answer: The Brihadishwara Temple, also known as Rajarajeswaram, at Thanjavur is a brilliant example of the major heights achieved by Cholas in temple architecture. The temple is part of the UNESCO World Heritage Site “Great Living Chola Temples”.

(i) Perini Shivatandavam

Answer: The Perini dance tradition was widely prevalent in die courts of the kings belonging to the Kakatiya dynasty. Perini Sivatandavam, a dynamic male-oriented dance was presented by the Vijayawada Cultural Academy at Sri Sivaramakrishna Kshetram.

(j) Allasani Peddana

Answer: Allasani Peddana (15th and 16th centuries CE) was a famous Telugu’ poet and was ranked as the foremost of the Astadiggajalu the title for the group of eight poets in the court of King Krishnadevaraya, a ruler of the Vijayanagara Empire.

(k) Golkonda Fort

Answer: Golkonda a ruined city of south-central India and capital of ancient Kingdom of Golkonda (1364-1512), is situated west of Hyderabad. Golkonda consists of four distinct forts with a 10 km long outer wall.

(l) Chishti Silsila

Answer: The Chishti Silsila was of Khawaja Gharib Nawaz Ajmeri. He was a Sufi of Great Stature and is revered by both Hindus and Muslims. In sufi terminology, silsila means one’s spiritual genealogy from one’s spiritual guide (sheikh/murshid) to the Holy Prophet Muhammad (sallalahu alaihi wasallam).

(m) Chauth and Sardeshmukhi

Answer: Chauth means claim to one-fourth of the government’s share of revenue.Sardeshmukhi means claim to one-tenth of the government’s share of revenue, based on status.

(n) Poona Sarvajanik Sabha

Answer: It was established by Mahadev Govind Rande in 1870, with the object of promoting the political welfare and advancing the interest of the people of this and other parts of the country.

(o) ‘Rama Sethu’

Answer: Rama’s Bridge or Ram Setu also known as Adam’s Bridge, is a chain of limestone shoals, between the islands of Mannar, near northwestern Sri Lanka, and Rameswaram, off the southeastern coast of Tamil Nadu, India. Geological evidence indicates that this bridge is a former land connection between India and Sri Lanka.

Q. 3 Answer any two of the following (in about 150 words each): 15 × 2 = 30

(a) The winter rains in North India are largely related to Jet Streams and Western Disturbances. Bring out the relationship.

Important Points for Answer:

Winter Rains

Jet Streams

Westerly Disturbances


Answer: North India receives rainfall during the winter season. The rainfall is due to modification created by the Jet Stream.

Jet Stream is the high-speed winds which blow from the west in the upper atmosphere over mid-latitude areas. They are three dimensional movement of air mass.

Sub-tropical Easterly Jet Stream blows to the Indian sub-continent from the Mediterranean region.

The disturbances caused by the Mediterranean region in the North India is called Western Disturbance in the Northern part of India.

This disturbance is a short term condition of North India and is caused by the sub tropical easterly jet stream.

During winter, landmass experience high pressure in North-Western Part and low

pressure is maintained in the regions occupied by Tropical Easterly Jet Stream.

This is the main reason why North India receive rainfall in winter.

(b) Agricultural Productivity in India remain low. Explain the reasons for this situation.

Important Points for Answer:

Low Productivity


Answer: Productivity in Indian agriculture remain low in comparison to other developed countries. We may cite following reasons :

Dependency upon rainfall.

Irregular rainfall (in time).

Irregular distribution of rain (in amount of water).

Less availability of fertilizer.

No use of modern scientific techniques.

No improved seeds, pesticides, tools, etc.

Lack of basic infrastructure.

Per head smaller pieces of farm.

Less investment.

No availability of easy and cheap credit.

No proper irrigation facility.

Lack of proper food processing and storage facility.

Natural calamities like droughts, floods, etc.

All these are factors responsible for low productivity in Indian agriculture. Today India produces nearly 210 million tonnes of food grains. This must increase with requirement of Indian Population.

Therefore, Green Revolution was launched in 1969. Presently, Second Green Revolution is being planned to increase agricultural productivity.

(c) Bring out the pros and cons of Special Economic Zones.

Answer: Pros :

SEZs are termed as growth engines. Because, they can help to grow other industries also.

They bring investment.

They help in developing infrastructural capacity of the region.

SEZs enrich FOREX reserve of the country.

They bring latest technologies to the area.

Export increases.

More employments are generated in the country.

Cons :

SEZs are given tax holidays. So, government revenue suffers losses.

Agricultural land is also allocated, sometimes, for industrial purposes. It reduces availability of land for agriculture. So, food security is endangered.

Relocation of domestic industries from other areas to SEZs is a big issue. It does not involve any new investment.

Mostly employment is generated for educated youth. Farmers and labourers unemployed, by sale of land, are hardly getting new employment.

Disputes related to allocation and acquisition of land have arisen.

Q. 4 Write about the following (not exceeding 20 words each):     2 × 5 = 10

(a) Buckingham Canal

Answer: The Buckingham Canal is a 420 km long salt water navigation canal, running parallel to the Coromandel Coast of South India from the Vijayawada in Andhra Pradesh to Villupuram District in Tamil Nadu.

(b) Terai Region

Answer: The Terai (“moist land”) is a belt of marshy grasslands, savannas, and forests at the base of the Himalaya range in India, Nepal, and Bhutan, from the Yamuna River in the west to tite Brahmaputra River in the east.

(c) Organic Farming

Answer: Organic farming is a form of agriculture that relies on crop rotation, green manure, compost, biological pest control, and mechanical cultivation to maintain soil productivity and control pests, excluding or strictly limiting the use of synthetic fertilizers and synthetic pesticides, plant growth regulators, livestock feed additives, and genetically modified organisms.

(d) Demographic Dividend

Answer: A rising share of working age people in a population resulting in the rate of economic growth. This usually occurs late in the demographic transition when the fertility rate falls and the youth dependency rate declines.

(e) Nor’westers

Answer: They originated over the Chotanagpur Plateaus and blow in the north-east direction. They bring rainfall in Assam, West Bengal, Orissa and nearby regions. Useful for tea crops. Also known as Kalbaisakhis of West Bengal.

Q. 5 Answer any one of the following (in about 250 words):         30

(a) What is meant by ‘Judicial Activism’ ? Evaluate its role in the context of the functioning of Indian polity.

Important Points for Answer:

El Meaning

Role of Judicial Activism

Indian Political System

Answer: Judicial Activism means active role of judiciary in upholding rights of citizens and preserving the constitutional and legal system of the country.

In the case of Keshavanda Bharti or known as the fundamental rights case, judicial activism was given, due consideration. It is a water-mark case.

For the first time a court held that a constitutional amendment duly passed by the legislature was invalid as damaging or destroying its basic structure. This was a gigantic innovative judicial leap unknown to any legal system.

Judicial activism earned a human face in India by liberalising access to justice and giving relief to disadvantaged groups and the have-nots under the leadership of justices V.R. Krishna Iyyer and P.N. Bhagwati.

The Supreme Court gained in stature and legitimacy. Later, when the independence of the judiciary was threatened by punitive transfers, the court entered the arena of judicial appointments and transfers.

With the increasing criminalisation and mis-govemance and the complete apathy of the executive, the court took up the case of terrorist funding linked to political corruption through the ‘Hawala’ root in the Vineet Narain case (Jain Hawala case).

The Courts on several occasions have issued directions in public interest litigation (PIL) covering a wide spectrum such as road safety, pollution, illegal structures in VIP zones, monkey menace, dog menace, unpaid dues by former and serving legislators, nursery admissions and admissions in institutions of higher learning.

There is no doubt that sometimes these orders are triggered by righteous indignation and emotional responses.

The common citizens have discovered that the administration has become so apathetic and non-performing and corruption and criminality so wide spread that they have no recourse except to move the courts through PIL, enlarging the field for judicial intervention. The great contribution of judicial activism in India has been to provide a safety valve in a democracy and a hope that justice is not beyond reach.

(b) Discuss the major extra-constitutional factors influencing the federal polity in India.

Important Points for Answer:

Federalism in India

Extra-constitutional factors

Planning Commission

Regional Parties



Answer: India has opted for Federal Structure in Indian Political System. Division of powers between the Centre and States is fundamental to the federalism.

The Constitution has made some provisions for maintaining federal policy. Some constitutional and extra-constitutional factors are affecting the working of Indian polity. Major extra-constitutional (not mentioned in the Constitution) factors may be mentioned as below :

Planning Commission is an extra-constitutional body. Formation of Five Year Plan is a work of the Planning Commission. Allocation of Financial Resources to states for their development is influenced by the decisions of the Planning Commission.

Principle of State Autonomy is somehow violated in this way.

Regional political parties have gained importance in the phase of coalition governments at Centre. Their bargaining powers have increased. The Centre inclines towards the region which supports the Central Government. It affects fair decisions of Centre. Principle of equality and autonomy is thus violated.

Regions having more population, have more seats in Parliament. Their voice at the Centre is more clear than any State having less number of MPs.

Decisions are taken according to the interest of more powerful states, (numerically strong) in Parliament.

Demographic division of states is one of the factors which affect Indian Polity.

Resources of any state are important source for the development of the State itself and the country as a whole. Many a times, the Centre acquires resources from region of a State and allocates financial grants in that proportion to it. Distribution of natural resources should not be the criteria for distributing grants. But, somehow it impacts financial strength of a State.

All these extra constitutional factors have affected Indian federal system.

Q. 6 Answer any two of the following (in about 150 words each): 15 × 2 = 30

(a) Enumerate the Fundamental Duties incorporated in the Constitution after the 42nd Amendment.

Answer: Fundamental duties were inserted by the 42nd amendment.

Article 51 A. It shall be the duty of every citizen of India—

(a) to abide by the Constitution and respect its ideals and institutions, the National Flag and the National Anthem;

(b) to cherish and follow the noble ideals which inspired our national struggle for freedom;

(c) to uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India;

(d) to defend the country and render national service when called upon to do so;

(e) to promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood amongst all the people of India transcending religious, linguistic and regional or sectional diversities; to renounce practices derogatory to the dignity of women;

(f) to value and preserve the rich heritage of our composite culture;

(g) to protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers and wild life, and to have compassion for living creatures;

(h) to develop the scientific temper, humanism and the spirit of inquiry and reform;

(i) to safeguard public property and to abjure violence;

(j) to strive towards excellence in all spheres of individual and collective activity so that the nation constantly rises to higher levels of endeavour and achievement;

*[(k) who is a parent or guardian to provide opportunities for education to his child or, as the case may be, ward between the age of six and fourteen years.]

*Ins. by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act, 2002

(b) Examine the demand for greater state autonomy and its impact on the smooth functioning of Indian polity.

Important Points for Answer:

Centre-State relations

Central control over States


Regional parties & Politics

Sarkaria Commission

M.M. Punchhi Commission

Answer: The Constitution of India has framed the Centre-State relations primarily on federal pattern. However due to some historical and political reasons and regional diversities among states, the Centre is given some control over states.

Some areas where the Centre can control States are :

appointment of Governors

power to make laws with respect to state lists

residuary power with Centre

dependence of the States on the Centre for financial assistance apart from these direct constitutional controls.

The Centre has constituted the Planning Commission which makes five year plans, both for the Centre and the States, and thus the pace of development is decided by the Centre. All these factors have resulted into centralisation of the federal system adding a point to the unitary character of our Constitution.

But with the rise of regional political parties in different states the situation has changed. They have demanded more and more autonomy for States. Some provisions like a separate list for State subjects and hard procedure to amend federal character of the Constitution are in their favour. But the demands of more and more autonomy has resulted into conflicts and frictions between the Centre and States. Sarkaria Commission has suggested some measures to normalise Centre-State relations. Recently appointed M.M. Punchi Commission is also to report on this question.

It is concluded that genuine autonomy to States with necessary centralisation factor is the way for political progress.

(c) Discuss the composition and functions of the Union Public Service Commission.

Important Points for Answer:



Answer: The Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) is a constitutional body in India authorised to conduct examinations for appointment to the various civil services of the Union. The Indian Constitution (Part XIV – Services Under the Union and the states – article no. 315 to 323) provides for a Public Service Commission for the Union and a Public Service Commission for each state.

The President appoints its chairman and members.


Functions of the UPSC are to conduct examinations for appointment to the services of the Union.

Recruitment to services & posts under the Union through conduct of competitive examinations;

Recruitment to services & posts under the Central Government by selection through Interviews;

Advising on the suitability of officers for appointment on promotion as well as transfer-on-deputation;

Advising the Government on all matters relating to methods of Recruitment to various services and posts;

Disciplinary cases relating to different civil services; and

Miscellaneous matters relating to grant of extra ordinary pensions, reimbursement of legal expenses, etc.

Q. 7 Answer the following (in about 20 words each): 2 × 5 = 10

(a) What is a Censure Motion ?

Answer: It is passed to ensure a policy of the government or a minister. It means showing lack of confidence in the government. If it is passed successfully, the government will fall.

(b) Distinguish between the auditing and accounting functions of the CAG of India.

Answer: The CAG audits accounts at both the Union and State level but his accounting function is related only to states.    

(c) Distinguish between a starred question and an unstarred one asked in the Parliament.

Answer: Starred questions are to be answered orally and supplementary questions can be asked, but unstarred questions are tq be answered in written and no supplementary question is allowed.

(d) What is contempt of Parliament ?

Answer: Parliament is a court and any violation of its order results in its contempt. For that Parliament can inflict punishment.

(e) What were the two major considerations to have the Governor appointed and not elected?

Answer: 1) Governor to be the agent of Centre to maintain federal structure. 2) There cannot be two elected heads in a State, i.e. Chief Minister and Governor.

Q. 8 Answer any one of the following (in about 250 words):         30

(a) What, in your opinion, are the causes of terrorism ? Suggest suitable measures to deal with the threat of terrorism in India.

Important Points for Answer:

Causes of Terrorism : Political, Social, Economical, Religious

Indian scenario

How to curb it ?

Answer: Terrorism has increased to alert a responsible person about the safety and security of person and property.

Main causes of terrorism may vary among : Political, Social, Economical, Religious etc.

Among main political causes, we may cite lack of equality, freedom etc. as the most important. Suppressing a community, political exploitation, rule without representation etc. may give rise to armed struggle, resulting into terrorist movements.

But terrorists do not have always genuine demands.

Social differences, racial unrest or ethnical divisions have sometimes lead to violent movements. A group may turn to arms for their social justice and causes terror in an area.

Economic disadvantage, exploitation or suppression can be a reason for terrorism.

Religious fundamentalism has been found to be the most important reason for terrorism. Some groups of terrorists are being trained and prepared for religious causes.

In India, terrorism is spread due to economical and religious causes. To tackle with such violent activities India needs to restructure its political and economical structure.

Terrorists have a wide spread network throughout the world. The latest developed technologies have helped them to be more dangerous.

Use of latest vigilance techniques is necessary. Government has to win confidence of all people for their security. Religious tolerance should be spread among people. Education can play a role in this regard.

Laws must be stringent and enforcement machinery should be effective.

(b) Do you think there is a need for a review of the Indian Constitution ? Justify your view.

Important Points for Answer:

Constitutional Review

Indian Constitution



Answer: Constitutional Review means reconsideration of the provisions of Constitution, in the light of new demands and requirements of the time.

Indian Constitution was framed in 1946-47 when condition of India was different one. Today, after 60 years of its working, Indian political system has changed much far. Influence of outer world, changes ushered by globalisation and other influences have made it necessary to review our Constitution.

The Constitution forms the base of whole system. So, it must be with the pace of time. Situations that may come in time, must be handled by the provisions of Constitution.

Some major changes that may demand constitutional review are :

More than one hundred amendments have been done so far. It suggests requirement of changes.

The Constitution was framed at the time of British rule. Some British influences have crept in the Constitution.

Some provisions related to federal structure of India are very tough to amend. So, review will help to rethink them.

Provisions regarding the post of Governor and imposition of the Presidential rule in State have been very controversial.

Changes made by globalisation have also bring new situations which may be tough to handle by the present constitution.

Demand for greater autonomy to states is an issue demanding early attention.

Special status to Jammu and Kashmir and other States like Sikkim etc. are some provision which should be changed.

Not on these, but some recent political issues like coalition government, hung parliament, emergence of many regional parties etc. are requiring review of Indian Constitution.

Also, the Supreme Court has pronounced that Constitutional Review is inherent in the provisions of our Constitution.

Q. 9 Answer any two of the following (in about 150 words each): 15 × 2 = 30

(a) Examine the role of caste in Indian politics.

Important Points for Answer:

Castes – Devisive, Cohesive



Answer: Caste is a social section of Indian Society. It has gained influential position in Indian Politics.

It plays on both sides – Devisive and Cohesive roles. It becomes devisive when question comes of national unity. But regarding a localitepr group matter, it gives a cohesive force by uniting people of a caste.

Even politicians attach their slogans and manifestoes to particular castes. Caste groups utilise their numerical strength to bargain political cause. Lower castes7 upliftment has remained a central issue.

Leaders are choosen from a dominant caste of the region. Many politicians use caste theories, e.g. Jinabhai in Gujarat gave KHAM (Kshatriya, Harijan, Aahir, Muslim) theory.

Policy of reservation emanate from caste factor of Indian society. Government’s policies are also inspired by casteism.

Indian Political System is largely dependent upon factors like caste, religion, etc., which can be termed as unhappy situation.

(b) Discuss the problems in achieving National Integration in India.

Important Points for Answer:

National Integration           

Various factors as obstacles

Answer: National Integration is a basic need to make a nation strong and developed. India has faced many problems on this front.

India is a country of diversity. Many factors such as : Geographical, Historical, Political, Social, Religious and Economical, influence integration of India.

Geographically all parts of India have not similar evolution. Also, structurally India is divided in many parts.

Historically, people have different inspiration from history. Diverse groups remain in Indian Society.

Politically, multi-party loyalty has divided nation. Emergence of small parties have preached different ideologies.

Socially, Indian society is divided into many castes and ethnicities. People are attached to social stratas more cohesively.

Religions like Hinduism, Islam, Buddhism, Jainism, Christianity etc. co-exist in India. They also, though sometimes, play a devisive role. Religious riots have played destructive role.

Economical gap is seen in the society from time of ancient history. Kings and Zamindars had exploited their subjects. Even today, wealth distribution is not equal in India.

All these are main factors that impede national integration in India.

(c) Examine the impact of Regional Political Parties in Indian politics.

Important Points for Answer:

•       Single party politics-till 1967    

•       Emergence of Regional Parties

•       Coalition Government   

•       Impact

Answer: Till 1967, India had a single party political system, dominated by Congress. Even States were ruled by Congress Governments.

After 1967, regional parties came into picture. They gain some powers in their regions.

But it was only 1980s when regional parties participated in the Centre’s coalition government also.

Sometimes central government and state governments have different parties. This impact development due to political causes.

Similarly coalition governments have many a times proved short-lived. Elections before five-year terms have resulted in instability.

But on the contrary, regional parties have raised causes of particular regions at national level and demanded for more share in developmental grants. Parties like TDP, AIADMK,, DMK, Akali Dal, BSP, SP, CPI (M), etc. have played influential role in Indian Politics.

To sum up, regional parties have increased importance of their regions on the one hand and have increased instability on the other. But overall, Indian politics has become more democratic.

Q. 10 Answer any one of the following (in about 250 words):       30

(a) Globalisation has brought about a distinct class divide in India instead of ushering in a classless society/’ Critically examine this argument.

Important Points for Answer:

Earlier Classes

Globalisation – Impact

LPG in 1991

New employed/Unemployed class

Entrepreneurs, Industrialists etc.

Widening gap and result

Answer: Indian Society was divided in many classes since time immemorial. Based on religions, castes, Kula, Gotra etc. many groups dissected Indian society.

Globalisation has many fold impacts on Indian society. Since 1991 LPG Policy, India started to witness them.

Liberalization and Privatisation came as necessary requirements of globalisation.

More foreign companies and investment came in India. Private players got bigger role in Indian economy. Globalised market opened many horizons in India.

Educated youth get many opportunities, English speaking and skilled class started to earn attractive salaries. Unexpected hike in earning capacity of this class gave way to consumerism in India.

Small and medium size entrepreneurial and industrialist class come into existence. Their expenditure capacity increased.

But on the other hand, uneducated and unskilled class, got no benefit of the globalisation. They remained in their low wages earning society.

Gap between two classes widened. Now, old classes based on caste, religion, etc. started to dilute. But economical gap divided the society into classes.

The class of educated youth who get opportunities in BPOs and MNCs came among high’ earning employed class.

While, educated but employed in traditional work remained middle class youth. To contrast with both of them, unemployed youth is yet a dark reality of Indian booming economy.

New rich industrialists and entrepreneurs is a small but wealthy class in India.

Thus, globalisation just reshaped Indian classes of society but not wiped them off at all.

(b) The conditions of the urban poor are more deplorable than that of their rural counterparts.” Give your views.

Important Points for Answer:





Health, mental health

Social matters

Answer: More and more people are migrating to urban areas either for employment or for education. Number of poor in urban areas are increasing fast.

But only skilled persons in urban areas are having good living standard.

Unskilled labourers are in worst condition. They may not have regular job or work. Casually employed persons have to change work or find new work after sometime.

In urban areas, poor have to live in outskirts or slum areas. They are not having good houses to live in. The areas in which they live are not having well sanitation facilities.’ In rural areas, the sanitation is not well-maintained but then too, vast space help to dispose waste properly.

In matters of houses – habitation, the rural poor have large space to live in, while the urban poors have to live only in small houses. In urban areas, no proper light and air is available in houses. Density is more in urban areas in comparison to rural areas. So, urban poor have to face problems of unhealthy house-facilities.

Rural poors are having access to clean atmosphere in their natural environment. But their urban counterparts have to face pollution problems. Air, water and soil are polluted in urban areas. The noise pollution is another problem for urban poor.

Health of urban poor are always at risk. While rural poor, though not having more money to spend, but they are not facing much health problems. Urban poors are more prone to epidemics like dangue, malaria, cholera etc.

Social problems in rural poor are less grave than their urban counterpart. Urban poors are not having as good social cohesion as that of the rural poors.

They are more exposed to ill-habits like drinking, drugs, gambling, etc. Other social evils also easily crept in the lives of urban poors.

Mental health is always at risk for urban poors as their life is more tense than that of the rural poors. More work and less rest, no social atmosphere, feeling of being backward etc. can make them mentally disturbed, in most cases.

Thus, it seems that rural poors are having better life than urban poors.

Q. 11 Answer any two of the following (in about 150 words each):         15 × 2 = 30

(a) Examine whether rural women in India have been empowered by their active participation in Panchayat Raj System.

Important Points for Answer:

•       Panchayati Raj System  

•       Empowerment

•       Rural Women

Answer: By 73rd and 74th Amendment Acts of 1992, Panchayati Raj System was established in India. This system gave grass-root level democracy.

Rural women were not getting their due share in development process. Social and political backwardness prevented them from taking part in decision making. But these amendments made provision for one-third, reservation for women.

Hence, women get due share in policy making.

Illiteracy among women could be reduced. Their leadership skill developed. They came out of four walls of houses. Played decisive role in development. Gender bias is reduced. They became more aware about their rights. They have started to demand reservation in Parliament also.

All these are ideally expected results. They have materialised to some extent. But in somer cases, women have been used as rubber-stamps. Actual decisions are being taken by male partners.

But, signs are there to show that Panchayati Raj System has empowered rural women.

(b) Decline in the sex ratio in India is an alarming sign for India’s future social development.” Discuss.

Important Points for Answer:

Sex Ratio – Indian situation

Decline – Impact on social Development

Answer: Sex ratio indicates number of female per thousand male. It is indicator of social status of women. Generally lower sex ratio represents suppressed level of women.

India has 933 female per 1000 males according to the 2001 Census. Comparing to 1991 Census, it has increased from 927.

But juvenile sex ratio (0-6 years) has been dropped from 945 of 1991 Census to 896 in 2001 Census. This will show future decline.

It causes imbalance in social structure. Declining number of female means less number of marriages. It will also be responsible for crimes like rape, etc.

Many reasons play role for declining sex ratio. Prominent of them are : Class and caste traditions, dowry, economic and social burden, etc.

Government is taking measures to reduce the gender-gap of population. Education to girl child and prevention of female foeticide is necessary.

Declining sex ratio has socio-cultural effects of long consequences. To prevent them, awareness is required to be spread among people.

(c) What should be the role of the media to project ‘mass reality’ in place of ‘illusion of  reality?

Important Points for Answer:

•       Role of Media  

•       Exposure of Reality

Answer: Media is a tool to bring out reality to surface. It is media’s duty to expose truth and wipe out dust over it. It can help people in creating awareness. In the time of national movement, Indian media played a praiseworthy role.

But today, instead of bringing out mass reality, media is just involved in spreading illusion. Media has made it a business to weave stories on a point and increase their viewership or readership. The news are off the reality.

More importantly, the problems of people like poverty, hunger, suicide by farmers, migration of people etc. are not given due consideration. On the other hand, today media is more concentrated on the issues like personalities in news, politicians in their personal life, film and other related stories.

Some issues of corruption have been exposed by media but sometimes it tends to stretch a small issue for a long time, more than necessity.

More than 70% mass who are either rural people or lower middle class, have no place in media. Their problems or reality is never exposed.

To sum up, it is bitter truth that media has diverted its path from its duty towards people, nation and democracy.

Q. 12 Write about the following (in about 20 words each):  2 × 5 = 10

(a) MTP Act

Answer: It is an Act to provide for the termination of certain pregnancies by registered Medical Practitioners and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto. It came into existence in 1971 and was amended in 2002.

(b) Supreme Court on Ragging

Answer: The supreme court warned senior students that if they harass freshers physically or mentally, they would be booked by the police, expelled from college and denied future admissions. It declared ragging as an illegal act.

(c) New Seven Wonders of the World

Answer: Chechen Itza, Christ the Redeemer, Colosseum, Great Wall of China, Machu Pichhu, Petra, Taj Mahal

(d) M. M. Punchi Commission

Answer: The Commission on Centre-State relations is headed by the former Chief Justice of India, M. M. Punchi. The commission will review the working of the existing arrangements between the Union and the States as per the Constitution.

(e) Lakshmi Mittal

Answer: Lakshmi Narayan Mittal is a British Indian industrialist. He was born in Sadulpur village, in the Churu district of Rajasthan, India, and he resides in Kensington, London. He is the chairman and CEO of ArcelorMittal (founder of Mittal before merger with Arcelor) and also serves as a non-executive director of Goldman Sachs, EADS and ICICI Bank.

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