Time Allowed : Three Hours      Maximum Marks : 300

Candidates should attempt All questions strictly in accordance with the instructions given under each question.

Q. 1  Write notes on any two of the following (answer to each question should be in about 150 words):    2 × 30 = 60

(a) India and the New World Order

Important Points for Answer:

New World : Political and Economical


Answer: After the end of the Second World War, two blocs – Capitalist led by the USA and Socialist led by the USSR emerged.

But India wisely opted to remain neutral and joined Non-Alignment Movement.

Later on, the world became unipolar after the break up of the USSR. The USA remained sole super power.

Globalisation captured the world economic condition. Almost all nations, even including Russia and China opened their economies.

India too adopted new economic policies to match steps with the new trend.

Today, India, Russia, China, Japan and European Union have emerged as blocs of Balance of Power.

India has restructured its foreign policy by Look East Policy, Confidence Building Measures with Pakistan, etc.

New bilateral and regional agreements are increasing.

Though India not aligned militarily with any bloc, but it co-operates on the economical fronts.

India has expressed full faith in the UN System. WTO has not succeeded up to expectations.

In such situations, India has also bargained political decisions on the basis of market and economic sides.

Recent Indo-US nuclear deal indicates increasing importance of India.

India has always co-operated, even taken lead, in solving problems of the new world, order, like Global Warming, Poverty, Human Rights, Terrorism, etc.

(b) Indo-Bhutan Relations

Important Points for Answer:

Indo-Bhutan relations from British rule period

Buffer State

Friendship Treaty

Transportation, Power, Security

Answer: India and Bhutan are neighbouring countries. Bhutan remains a buffer state between India and China. India has relations with Bhutan from time of British rule.

Both countries had a friendship treaty in 1949. Recently it was reviewed and Bhutan was allowed to adopt an independent foreign policy, to acquire defensive arms. Both have also new extradition provisions.

Recently Bhutan was transformed to democracy from Monarchy. India welcomed the decision.

On transportation sector, Indian Border Road Organisation assists Bhutan to construct roads, especially on border.

India started first railway link between Hastimara (in North Bengal, India) and P | hunt Shoeling (in Bhutan) in memory of former Prime Minister Jawahar Lai Nehru’s first visit to Bhutan.

India has acquired rights to use hydro-power capacities of Bhutan and constructed power project like Chulka, Tata Power Project and others.

On the front of terrorism and security, army of Bhutan conducted ‘Operation All Clear’ to demolish insergent camps of ULFA, KLO, NDFB, etc. .

India has accepted geo-political importance of Bhutan and given due consideration to this neighbouring state in its foreign policy.

(c) India and China : Strategy to Boost Ties

Important Points for Answer:

Indo-China relations


Strategy to solve


Answer: India and China are neighbouring countries but have hostile relations for almost past sixty years.

Nehru and Mao Zedong tie up was a happy phase but Chinese attack on India wiped out the effect.

Other issues like border disputes, Dalai Lama of Tibet issue etc. are other hurdles in Indo-china relations.

Indian Prime Ministers Rajiv Gandhi and A. B. Vajpayee visited China in 1988 and 2003 respectively. In 2005, during the visit of Chinese Premier Jiang Zemin, a strategic agreement was signed. It included guiding principles on border settlement.

In 2008, Dr. Manmohan Singh, Indian Prime Minister, visited Beijing Both countries have fixed target of $ 60 Billion of bilateral trade to be achieved by the year 2010. China also got observer status in SAARC. Importance of geo-economics has increased than geo-politics.

People to people contact, cultural exchange programmes, student exchange programme etc. are other strategies to boost up ties.

In various regional and world forums, both countries have attempted to come closer. Leaving the disputes and problems to be solved in their process, both countries have started to find out areas of co-operation. Thus, conflicts should not come in the way of co-operation, is the main strategy to boost up ties.

Q. 2 Write about the following (answer to each question should be in about 20 words):    5 × 2 = 10

(a) India’s Ocean Development Policy

Answer: India’s Ocean Development Policy’s aim is to utilise living resources, exploit non-living resources and to harness renewable ocean energy resources.

(b) Major hurdles in Indo-Pak ties

Answer: Main hurdles include – Spread of terrorism, issue of Jammu and Kashmir, Siachin and Sir Creek disputes.

(c) India-Nigeria: Abuja Declaration

Answer: India signed “Abuja Declaration” with Nigeria, setting the stage for a strategic partnership with the world’s fifth largest producer of oil on October 15, 2007 in Abuja, the declaration was signed by PM Manmohan Singh & President of Nigeria, Umaru musa yar’adua.

(d) India-Bangladesh Border Road cum fencing

Answer: India has problem of Chakma Refugees in-filtering into Indian boundary. Problems of crimes like terrorism, drug traffic, insurgency etc. are the reasons for Border Road cum Fencing.

(e) India’s L.C.A. (Tejas)

Answer: Third Generation Light Combat Aircraft, Wing Fly-by-wire system Tejas will be loaded with ‘Astra’, air-to-air missile. It will use indigenously built ‘Karer’ engine.

Q. 3 Write about the following (answer to each question should be in about 20 words):    5 × 2 = 10

(a) Pravasi Bharatiya Diwas

Answer: The Government of India recognizes the 9th of January as the Pravasi Bharatiya Divas. The occasion is marked by special programs to recognize the contributions of NRI/PIO individuals of exceptional merit, felicitate NRI/PIO individuals who have made exceptional contribution in their chosen field/profession Pravasi Bharatiya Samman and provide a forum to discuss issues and concerns that people of the diaspora.

(b) Council for Promotion of Overseas Employment (CPOE)

Answer: The Union Cabinet gave approval for constitution of CPOE.


 (i) Study, monitor, research and analyze employment potential in the world manpower market

Initiate, Institute and monitor skill development programmes and standardize skill certification, by coordinating with concerned agencies/ organisations in Government & Private Sector.

(c) Overseas Citizenship of India (OCI) Scheme

Answer: The Citizenship (Amendment) Bill, 2003 provides for overseas citizenship of India to the PIOs in 16 countries who have acquired citizenship in those countries under the Overseas Citizenship of India Scheme.

(d) Indian Diaspora in Singapore

Answer: Indians constitute second largest diaspora, next to Chinese. They are mainly Tamils, so Tamil is one of the official language of Singapore.

(e) Indian Diaspora and Bollywood

Answer: Bollywood films are released outside India also. Many films are funded by NRls. This shows connection between Indian Diaspora and Bollywood.

Q. 4 Answer any one of the following (in about 250 words):         30

(a) Discuss India’s stand on agricultural issues in WTO’s Ministerial Conferences since Doha Round.

Important Points for Answer:

WTO Ministerial Conferences

Next Rounds

Doha Round

India’s Stand

Answer: Ministerial Conference is the highest decision making 6ody of the WTO. It meets at least every two years.

First Ministerial Conference was held in Singapore from 9-13 December, 1996.

Doha Round of Ministerial Conference was held from 9 to 14 November, 2001 in Doha, Qatar. It was fourth Conference.

Fifth Ministerial Conference was held in Cancun (Mexico) in 2003.

Sixth Round was held in December 2005 at Hong Kong.

Geneva Round on 21st July to 25th July 2008 was the latest Ministerial Conference held on the issue.

On the matters of agriculture, India has taken leadership of the poor and developing countries.

Main issues raised on the agricultural matter were to remove export subsidies to farmers given by the developed nations. India argued that export is only a trade for developed countries but agriculture is a matter of livelihood for fanners of developing and poor natiohs.

The lives of crores of people can not be put at stake for free trade.

Food Security for the third world countries is a bigger issue.

Reduction of domestic support and elimination of export subsidies to farmers, provided by the US and EU is main demand of third world countries under the leadership of India.

However, repeatedly the talk has failed to achieve consensus on the issue. Even recently in Geneva, the talk could not result into final draft. This was due to stand of EU and US on their demands regarding agriculture. Their demand is that developing and poor countries should allow free market access to agricultural products of the developed nations. But on the other hand, the later argue that such import will destruct lives of their farmers.

Because, agricultural products of the developed nations are supported by domestic subsidies and export subsidies, they are very cheap. If they enter into markets of developing nation, their farmers will not be able to compete with them. So their livelihood will be at stake.

India, a leading member of G-20 (formed in WTO especially to fight for such issues) is always at raising the issue of lives against trade.

(b) Assess the performance of India in attracting Foreign Direct Investment (FDI).

Important Points for Answer:

FDI in India

Performance of various sectors

All over performance

Answer: India opened its market in 1991 by accepting the policy of LPG. Big market in India gives a bright opportunity to Global companies.

So, many companies come in India and started their business. MNCs started their subsidiaries or centres in Indian economy. We have been performing well in attracting Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) from across the world.

According to the report of UN agency, India performed well in inward FDI Performance Index and reached to 113 position in 2006 among 141 countries. In outward FDI also, India reached to 56 position in 2006 from its earlier position of 65 in 2005.

Thus, India is performing well in overall FDI attraction terms.

Various sectors in India have been opened for FDI. Except in a few, FDI is allowed in almost all sectors of economy.

According to latest data, electrical equipments including computer softwares and electronics are performing best in attracting FDI, amounting to 17.4% of total. Next comes Telecommunications, transport sector and services sector.

In 1990-91, net FDI was only US $ 96 million which increased to US $ 3240 million in 2004-05.

Taking region wise, New Delhi has attracted largest amount of FDI so far. Next come Mumbai, Bangalore, Chennai and Ahmedabad. While in terms of FDI approvals by states, Maharashtra tops in the list followed by Delhi, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Gujarat.

The list of countries from which FDI comes into India is topped by Mauritius amounting for nearly 37% of total inflow. USA is next to it with about 15% share.

Q. 5 Discuss any two of the following topics (answer each question in about 150 words):  2 × 15 = 30

(a) Assistance to the States for Development of Export Infrastructure and other Activities (ASIDE).

Important Points for Answer:



Answer: The scheme is to provide an outlay for development of export infrastructure which will be distributed to the States according to a pre-defined criteria. The existing EPIP, EPZ and CIB schemes are merged with the new scheme.

The specific purposes for which the funds allocated under the Scheme can be sanctioned and utilised are as follows :

Creation of new Export Promotion Industrial Parks/Zones (including Special Economic Zones (SEZs)/Agri-Business Zones) and augmenting facilities in the existing ones. Setting up of electronic and other related infrastructure in export conclave.

Equity participation in infrastructure projects including the setting up of SEZs.

Development of complementary infrastructure such as roads connecting the production centres with the ports, setting up of Inland Container Depots and Container Freight Stations,

Stabilising power supply through additional transformers and islanding of export production centres etc.

Development of minor ports and jetties of a particular specification to serve export purpose.

Assistance for setting up common effluent treatment facilities for which guidelines are placed.

Projects of national and regional importance.

Please Note

The Export Promotion Industrial Parks Scheme (EPIP), Export Promotion Zones scheme (EPZ), and the Critical Infrastructure Balancing Scheme (CIB) are also implemented to help create infrastructure for exports in specific locations and to meet specific objectives.

(b) Convertibility of Indian Rupee.

Important Points for Answer:

Meaning of Convertibility

Convertibility of Indian Rupee : Capital Account, Current Account

Answer: After opening Indian market in 1991 by the LPG policy, it was necessary to made Indian rupee convertible.

Convertibility of a currency implies free exchange of a currency into any foreign currency and vice-versa.

Tarapore Committee was appointed in 1997 on Capital Account Convertibility, by the Reserve Bank of India. Lastly, in 2006, for Current Account Convertibility, Tarapore Committee was appointed by the Reserve Bank of India.

Since, August, 19,1994, Indian rupee has been made fully convertible in current account transactions related to goods and services.

The Committee also had suggested full convertibility but yet Indian rupee has not been made fully convertible in capital account.

Today, the final position is that Indian rupee is partially convertible. The Finance Ministry has relaxed norms but ruled out full convertibility on Capital Account in near future.

Though full convertibility may help India attract more FDI but it will also expose the economy to more risk.

(c) India on Global Competitiveness Index – 2007.

Important Points for Answer:

Global Competitive Index      

Indian Position

Answer: The Global Competitive Index is released by the World Economic Forum. In its 2007 report, it covers 131 economies. They are measured on twelve parameters.

India is placed at 48th rank, five notches down than previous index position (43rd place).

India is ranked second among emerging markets after China. The Index parameters include :


Macro-economic stability

Higher Education and Training

Labour Market Efficiency

Technological Readiness

Business Sophistication


Health and Primary Education

Goods Market Efficiency

Financial Market Sophistication

Market size


There are three sub-indices :

1. Efficiency Enhancers

2. Basic requirements

3. Innovation factors

India ranks 31, 74 and 26 respectively on the above three indices.

This index is designed to capture a range of factors affecting an economy’s business climate. The report says “The quality of the business environment in India has improved tangibly in recent years”.

Q. 6 Write about the following (answer to each question in about 20 words):          5 × 2 = 10

(a) Special Drawing Rights (SDRs)

Answer: The term is related to IMF. They are used to manage liquidity. They are not real money but just credit entries in the account of a nation.

(b) NAMA

Answer: Non-Agricultural Market Access. This term is related to WTO. NAMA is used to enhance trade in Non-Agricultural Sector, i.e. Manufacturing and Service Sector.

(c) Non-tariff trade barriers

Answer: Additional trade barriers to restrict imports. They are :

Phytosanitary measures,

Prohibition of Child Labour in manufacturing etc.

(b) Current Account Balance

Answer: Difference between a country’s savings and investment. It shows position of a country in international trade. Positive CAB means more export and negative CAB means more import.

(c) Free Trade Area

Answer: Free Trade Area refers to economic arrangement between two or more countries, removing all import tariffs among themselves. There is also no quota or export subsidies.

Q. 7 Write on any one of the following (answer in about 150 words):      15

(a) South-South Cooperation

Important Points for Answer:




Answer: South-South Cooperation suggests economic co-operation among developing countries of the world. They bring third world economies together for their common development.

The all over aim of South-South Co-operation is to jointly promote development. The collective strength can be utilised to bring faster growth in their economies. Their voice can be heard because of their numerical strength.

There are many common challenges like poverty, hunger, disease, unemployment, pollution, global warming, corruption, terrorism etc. which need to fight together. Therefore, south- south cooperation has brought the members together. As the result, many organisations like SAARC, IBSA, NAM, G-77, Mercosur, etc. have come into existence. Common grievances have been raised by them in WTO, UN and other world forums.

It was necessary to revoke the myth that co-operation can be only among developed and developing countries. It was a demand of the hour, because developed countries had only concentrated on their personal interest and not taken into consideration demands of the developing and poor economies. So, to increase bargaining power, collaboration was necessary.

(b) Universal Declaration of Human Rights

Important Points for Answer:

Why came into existence ?    

Important Provisions

Main objectives

Answer: The Second World War opened eyes of the whole world that any violative action will result only in destruction of human being. So, world leaders expressed importance of Human Rights. As a result, International Bill of Human Rights was prepared.

First expression of Human Rights came into existence by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights on December 10, 1948. Its main objective is to recognise the inherent dignity and the equal and inalienable rights of all members of human family. It also aims to protect human rights by rule of law. Granting to women the same political rights as to men is an important objective enshrined in its preamble.

The declaration contains 30 Articles. They are universal in nature. They have been elaborated in subsequent conventions, Protocols etc. Article-1 says all human beings are born free and equal in dignity. Article-7 provides for equality before the law and equal protection of the law. Article-9 is a right against arbitrary arrest, detention or exile. Article-20 provides for right to freedom of peaceful assembly and association. Article-17 enumerates the right to own property. Freedom of thought, conscience and religion is provided in Article-18.

Q. 8 Briefly write about the following (answer to each question should be in about 20 words):    5 × 2 = 10

(a) Look East Policy and North-East India

Answer: Look East Policy was launched in 1992. It helped to connect North-Eastern States with other countries and to improve their economic condition.

(b) India at the Beijing Olympics

Answer: In Beijing Olympics 2008, India won one gold for 10 m Air Rifle Men’s Event by Abhinav Bindra, two Bronze, one in Free Style Wrestling by Sushil Kumar and the second in Boxing by Vijendra Kumar.

(c) India’s role in Afghanistan Today

Answer: India has taken a leading role in Afghanistan’s development by undertaking partnership in hydro-electricity, road, agriculture, industrial development and telecommunications related projects.

(b) IPCC Report on Global Warming

Answer: The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) concludes that most of the temperature increase since the mid-twentieth century is “very likely” due to the increase in anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentrations. Climate model projections indicate that global surface temperature will likely rise a further 1.1 to 6.4 °C (2.0 to 11.5 °F) during the twenty-first century.

(c) Indo-EU Economic Ties

Answer: India’s bilateral trade with the European Union (EU) is of the order of approximately US $ 20 billion annually. Nearly 26 per cent of India’s exports are to die EU, while India’s imports from the EU constitute 28 per cent of her total imports.

Q. 9 Briefly write about the following (answer to each question should be in about 20 words):    5 × 2 = 10

(a) G.CC

Answer: It stands for Gulf Co-operation Council, created in May, 1981. It consists of Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates. It works as a trade bloc.

(b) G-77

Answer: Constituted under the UN banner in 1964, now consists of 130 member countries of the Third World. Aims at protecting economic interest of the member countries.

(c) I.CR.C

Answer: It stands for International Committee on Red Cross. It is a neutral organisation. It works for humanitarian protection and assistance for victims of war and armed violence.


Answer: A common market among four South American countries – Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay. It was started in January, 1995.


Answer: Stands for International (Criminal) Police Organisation. Facilitates co-operation among international police. Its headquarters is in Lyon, France.

Q. 10 Answer any one of the following (in about 250 words):       30

(a) In what way ‘Medical Biotechnology’ and ‘Bioengineering’ are useful for technological development of India ?

Important Points for Answer:


Medical Biotechnology


Useful to India

Answer: Biotechnology is a science that uses living plants or animals as their products and technically develops useful products from them.

Simply, it is a technology related to bio-life. It has emerged as a developing science branch.

Bio-engineering and Medical bio-technology are specialised branches of bio-technology. Medical bio-technology is use of techniques in medical field. Diagnostic system, clinical research, drug production, delivery and discovery are important areas. Medical biotechnology can be useful to India in .the following ways :

India can become a medical tourism place.

India can earn foreign revenue.

Pharmaceutical companies can grow.

Improved technology will help promote health standard.

Bio-engineering is a branch which applies engineering principles to living system. Various branches of life science like – molecular biology, bio-chemistry, pharmacology, micro-biology, cytology, etc. are used in bio-engineering. They help to develop and design devices and components, useful in various fields.

Genetic science is also related to it. New discoveries in human genome have expanded horizons of bio-engineering and medical biotechnology. These can be useful in India for development of medical facilities.

Export of services and BPOs have also started to use these knowledge. This gives more employment opportunities to Indians.

The efficiency and efficacy of molecular medicines can be enhanced. Quick and effective result can be obtained by using them. New researches can remove pain of mankind by discovering medicines.

GDP growth can be boost up by the scientific development and their commercialisation. The Department of Bio-technology has emphasised genomes and bioinformatics as the areas of special focus.

Thus, India can get advantages from the Medical Bio-technology and Bio-engineering.

(b) What do you know about Indian National Satellite Systems ? Describe its important features.

Important Points for Answer:

Indian National Satellite Systems

Satellites in Service

Answer: INSAT or the Indian National Satellite System is a series of multipurpose Geo-Stationary satellites launched by ISRO to satisfy the telecommunications, broadcasting, meteorology, and “search and rescue” needs of India. Commissioned in 1983, INSAT is the largest domestic communication system in the Asia-Pacific Region.

Satellites in service

There are currently 11 satellites in service out of 21 which have ever been part of INSAT system.

INSAT-2E : It is the last of the five satellites in INSAT-2 series.

INSAT-3 Series

INSAT-3A : The multipurpose satellite, INSAT-3A, was launched by Ariane in April 2003. It is located at 93.5 degree East longitude.

INSAT-3B : Launched in March 2000, INSAT-3B is collocated with INSAT-2E at 83 degree East longitude.

INSAT-3C : Launched in January 2002, INSAT-3C is positioned at 74 degree East longitude.

INSAT-3E : Launched in September 2003, INSAT-3E is positioned at 55 degree East longitude.

KALPANA-1: KALPANA-1 is an exclusive meteorological satellite launched by PSLV in September 2002.

GSAT-2 : Launched by the second flight of GSLV in May 2003.

EDUSAT: EDUSAT was launched by GSLV in September 2004. Its transponders and their ground coverage are specially configured to cater to the educational requirements

INSAT-4 Series

INSAT-4A : Launched in December 2005 by the European Ariane launch vehicle.

INSAT-4B : It was launched in March 2007 by the European Ariane launch vehicle. INSAT-4C was to be India’s most advanced communications satellite, and was the second satellite in the INSAT 4 series.

INSAT-4CR was launched on 2 September 2007 by GSLV-F04. It is a replacement satellite of INSAT-4C which was lost when GSLV-F02 failed and had to be destroyed on its course.

Q. 11 Explain any three of the following (in about 150 words each):      3 × 15 = 45

(a) Internet Protocol Television (IPTV)

Important Points for Answer:




IPTV based conversed services


Answer: IPTV (Internet Protocol Television) is a system where a digital television service is delivered using Internet Protocol over a network infrastructure, which may include delivery by a broadband connection.

IPTV is typically supplied by a service provider using a closed network infrastructure. This closed network approach is in competition with the delivery of TV content over the public Internet, called Internet Television. In businesses, IPTV may be used to deliver television content over corporate LANs.


The IP-based platform offers significant advantages, including the ability to integrate television with other IP-based services like high speed Internet access and VoIP.


An IP-based platform also allows significant opportunities to make the TV viewing experience more interactive and personalised.


VoD stands for Video on Demand. VoD permits a customer to browse an online programme or film catalogue, to watch trailers and to then select a selected recording for playback. IPTV based Converged Services

Another advantage of an IP-based network is the opportunity for integration and convergence. This opportunity is amplified when using IMS-based solutions. Converged services implies interaction of existing services in a seamless manner to create new value added services.


Because IPTV requires real-time data transmission and uses the Internet Protocol, it is sensitive to packet loss and delays if the streamed data is unreliable. If the IPTV connection is not fast enough, picture break-up or loss may occur.

(b) Spintronics

Important Points for Answer:

What is Spintronics ?

Metals based spintronic devices

Semiconductor based spintronic devices

Answer: Spintronics is an emerging technology which exploits the intrinsic spin of electrons and its associated magnetic moment in addition to its fundamental electronic charge, in solid-state devices. It is also known as magneto-electronics.

Metals based spintronics devices

The simplest method of generating a spin-polarised current in a metal is to pass the current through a ferromagnetic material. The most common application of this effect is a giant magnetoresistance (GMR) device.

Spintronics-enabled devices like GMR and TMR sensors have increased the sensitivity of the read head which measures the magnetic state of small magnetic domains (bits) on the spinning platter.

Semiconductor-based spintronic devices

In early efforts, spin-polarized electrons are generated via optical orientation using circularly-polarized photons at the bandgap energy incident on semiconductors with appreciable spin-orbit interaction (like GaAs and ZnSe).

Advantages of semiconductor-based spintronics applications are potentially lower power use and a smaller footprint than electrical devices used for information processing.

(c) Wifi

Important Points for Answer:

What is WiFi?




Answer: Wi-Fi is the trademark for the popular wireless technology used in home networks, mobile phones, video games and other electronic devices that require some form of wireless networking capability.


The purpose of Wi-Fi is to provide wireless access to digital content. This content may include applications, audio and visual media, Internet connectivity, or other data.

A Wi-Fi enabled device such as a PC, game console, mobile phone, MP3 player or PDA can connect to the Internet when within range of a wireless network connected to the Internet.

The coverage of one or more interconnected access points—called a hotspot—can comprise an area as small as a single room with wireless-opaque walls or as large as many square miles covered by overlapping access points.

Wi-Fi also allows connectivity in peer-to-peer mode, which enables devices to connect directly with each other.


Wi-Fi allows LANs to be deployed without cabling for client devices, typically reducing the costs of network deployment and expansion.

Spaces where cables cannot be run, such as outdoor areas and historical buildings, can host wireless LANs

Answer: Limitations         .

Spectrum assignments and operational limitations are not consistent worldwide.

(d) Components of Robots

Important Points for Answer:

Components for various functions:

• Actuation   

• Manipulation   

• Locomotion

Components of robots

Actuation : Actuators are the “muscles” of a robot, the parts which convert stored energy into movement. Actuators include-

Motors: Robots use electric motors, including, brushed and brushless DC motors.

Stepper motors: They do not spin freely like DC motors; they rotate in discrete steps, under the command of a controller.

Piezo motors: The advantages of these motors are nanometer resolution, speed and available force for their size.

Air muscles: A simple yet powerful device for providing a pulling force. When inflated with compressed air, it contracts by up to 40% of its original length.

Electroactive polymers: A class of plastics which change shape in response to electrical stimulation.

Elastic nanotubes: These are a promising, early-stage experimental technology.


The ‘hands’ of a robot are often referred to as end effectors, while the arm is referred to as a manipulator.

Mechanical Grippers

Vacuum Grippers

General purpose effectors


Rolling Robots

Two-wheeled balancing         • Ballbot

Track Robot

Walking Robots

ZMP Technique          • Hopping

Dynamic Balancing    • Passive Dynamics

Other methods of locomotion

Flying    • Snaking

Skating • Swimming

Q. 12 Write brief notes on all the five (in about 20 words each) below :  5 × 2 = 10

(a) Copyright and Trade-mark

Answer: Copyright is a form of intellectual property which gives the creator of an original work of authorship exclusive rights to control its distribution for a certain time period.A trademark is a type of intellectual property, and typically a name, word, phrase, logo, symbol, design, image, or a combination of these elements.


Answer: TIFAC, an autonomous organisation under Department of Science and Technology chaired by Dr. R. Chidambaram, aims to keep a technology watch on global trends arid formulating preferred technology options for India.

(c) Aspartame

Answer: Aspartame or APM is the name for an artificial, non-saccharide sweetener, aspartyl- phenylalanine-l-methyl ester, that is, a methyl ester of the dipeptide of the amino acids aspartic acid and phenylalanine.

(d) Gene doping

Answer: Gene doping is defined by the World Anti-Doping Agency as “the non-therapeutic use of cells, genes, genetic elements, or of the modulation of gene expression, having the capacity to improve athletic performance”.

(d) Sappan

Answer: SAPPAN WOOD or East Indian red wood is a multipurpose tree. It is botanically known as Caesalpitiia Sappan L.It is a natural dye yielding medicinal plant. In India it is cultivated in parts of Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and West Bengal.

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