Time Allowed : Three Hours      Maximum Marks : 300

Candidates should attempt All questions strictly in accordance with the instructions given under each question.

Q. 1 Critically analyse any two of the following statements with reference to the contexts in which they were made (in about 150 words each):         15 × 2 = 30

(a) “Many Englishmen honestly consider themselves the trustees for India and yet to what a condition they have reduced our country.”

Important Points for Answer:

British rule

Economic exploitation

Trusteeship theory

Effect on India

Answer: This statement shows that the Britishers have exploited India economically for the benefit of Britain. The rule of British has reduced Indian economic condition to a worse situation.

This statement is similar to ‘Drain of Wealth’ theory of Dada Bhai Naoroji. Earlier Dada Bhai Naoroji and R. C. Dutt had exposed that British imperialism has phases of economic exploitation of India.

Gandhi believed in trusteeship theory. According to that theory, British government was trustee of people of India and so it should govern India in such a way as may result in most beneficial to India.

But this theory was proved wrong as it could clearly be seen that Britishers have not acted in good faith for India’s benefit.

They at the time of British East India Company, used the monopoly status to get trade benefits. During 1765 to 1857, it used its position to dictate terms to rulers to maximise its income from revenue. Later-on, after 1857, industrialist and capitalist phase exploited India.

(b) “The foreign power will be withdrawn but for me real freedom will come only when we free ourselves of the dominance of western education, western culture and the western way of living which have been ingrained in us.”

Important Points for Answer:

British rule

British Impact

India’s position

Dominance of British


Answer: This statement is similar to Gandhian thoughts expressed in various works of Gandhi and especially in ‘Hind Swaraj’.

Gandhi said that freedom or Swaraj does not mean just release from foreign rule. He said that dependency on britishers is real symbol of rule. Western influence and dominance in the spheres of education, culture and way of living was condemned by him.

He said that freedom or swaraj is to be achieved by every individual for himself. Unless such freedom from western dominance is achieved, India will not become free in real sense, even though britishers would leave the country.

Therefore, promoting our cultural values, respecting them and using them was essential. Education system followed in ancient India was better and that should be adopted according to him.

He opposed the british way of living followed by many IndiAns.

So, not only political authority that rules India but in other spheres also, where India could have been free, India is ruled by British.

(c) “Satan cannot enter till he finds a flaw A great ocean separates us educated few from the millions in our country.”

Important Points for Answer:

Divide between educated and uneducated

Political ideology



Answer: During the time of movement for freedom against british government, there arose differences among two groups of politicians. One group was of the view that only educated people are able to lead and participate in political process.

But other group believed that the movement should spread to even rural uneducated people. They had faith in ability of mass to participate in the freedom struggle.

The difference of attitude led to the partition in Congress also in 1907 Surat session. The same reason is the basis of this statement which identifies some reasons and evils that separated educated few from the millions in the country.

But it was really the support of villagers – uneducated people which made the movement successful and in a real sense a national movement.

Later on, Gandhi used the power of villagers and women in spreading the movement to every corner of India.

Q. 2 Write about the following (not exceeding 20 words each) :    2 × 10 = 20

(a)          Kiang Nongbah      

(b)          Maski

(c)          Govind Guru

(d)          ‘Brahmadeya’

(e)          ‘Egmore Faction’   

(f) Haileybury College

(g)          Ijara System

(h)          Taji Mideren

(i) Gurudwara Reform Movement   

(j) ‘Marumakkathayam’

Answer: (a) Kiang Nongbah : He was the leader of the Jaintiya Rebellion of 1862. He was betrayed, captured and hanged by Britishers. He was also known as U Kiang Nongbah. Cause of rebellion was income tax and house tax.

(b) Maski : A minor rock-edict by King Ashoka was found at Maski in Karnataka. This discovery of 1919 clearly established that “Ashoka” and “Devanaampriyadass” was same king.

(c) Govind Guru : He was the founder of Samp Sabha. Under his leadership, in 1908, Bhil tribals, dalits and other people revolted against British rule and feudal Indian princes.

(d) ‘Brahmadeya’ : It was a land grant given to Brahmanas. It was non-taxable land. Village settlements in such land was dedicated for Brahmana’s upkeep so as to enable them for their usual works.

(e) ‘Egmore Faction’ : It was a mixed group of Brahmins and non-Brahmin professionals, including T. M. Nair. This group came into existence as an opposition to Brahmin dominated Mylapore Clique of justice party of moderates.

(f) Haileybury College : A college based in Hertford, UK was imparting education and learning to English youths for civil services in East India Company. It selected Indian Civil Servants by competitive examination for East India Company till 1958.

(g) Ijara System : It roughly means lease system. During Mughal period, Ijara or lease of land was given to contractors for administrative purposes. Ijaredars had right of revenue collection.

(h) Taji Mideren : He led the people in revolt against expansion of British rule in Arunachal Pradesh area. He organised his Mishmi followers to establish Mishmi Confederacy. He was finally imprisoned and died in prison.

(i) Gurudwara Reform Movement : Gurudwara Reform or Akali movement started in 1920s. It was a movement against corrupt Mahants of gurudwaras. Finally Shiromani Gurudwara Prabandhak Committee was established to administer Gurudwaras.

(j) ‘Marumakkathayam’ : It is a non-conjugal relation practiced in Kerala. It is mainly prevalent in Nair community. Aim was progeny. Women enjoyed respect and prestige.

Q. 3 Answer any four of the following (in about 150 words each) :          15 × 4 = 60

(a) Assess the significance of coastal regions in the economic development in India.

Important Points for Answer:

Area of coastal region

Foreign trade


Industries and Handicrafts


A mid-way destination


Answer: India has about 7516 km long coastline, including two island groups. Nine states have sea coast. There are many ports – minor as well as major.

About 90% of our foreign trade by volume and nearly 70% by value is carried out through sea route.

The coastal zone supports about one-fourth of our total population. It also provides economic activities like fishing, salt-farming, handicrafts based on coastal materials likes and, rocks, etc.

The sea-coast also helps India in security. Three boundaries are covered by sea. India’s strategic location in sea is helpful. India is one mid-journey destination for ships travelling in Indian Ocean. India gets earning from such visiting ships.

India’s Exclusive Economic Zone area constitutes about 2 million sq. km. This area gives economical benefits in terms of marine resources like minerals, vegetation and aqua-life, Fishing and oil – exploration are very beneficial activities supported by coastal area. Bombay High Oil fields account for more than 15% of nation’s total petroleum output.

Global warming and rising sea-level is a threat to coastal benefits.

(b) Discuss the wetlands and their role in ecological conservation in India.

Important Points for Answer:

Meaning of Wetland



Steps taken for conservation


Answer: Wetland is an area with high water content in the soil. It may be covered with shallow water. Water may be fresh, brackish or salt water.

Wetland accounts for about 18% of India’s total geographical area. Wetland helps in ecological conservation in following ways :

Provides habitation to a large number of species of flora and fauna.

Helps in conservation of endangered species.

Provides nesting home to marine animals and fishes.

Prevents spread of salty water and thus helps in conservation of fertile soil.

Trees in such area are of hard-wood, so can be useful in making of furniture etc.

Woods of the trees in wetland are prone to saline water, so can be used in boat-making.

Residues of ecosystem are useful manure for increasing soil productivity.

India has identified some wetlands for conservation under the National Wetlands Conservation Programme. India is a signatory to Ramsar Convention on Wetlands. It is an inter-governmental convention on wetland conservation adopted in 1972.

The wetlands are productive ecosystem, helpful in biodiversity conservation, providing shelter to rare and endangered species, act as a carbon sink and a source of water.

(c) Elaborate the steps taken by the Government for regionally differentiated approach to increase crop production and diversification in the country.

Important Points for Answer:


Importance in Economy

Regionally differentiated approach

Policies and Schemes

Answer: Agriculture is an important area for India’s economic growth. To achieve double-digit growth rate, agriculture must grow at 4% per annum. So, eleventh plan set the target of 4% agricultural growth.

It is accepted by the authority that to achieve a sustainable growth in agriculture, spread of technology and benefits to all parts of India is necessary.

The Green Revolution was concentrated only in a part of India and on cereal crops only. But now it is identified that other regions are to be covered under some area specific schemes.

National Food Security Mission targets to increase production of rice, wheat and pulses by 10, 8 and 2 million tons respectively.

There are micro-irrigation schemes for dry areas. There are area specific approach in all insurance and credit schemes.

Soil health management is also concerned on testing of soil and providing required categories and quantities of fertilizers.

Crops are also promoted on the basis of climate and soil conditions.

(d) Bring out the significance of the various activities of the Indian Meteorological Department.

Important Points for Answer:





Answer: Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) was established in 1875. It is the principal organisation to study meteorology, seismology and allied subjects.

It provides information regarding weather conditions. It issues warning against severe weather conditions like cyclone, dust storm, heavy rainfall, cold and heat waves. The department records earthquakes and conducts research.

Information provided by IMD is useful for general public to know about the weather forecast. It is vital for fishermen, civil aviation activities and farmers. IMD has high power radars and uses satellite system also.

IMD participates in various international research which studies monsoon mechanism. Various forecasting helps farmers to plan their agricultural activities. IMD has installed many digital receivers on east and west coast to disseminate information on cyclone and other oceanic phenomena.

It helps in creating awareness about importance of climate and weather in life and economy of India. IMD has certainly played vital role in India.

(e) Examine the status of urbanization among the states in India and bring out spatial inequalities.

Important Points for Answer:


Indian Status

State wise difference



Answer: Urbanisation has grown in India in last some years. Yet India is not one of the most urbanized countries in the world. According to 2001 Census, only about 28% of Indians live in urban areas.

Some states like Kerala, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Gujarat and West Bengal have more urbanization, averaging more than 38%. But on the contrary states like Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Orissa, Jharkhand, Himachal Pradesh, etc. have hardly 17% of population living in urban areas. National Capital Territory of Delhi has 93% urbanization while Chandigarh has 84% urbanization.

There are some mega cities, metrocities and other small cities and towns in $tates. Even in a single state, density and population in various regions are not equally distributed. People in various parts of India get uneven urban facilities. Sex ratio, literacy and other demographic parameters among urban areas is also unevenly developed.

Industrialisation, agricultural development, education, health and other social amenities are some of the reasons behind spatial inequalities in urbanization among states.

Q. 4 Write about the following (not exceeding 30 words each):     3 × 10 = 30


(a) ‘bhuvan’ website : It is a geo-portal of ISRO. It can take images of the earth with upto 10 mt. resolution. It can provide images of earlier date also. It will compete with Google Earth. It was launched in August, 2009.

(b) National Waterways : National Waterways are in big rivers like Ganga, Brahmaputra and others. Total length is 2716 kms. The longest is Allahabad-Haldia, National Waterway-I. It will be operational from March 2010.

(c) Ultra Mega Power Projects : It is a project with 4000 MW capacity. The centre has taken initiative to generate low cost, clean electricity. Some UMPPs are started in Public Private Partnership. Reliance, Tata, etc., are constructing UMPPs. Some sites are Tilaiya in Jharkhand, Mundra in Gujarat, etc.

(d) NNRMS : It is National Natural Resource Management System, established in 1983. Its headquarter is at ISRO, Bangalore. Department of Space is nodal agency for implementation of NNRMS. Aim is to utilize expertise in space science and technology in management and development of natural resources.

(e) BSUP Scheme : It is a Basic Scheme for Urban Poor. It is a sub-mission under Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNRM). It includes housing, water, sanitation, drainage and other basic facilities in urban areas. Urban infrastructure and social amenities are covered under BSUP.

(f) GAGAN Project : It is a GPS Aided Geo Augmented Navigation. It is an indigenous GPS based satellite navigation system. It helps in locating an object. It can be useful in air, sea and land exploration. It can be used by civil or military purposes. GLONASS, GALILEO are such projects at international level.

(g) Fruit Production in India : India produces about 10% of world’s total fruit production. In mango, banana, sapota and acid lime fruits, India leads the world. Tropical, subtropical and deciduous fruits are produced in India. Himachal Pradesh leads all states in apple production.

(h) Section 377 of IPC : The Delhi High Court decriminalised consensual sexual acts of adults in private even though being against the course of nature. Section 377 penalises unnatural sexual intercourse. It is just decriminalised and not legalised. There was an appeal to the Supreme Court of India.

(i) ‘Whereabouts’ clause of WADA : It requires players to inform WADA of their where abouts even during off-season of sports. Indian cricketers raised opposition citing privacy and security concerns. It is mainly aimed at random checking of sports persons to tackle the problem of doping.

(j) Barren Island : It is situated 135 km. east of Port Blair. It is only active volcano in the Indian sub-continent. There is no habitation. Only some species of flora and fauna are found on this barren island. Rats, flying foxes, bats, crabs, birds etc. live on this island.

Q. 5 Answer any two of the following (in about 100 words each) : 10 × 2 = 20

(a) Analyse India’s achievement in the sports sector during 2008-09.

Important Points for Answer:

Sports 2008


Tennis, Cricket, Badminton, Others

Answer: In Olympic 2008 : India won total three medals, one gold and two bronze. Abhinav Bindra became the first Indian to win gold in 10-metre air rifle event. Boxer Vijender Singh and wrestler Sushil Kumar won bronze medals.

In cricket: IPL was inaugurated with eight teams in April, 2008. India won Commonwealth Bank tri-series in Australia after 41 years.

In tennis : Sania Mirza and Mahesh Bhupathi became first Indian pair to win a mixed doubles grand slam in Australian Open. Yuki Bhambri became first junior to win Australian junior title.

In Badminton : Saina Nehwal became first Indian to win the super series in Indonesian Open. She also became first Indian to enter into top-ten ranking in the world.

Others : Pankaj Advani in Snooker, M. C. Mary Kom in Women’s boxing, Vishwanathan Anand in Chess and football team in Nehru cup won titles.

(b) List the salient features of the important folk dances of either Central India or North Eastern India.

Important Points for Answer:

Dances – Naga, Bihu, Thang-Ja, Nangkrem, Hajgiri


Answer: Salient features of North-Eastern Indian folk dances:

Naga dances :

They are performed during harvest seasons.

There are many movements of legs but comparatively there is little use of upper body parts like shoulders and torso.

Bihu dance :

That is performed in Assam in mid-April, i.e. during harvesting seasons.

It is a group dance of young men and women on the tunes of drums and pipes.

Dance is accompanied with love songs.

Thang – ta and Dhol – Cholom Dance :

It is evolved from martial arts exercises. This is a folk dance of Manipur.

This dance uses swords and shields. Drum is extensively used as musical instrument.

Nangkrem Dance :

It is performed in Meghalaya during autumn. It uses gestures of animals and birds.

Hajgiri Dance :

This dance is performed to appease goddess Lakshmi in Tripura.

(c) What are the important similarities and differences between the Hindustani and the Carnatic styles of classical music ?

Important Points for Answer:

Carnatic Music

Hindustani Music



Answer: Carnatic music is associated with the southern part of India. Hindustani music is associated with North India and is deeply influenced by Persian and Islamic music systems.


Basic elements of swara, raga and tala as foundation of both are same.

Both musics have great association with religion. Samaveda and Rigveda are basic books for both of these forms of music.

Both have evolved from Sanskrit language scripts.

Differences :

Main emphasis in carnatic music is on vocal music and most compositions are to be sung, involving gayaki style. In Hindustani music vocal – centric music group is required. Many instruments are designed to accompany the singer.

Origin of Hindustani is earlier than Carnatic. It synthesis with vedic chants, islamic traditions and persian Musiqu – e – Assil style. Carnatic is comparatively pure and was developed in 15th-16th century during Bhakti movement and also get boost in 19th- 20th century.

Q. 6 Answer any two of the following (in about 150 words each) : 15 × 2 = 30

(a) What are your views on the features and impact of the Domestic Violence Act, 2005 ?

Important Points for Answer:


Main Provisions



Answer: Domestic Violence Act-2005 has enlarged the sphere of protection given to women in their domestic relationship. The Act covers even verbal abuse and threat under the definition of violence. So, physical and actual violence is not required to be proved by women complaint. Relationship required by this act can be of marital or other nature. Even live-in partners, brother-sister and paternal relationships are covered under this act.

The act shifts the onus to prove innocence on the part of the perpetrator of violence. The person who is convicted under this act may be imprisoned. Even during imprisonment, he may be obliged to provide shelter and food to the dependent woman.

Persons may be prevented from entering into certain limits of area where the victim resides so that the safety of victim can be effectively ensured.

Special investigation officers are appointed under this act. There will be women-cell in police station.

All these provisions will actually reduce and gradually eliminate domestic violence. But remedy lies in creating proper awareness and social cohesion apart from ensuring strict implementation of provisions of the act.

(b) Are the traditional determinants of voting behaviour in India changing ? Examine in the context of the last General Elections.

Important Points for Answer:

Election 2009

Political Condition

Voting Behaviour



Answer: The last general election was held in April 2009. This election has somewhat broken traditional beliefs in India’s voting behaviour.

Uneducated people are voting more in number rather than educated one. Also one thing that is seen as constant is that rural India is coming out for voting but urban, people are less enthusiastic for election.

But the change that is drastic and most important is high percentage of voting in naxal affected areas. This somehow proves that people are to find out solution of their grievances in political methods and not through naxalism.

Caste based and religion based politics has got worse result. People have defeated such parties badly. Same is the fate of regional parties.

Leaders’ one – time visit for votes in their constituencies are not accepted by people in many areas and they have even not voted for long term ruling candidates.

Anti-incumbency factor of election is termed to be wrong and Indians have voted for consistency in ruling. Factor of multi-party government is reduced as single party Congress (I) getting many seats, so as to reduce its dependency upon other small parties.

(c) Examine corruption as a serious development challenge in Indian Polity.

Important Points for Answer:


Indian Position






Answer: India is showing downward movement in Corruption Perception Index of Transparency International.

Corruption has increased in India in last years and all efforts to tackle this curse have failed badly. Recently even Dr. Manmohan Singh has to accept Corruption as a major challenge in Indian polity.

In a Conference, Law Minister Mr. Veerappa Moily has emphasised for amendment of the Prevention of Corruption Act -1988 and to widen its coverage. Some provisions of IPC – 1860 are also identified for amendment. To effectively deal with corruption, Article 310 and Article 311 of the Constitution need to be amended, as remarked by Indian Home Minister P. Chidambaram.

Not only in bureaucracy but mainly in political establishments, the corruption has strong roots. Helped and promoted by individuals and groups interests, corporate field has also shown rampant corruption. Scam in Satyam Computers is an example of it.

Criminalisation of politics and politicisation of crimes are due to maximisation of corruption in systems of Indian polity and governance.

Q. 7 Answer any two of the following (in about 150 words):         15 × 2 = 30

(a) Mushrooming of Higher Educational Institutions was a matter of grave concern for Yashpal Committee. With reference to the relevant portion of that report give your views how to harmonise private investment and quality of education.

Important Points for Answer:





Private Management


Answer: Yashpal Committee was constituted to give its report on conditions of higher education in country. It concerned with the “mushrooming of higher educational institutions” in India.

It observed that deemed university status has been given without concerning quality and necessity. It expressed great worry about monetization on education.

The Committee recommended the creation of a National Commission for higher education and research. It also advocated creation of a Higher Education Council.

It posed private management running educational institutes as profit making enterprises. It accepted need for private investment educating India. But it favoured public-private partnership.

On entry of foreign universities, the Committee gave warning signal. While allowing private investment, government should undertake the mentor-cum-trustee’s role.

Thus, the Committee report on the one hand does not reject need for private investment in education but on the other hand, recommended great care and circumspection in this area.

(b) In the changing context of governance in the country, what should be the role of the UPSC?

Important Points for Answer:



Role & Functions



Answer: UPSC is the highest Public Service Commission for recruitment to services under the Union.

Provisions for UPSC are given from Article 313 to 323 of the Constitution. UPSC makes recommendations for appointment to services and it is also consulted on all disciplinary matters regarding higher services.

Today the governance demands more active role from UPSC. It is a body which has proven its capabilities. Its role should not be limited to appointment related recommendation. It should be given supervisory authority over performance of services under union.

It should be an active suggestion making body for other state PCS. UPSC should also be a transparent body which can be relied upon by people.

UPSC should be consulted on recruitment to other Central Organisations like ISRO, CSIR, etc.

Recommendations of UPSC should be made compulsory for Government. Only in an exceptional case, which should be informed in writing, its recommendations could be ignored.

(c) In the context of recent incidents, suggest measures on how security of passengers and property can be improved over Indian Railways.

Important Points for Answer:

Indian Railway

Safety and Security



Answer: Indian Railway is one of the largest railway network of the world. There are many instances of railway accidents, insecurity of passengers and property in recent times.

Many criminal elements are nurtured in railway premises. Effective Railway Police System can make railway premises crime free. There should be no incidences of pick-pocketing, looting or theft in that areas.

Recently naxalites blown up railway track in Jharkhand. This should be prevented. Railway signals should be installed with CCTV Camera on them with a long distance visual capabilities. Nearest railway stations can be equipped with monitors.

Railway guards should be provided with effective communication system. Work of RPF should be effective to deal with all threats to railway security.

Recommendations of Khanna Committee on minimization of human errors in accidents can be taken seriously. ACDs (Anti – Collision Devices) installed on Konkan Railway can be expanded on whole Indian Railway track to avoid accidents.

Q. 8 Answer any one of the following (in about 250 words) :        30

(a) Comment on the salient features of the Integrated Energy Policy recently approved by the Government and its implications on the energy security needs of the country.

Important Points for Answer:



Energy requirements

Energy Security


Answer: India recently adopted the Integrated Energy Policy. This is a comprehensive policy on energy for India.

The policy envisages a competitive energy market and market-determined energy pricing. Today the price is decided by the government and which increases burden on public sector oil companies. To reduce this burden a policy is formed.

Allocation of energy resources shall be based on competition. This policy of pricing and allocation will reduce amount of POL subsidies and thus bring down fiscal deficit.

Though there will be subsidies, but they will be based on transparent and target oriented system. Policy seeks to reduce black-marketing of subsidised petroleum products.

The policy seeks optimal exploitation of domestic energy resources and also vigorous exploration and acquisition of energy assets abroad, so that energy security can be attained effectively.

The policy aims to meet energy demands of all sectors. Therefore, not only production of energy will be increased but also its transfer will be made cost-effective. Consideration of environment is also taken into account.

The Integrated Energy Policy is formed under the expert panel of Planning Commission. The IEP was need of the hour because if India wants to continue its economic growth trajectory at high rate, it must have sufficient energy sources to meet demands of economic as well as non-economic activities.

Again, according to the IEP, energy should be sustainable and reasonably cost-effective.

(b) How far has the impact of the global meltdown been reflected in the Economic Survey 2008 – 09 ? Identify some of the core areas given priority to neutralise the adverse effects of the global downturn.

Important Points for Answer:

Global Meltdown

Impact on India Economy

Points from Economic Survey

Answer: The Economic Survey 2008-09 clearly reflects the effect of global meltdown. The GDP growth of India decelerated in 2008-09 to 6.7 %. It is a 2.1 percent decline from the average growth rate of 8.8 % in the previous 5 years (2003-04 to 2007 -08).

There was a sharp rise in Wholesale Price Index (WPI) inflation followed by an equally sharp fall.

Per capita GDP growth in 2008-09 was estimated at 4.6%. The Ratio of fixed investment to GDP increased to 32.2% of GDP in 2008-09.

According to Economic Survey, performance of six core industries comprising :

1. Crude oil, 2. Petroleum – refinery products, 3. Coal, 4. Electricity, 5. Cement, and 6. Finished steel grew only at 2.7% as compared to 5.9% in 2007 -08.

The Economic Survey identifies adverse effect on export due to (1) drying up of international financial and trade credit and (2) fall in global demand.

There was growth in export which was robust till August 2008, which was dip in September 2008 and that went negative in October 2008 and remained negative till end of financial year.

For 2008-09, overall import growth was subdued at 14.4% in dollar terms and import growth began to decline in October 2008 which remained negative during January 2009 to March 2009.

The Economic Survey also indicates that the impact of global melt-down was less witnessed by India in Gross Capital Formation which increased to 39.1% of the GDP in 2007-08.

Thus, the global meltdown has impacted Indian Economy at the end of financial year but its resilient ability is also proved by maintained growth rate and attraction of FDI in India.

The government took some steps to reduce effect of financial crunch. In India, investment was better in the first and second quarter of 2008-09 as India witnessed ‘positive shock’ and ‘decoupling effect’ during the period.

Q. 9 Answer any two of the following (in about 150 words each) : 15 × 2 = 30

(a) Trace the significant steps in the evolution of Television in the country.

Important Points for Answer:






Answer: In 2009, Doordarshan celebrated 50th anniversary of Television of India. It was started in 1959 with USA assistance. It was a black and white telecasting.

With 1982 ASIAD Games, the television broadcasting became colourful. It has transformed the world of entertainment and information in India. Now television has reached to even remote areas.

The INSAT satellite system is being used for TV broadcasting. Earlier it was covering only Indian sub-continent. Then it covered South – Asian region. But with Ku – band, there is a great television revolution.

Direct to Home (DTH) is the latest mode of digitally compressed signals bringing television to us. IPTV is internet protocol based TV. This new technology is yet to be launched in India.

It is not only state-run Doordarshan but there are more than 500 local channels in India. Gyandarshan is a channel run by IGNOU for educational purpose. Similarly, Eklavya is another channel dedicated to technical education only.

This is a high growth trajectory of Indian television.

(b) The last National Family Health Survey (NFHS) displayed a very dismal picture of nutrition as regards several indicators for average Indians. Highlight the salient aspects of this problem.

Important Points for Answer:



Condition of India


Answer: Third National Family Health Survey was published recently. This report presents a comprehensive picture of India’s health indicators. It reveals problems of mal – nourishment and under nourishment in India.

It reveals the following aspects

India is home of largest number of children suffering from malnourishment, which constitutes about 115 million.

It shows that calorie intake criteria of BPL family in India does not properly reveal the real picture.

More than three-fourth of Indian females are severely anaemic.

Of every five children born in India, two have less than 10% chances to live.

There is severe lack of micro – nutrient in Indian food habits.

There is no proper awareness about food – intake even among urban educated class of people.

Proper calorie planning in food is lacking in India.

(c) ‘As we live in a plural society we need the greatest freedom to express our opinions even if others find it offensive’ – Do you agree? Discuss with reference to some recent incidents in the Indian context.

Important Points for Answer:

Freedom of Speech

Right to Reputation



Answer: Recently, there are several incidents in India which has raised the issue of balance between freedom of speech and expression on the one hand and right to reputation on the other.

Recently published book on Jinnah and Indian Partition by Jaswant Singh has raised the issue. Little before that there were some problems by a speech of Varun Gandhi which raised some communal issues. Even before that, media crossed its limit by helding Dr. Talwar guilty of his daughter even before any judgement of courts.

All these incidents are based on freedom of speech and expression given as a Fundamental Right in Indian Constitution Article 19(1)(a). But there are certain limitations on this right mentioned in Art. 19(2) itself.

The right to express opinion cannot run a riot. It cannot go so as to violet the feelings of others without reasonable grounds.

Though in a plural society like India, this right is required and a person should be allowed to express his opinion but certain limit is also necessary to maintain balance between private and public interest.

Q. 10 Write on the following (in about 20 words each) :     2 × 10 = 20

(a)      Significance of 26th November in the country’s polity

(b) Desert National Park   

(c) Rajiv Gandhi Seva Kendra

(d)      Deep Joshi’s recent achievement        

(e) Girni Kamgar Union

(f)       Ayush-64    

(g) Rashtriya Gramin Vikas Nidhi (RGVN)

(h)      Satya Vrat Shastri’s recent achievement

(i)       Pocket Veto 

(j) PES A, 1996

Answer: (a) On the 26th November, 1949 our constituent assembly adopted the Constitution of India. On this day the Supreme Law of the land came into existence which was enforced on 26th January, 1950.

(b) It is situated in Jaiselmer, Rajasthan. It is home to the great Indian Bustard. It is rich in fauna. Desert ecosystem can be studied in this park. In Thar Desert National Park Blackburn, Chinkara, Wolf, Indian fox and some other animals are also found.

(c) It is proposed mini – secretariat for NREG A, at Panchayat level. It will keep records of NREGA implementation. Each Kendra will be a forum for discussion on the scheme and will be built as NREGA project.

(d) He is the co-founder of PRADAN, an NGO. He won the Magsaysay award – 2009. He advises government on poverty alleviation. He is a social worker.

(e) It was established in 1928 by S. A. Dange and others. It was a labour union which striked in 1928 and 1929. Kranti was a marathi journal, mouth piece of the Union. S.A. Dange and others were arrested for their role in strike.

(f) It is an anti-malarial drug developed by NRDC. It is prepared from four indigenously available herbs. Clinical trials have been completed for the drug.

(g) It was floated by IFCI and later on joined by NABARD, IDBI and Tata Social Welfare Trust. It is to focus on North Eastern India. Its headquarter is in Guwahati. Its activities are extended to Eastern India also.

(h) He became the first Sanskrit poet to win the Jnanpith award. He has been visiting Professor in Six Universities on three continents.

(i) This type of veto can be used by the President of India. In it, the President withholds the bill and does neither assent it nor return it. There is no express provision of veto power in India.

(j) It is Panchayats (Extension to the Scheduled Areas) Act – 1996. This act was related to expansion and regulation of Panchayati Raj System in Scheduled Areas also, as mentioned in clause (1) of Article 244.

Don’t miss new articles