Time Allowed : Three Hours      Maximum Marks : 250

Instructions: There are TWENTY FIVE questions printed both in English and Hindi. All questions are compulsory. The number of marks carried by a question/part is indicated against it. Answers must be written in the medium authorised in the Admission Certificate which must be stated clearly on the cover of this Question-cum-Answer (QCA) Booklet in the space provided. No marks will be given for answers written in medium other than the authorised one.

Word limit in questions, if specified, should be adhered to.

Any page or portion of the page left blank in the Question-cum-Answer Booklet must be clearly struck off.

Answer questions in NOT MORE THAN the word limit specified for each in the parenthesis. Content of the answer is more important than length.

1. Though not very useful from the point of view of a connected political history of South India, the Sangam literature portrays the social and economic conditions of its time with remarkable vividness. Comment. (200 words)          10

Important Points for Answer:

Sangam Literature

Description of Social & Economic conditions

Answer: Sangam literature is a body of classical Tamil literature which was composed in the period between the years c. 600 BCE to 300 CE, which is also known as the Sangam Period. This collection of Sangam Literature contains 2381 poems which are composed by 473 poets. However, about 102 of these poems are anonymous.

The poems belonging to the Sangam literature were composed by Tamil poets, both men and women, from various professions and classes of society. Sangam literature is primarily secular dealing with everyday themes in a Tamilakam context.

The literature does not depict political scenario of the time to noticeable extent but mainly deals with emotional and material topics such as love, war, governance, trade and bereavement of the contemporary society of the time.

Sangam Literature consists of  ‘inner field’ and ‘outer field’. The ‘inner field’ topics refer to personal or human aspects, such as love and sexual relationships, and are dealt with in a metaphorical and abstract manner. It also serves as educational literature for human nature.

The ‘outer field’ topics discuss all other aspects of human experience such as heroism, valour, ethics, benevolence, philanthropy, social life, and customs. It is in outer field that it covers social customs and traditions, giving remarkable vividness of social and economic condition of the time. (Total 215 words)

2. (a) Discuss the ‘Tandava’ dance as recorded in early Indian inscriptions. (100 words)  5

Answer: Tandava is a divine dance performed by the Hindu God Shiva, considered to be the source of the cycle of creation, preservation and dissolution.

The Rudra Tandava depicts his violent nature, first as the creator and later as the destroyer of the universe, even of death itself.

In Shaiva Siddhanta tradition, Shiva as Nataraja, „Lord of dance“, is considered the supreme lord of dance.The Ananda Tandava depicts Shiva as enjoying.

The Tandava name is derived from Tandu, the attendant of Shiva, who instructed Bharata, author of the Natya Shastra, in the use of Angaharas and Karanas, modes of the Tandava at Shiva‘s order.    (Total 104 words)

(b) Chola architecture represents a high watermark in the evolution of temple architecture. Discuss (100 words)        5

Answer: The period of Cholas (850 – 1250 CE) was an age of continuous improvement and refinement of the Dravidian art and architecture. They built stone temples and exquisite bronze sculptures.

Airavatesvara Temple was built by Rajaraja Chola II in the 12th century CE which is a magnificent Hindu temple of Dravidian architecture in Tamil Nadu.

The Great Living Chola Temples include the Brihadisvara temple at Thanjavur, the Temple of Gangaikondacholisvaram and the Airavatesvara Temple at Darasuram. The Brihadisvara Temple was declared by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site in 1987. The other two were added as extensions to the site in 2004, now known as the „Great Living Chola Temples”. (Total 109 words)

3. Defying the barriers of age, gender and religion, the Indian women became the torch- bearer during the struggle for freedom in India. Discuss. (200 words)          10

Important Points for Answer:

Indian Women in Freedom Struggle

Princely States

Constitutional Movements

Young Women

Foreign Women

Answer: In the Indian Freedom Struggle, contribution of Indian women is remarkable. In the fights against British conquest of Indian princely states Indian women fought bravely against British army. Rani Laxmibai of Jhansi and Begum Hazrat Mahal were prominent among them.

Later in the period of Satyagraha, Civil Disobedience and other types of constitutional movements Indian women joined enthusiastically and contributed immensely. Kasturba Gandhi, Swarup Rani Nehru, Kamala Nehru, Sarojini Naidu, Vijaya Laxmi Pandit and Sucheta Kripalani participated in Gandhi’s various programmes for freedom.

Madam Bhikhaji Cama was an active member of Congress who led various movements against the British rule.

Sister Nivedita, an Irish lady played very important role in religious and educational upliftment of Indian women who in turn became active in the freedom struggle.

Padmaja Naidu, a young lady participated in freedom struggle while Indira Gandhi raised a children’s army called Vanar Sena to fight against British.

These women had diverse social and educational background and hailed from different parts of India and world.

The programme of self-imposed poverty and periodical jail going was possible only because of the willing co-operation of the worker’s family.

Illiterate women from rural areas also played role by participating in boycott and picketing movement.

Home Rule Movement by Annie Besant was very successful. (Total 213 words)

4. Several foreigners made India their homeland and participated in various movements. Analyse their role in the Indian struggle for freedom. (200 words)10

Important Points for Answer:

Foreigners in Indian Freedom Struggle

Their contribution

Answer: During the National Movement, many foreigners also participated for the freedom of India. They included Annie Besant, Charles Freer Andrews, Sister Nivedita, Madeleine Slade, Samuel Evans Stokes Jr. etc.

Annie Besant was a theosophist, socialist, orator, activist and writer who came to India as a part of the Theosophical Societyand afterwards became a patron of Indian self-rule. She demanded a self rule for India and set up the Home Rule League.

Charles Freer «Dinabandhu» Andrews came to India as a Missionary Philanthropist but soon became a part of the social and political movements and worked for the causes of the labourers, railway workers, untouchables and other such downtrodden people.

Madeleine Slade, influenced by Gandhi, began a simple life at the Sabarmati Ashram and even took part in all the Gandhi’s socio-political struggles in India and promoted Khadi and Satyagraha.

Samuel Evans Stokes Jr., known as Satyananda Stokes, was a wealthy American who championed the cases of the labourers in areas adjoining Shimla and fought relentlessly for their welfare. He was the sole foreigner and the sole American to sign the Congress Manifesto in 1921 and was also jailed on the charge of sedition.

There were many other foreigners who, directly or indirectly, contributed to the Indian freedom movement.           (Total 211 words)

5. “In many ways, Lord Dalhousie was the founder of modern India”. Elaborate (200 words)  10

Important Points for Answer:


His main policies

Contribution in modern India

Answer: Lord Dalhousie’s served as the Governor-General of India from 1848 to 1856. His work in the fields of communication, railways, roads, postal and telegraph services contributed to the modernization and unity of India. His notable achievement included creation of modern and centralized states.

Bengal, long ruled by the Governor-General or his delegate, was placed under its own Lieutenant-Governor in May 1854.

A department of public works was established in each presidency, and engineering colleges were established. An imperial system of telegraphs followed in the same period. The first link of railway communication was also completed in 1855.

The construction of massive irrigation works such as the 350-mile Gangas Canalcontaining thousands of miles of distributaries was a project, beneficial for the largely agricultural India, carried out during his time.

Lord Dalhousie also created an imperial system of post-offices, reducing the rates of carrying letters and introducing postage stamps. He created the department of public instruction; he improved the system of inspection of goals, and enlarged the Legislative Council of India.

He gave improved leave and pension rules for the Civil Servants and purified its moral by forbidding all share in trading corporations. Another consequential set of reforms, were those aimed at modernizing the land tenure and revenue system. (Total 213 words)

6. Critically discuss the objectives of Bhoodan and Gramdan movements initiated by Acharya Vinoba Bhave and their success. (200 words)10

Important Points for Answer:

Bhoodan Movement

Gramdan Movement


Answer: The initial objective of the Gramdan movement, started by Acharya Vinoba Bhave, was to secure voluntary donations of land and distribute it to the landless, but the movement soon came out with a demand of 1/6 share of land from all land owners.

In 1952, the movement had widened the concept of gramdan (village in gift) and had started advocating commercial ownership of land. The first village to come under gramdan was Mangroth in Hamirpur district of U.P.

The mission of the movement was to persuade wealthy landowners to voluntarily give a percentage of their land to the landless people. This land could not be sold.

The Government of various Provinces, passed Bhoodan Acts which generally stipulated that the beneficiary had no right to sell the land or use it for a non-agricultural purpose including forestry.

Initially genuine donors were coming forward. However, because the Bhoodan movement did no follow-up, the land thus gifted often wasresumed by the heirs of the donor.

Vinoba Bhave walked across India on foot, to persuade landowners to give up a piece of their land. He also wanted peasants to give up using bullocks or tractors or other machines for agricultural purposes, known as ‘rishikheti’. Bhave said that rural rich must participate in voluntary distribution of land. (Total 217 words)

7. Write a critical note on evolution and significance of the slogan ‘Jai Jawan Jai Kisan’. (200 words)    10

Important Points for Answer:

Jai Jawan – Defence

Jai Kisan – Agriculture

Jai Vigyan – Science

Answer:  Jai Jawan Jai Kisan was a slogan given to India by the Prime Minister of India LalBahadurShastri in 1965. It means‘Hail the Soldier, Hail the Farmer’.

Soon after Lal Bahadur Shastri took over the prime ministership of India after Nehru’s death, India was attacked by Pakistan. At the same time there was scarcity of food grains in the country. Shastri gave the slogan ‘Jai Jawan Jai Kisan’ to enthuse the soldiers to defend India and simultaneously cheering farmers to do their best to increase the production of food grains to reduce dependence on import.

India began its own Green Revolution program of plant breeding, irrigation development, and financing of agrochemicals. Similarly, Indian defence forces have also achieved commendable success in war and peace time.

It became a very popular slogan.After Pokaran tests in 1998 AtalBihari Vajpayee added ‘Jai Vigyan’ (Hail knowledge) to the slogan to underline the importance of knowledge in India’s progress.

Scientifically India has achieved success in various fields including space, IT, medical, engineering and other fields of technology.

Shri Lal Bahadur Shastri’s slogan Jai Jawan Jai Kisan reverberates even today through the length and breadth of the country. Underlying this is the inner-most sentiments ‘Jai Hindustan’.                                        (Total 205 words)

8. Discuss the contributions of Maulana Abul Kalam Azad to pre and post independent India. (200 words)10

Important Points for Answer:

Maulana Azad in Congress

Freedom Fighter

Independent India

Education Minister

Bharat Ratna

Answer:  Maulana Azad joined the Indian National Congress in January 1920 and extended support to Gandhi’s non-cooperation movement. He presided over the Special Session of Congress in September 1923 and was the youngest man elected as the President of the Congress.He was again elected as Congress President in 1940.

In 1928, Maulana Azad endorsed the Nehru Report, formulated by Motilal Nehru. Interestingly, the Motilal Nehru Report was severely criticised by number of Muslim personalities involved with the freedom movement.

Azad also advocated for the ending of separate electorates based on religion and called for a single nation committed to secularism. In 1930, Maulana Azad was arrested for violation of the salt laws as part of Gandhiji’s Salt Satyagraha. He was put in Meerut jail for a year and a half.

After partition, he helped in establishing the refugee camps and ensured uninterrupted supply of food and other basic materials.

He was appointed as India’s first Minister for Education and inducted in the Constituent Assembly to draft India’s constitution.

Under Maulana Azad’s tenure, a number of measures were undertaken to promote primary and secondary education, scientific education, establishment of universities and promotion of avenues of research and higher studies.

In February1958, MaulanaAbul Kalam Azad passed away. He was posthumously awarded, Bharat Ratnain 1992. (Total 216 words)

9. Analyze the circumstances that led to the Tashkent Agreement in 1966. Discuss the highlights of the Agreement. (200 words)        10

Important Points for Answer:

Circumstances for the Agreement

Main provisions of the Agreement

Reaction in India

Answer: The Tashkent Declaration of 10 January 1966 was a peace agreement between India and Pakistan after the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965.Peace had been achieved on 23 September by the intervention of the other big powers that pushed the two nations to a ceasefire for the fear that the conflict could escalate.

A meeting was held in Tashkent, Capital of the Uzbekistan, USSR beginning on 4 January 1966 to try to create a more permanent settlement.The Soviets moderated between Indian Prime Minister LalBahadurShastri and Pakistani President Muhammad Ayub Khan.

The declaration provided that Indian and Pakistani forces would pull back to their pre-conflict positions; both the nations would not interfere in each other’s internal affairs; economic and diplomatic relations would be restored; there would be an orderly transfer of prisoners of war; the two leaders would work towards improving bilateral relations.

The Tashkent conference, under United Nations, American and Soviet pressure, compelled India to give away the conquered region in Pakistan occupied national boundary ofIndia and the 1949 ceasefire line in Kashmir.

The agreement was criticized in India because it did not contain a no-war pact or any renunciation of guerrilla warfare in Kashmir. After signing the agreement, LalBahadurShastri died mysteriously at Tashkent. (Total 212 words)

10. Critically examine the compulsions which prompted India to play a decisive role in the emergence of Bangladesh. (200 words) 10

Important Points for Answer:

Atrocities on East Pakistan

Refugees in India

Mukti Bahini

Support to Bangladesh

Answer: The Pakistan army conducted widespread genocide against the Bengali population of East Pakistan. The atrocities were aimed at the minority Hindu population, leading to approximately 10 million people fleeing East Pakistan and taking refuge in the neighbouring Indian states.

The East Pakistan-India border was opened to allow refugees safe shelter in India. The governments of West Bengal, Bihar, Assam, Meghalaya and Tripura established refugee camps along the border. The resulting flood of impoverished East Pakistani refugees placed an intolerable strain on India’s already overburdened economy.

General Tikka Khan earned the nickname ‘Butcher of Bengal’ due to the widespread atrocities he committed.

The Indian government repeatedly appealed to the international community, but failing to elicit any response, Prime Minister Indira Gandhi on 27 March 1971 expressed full support of her government for the independence struggle of the people of East Pakistan.

The Indian leadership under Prime Minister Gandhi quickly decided that it was more effective to end the genocide by taking armed action against Pakistan than to simply give refuge to those who made it across to refugee camps.

Exiled East Pakistan army officers and members of the Indian Intelligence immediately started using these camps for recruitment and training of Mukti Bahini guerrillas. The Mukti Bahini Sena played important role in creation of Bangladesh. (Total 214 words)

11. “’Latecomer’ Industrial Revolution in Japan involved certain factors that were markedlydifferent from what West had experienced.” Analyze. (200 words)          10

Important Points for Answer:

Industrialisation of Japan


Comparison with West

Effects on Society

Answer: Japan avoided falling under Western economic control during the nineteenth century. Unlike western countries where industrialisation was led by capitalists, Japan heavily dependent on the government to assume much of the burden of the needed capital. Japan faced heavy pressure in the nineteenth century.Japan did industrialise without sacrificing the distinctive character of its society, unlike the social changes faced by Western countries.

The Meiji emperor initiated a series of reforms that abolished feudalism. He established a centralised government. The reforms also promoted industrialisation. The government played a key role in industrial development, building the railroad network and operating mines, shipyards, and heavy industry, while private initiatives dominated in the textile industry.

Industrialisation changed the social structure as the new business elite was drawn from all classes, ranging from former samurais to wealthy peasants, but did not divide the society into labourers and industrialists like Western countries.Despite industrialisation, Japan retained many of its traditional characteristics, including the Shinto religion and the inferior position of women.

By 1900, Japan was an industrial power and the success of Japanese industrialisation surprised the world. But produced great stress in Japanese society, which threatened revolution. Japanese leaders turned to nationalism, devotion to the emperor, and police repression as an antidote to insecurity and dissent. (Total 211 words)

12. “Africa was chopped into States artificially created by accidents of European competition”. Analyze. (200 words)          10

Important Points for Answer:

Advent of Africa

European colonisation

Conference of competitors


Answer: From the 1800s, European countries began to take control of coastal areas in Africa, like French Algeria, the British Cape Colony in modern-day South Africa. Yet 1880, only small areas of the African continent were under European rule.

In European power politics, Britain, France, Germany, Belgium, Italy, Portugal, and Spain were competing among themselves. One way to demonstrate national preeminence was through the acquisition of territories around the world, including Africa.

From 1880, in the space of just 30 years, the whole of Africa was carved up by the main European powers. By 1913, the Europeans had drawn boundaries for their 40 new states or ‘colonies’. These boundaries form the basis of the African nations.

The European imperialist designs and pressures of the late nineteenth century provoked African political and diplomatic responses and eventually military resistance. This situation was compounded by commercial conflicts between Europeans and Africans.

During and after the Berlin Conference various European countries sent out agents to sign so-called treaties of protection with the leaders of African societies, states, kingdoms, decentralised societies, and empires. But African leaders did not welcome the Berlin Conference.

The chopping off of Africa was done among the Europeans, without consulting or having consensus of Africa. (Total 205 words)

13. “American Revolution was an economic revolt against mercantilism. Substantiate. (200words) 10

Important Points for Answer:

Economic policy of Britain

Economic burden on Americans



Answer: After the Seven Years’ War with heavy war debts, Britain’s new policies attempted to exert more control over the colonies and taxing the colonists so that they would help pay for the imperial defence by which they were protected.

Old laws designed to benefit British mercantilists were enforced with more severity. A series of new laws, designed to shape American economic activities to benefit Britain, were passed.

The Stamp Act was more powerful in arousing widespread anger among the colonists than any of the previous laws. Outraged colonists protested the tax.Two other new laws that caused dissent among the American colonists were the Proclamation of 1763 and the Quartering Act of 1765.

American merchants were angry about the hampering of trade and industry by English mercantilist laws. Plantation owners and frontiersmen resented the limitations on Western expansion. Professionals disliked the Stamp Act because it made paper, and thus, newspapers, pamphlets, and legal documents expensive. Consumers hated the high cost of living, due to import duties. Few people cared for the British soldiers packed into the cities and accomplishing little beyond asserting Britain’s supremacy.

American opposition to these acts was expressed initially in a variety of peaceful forms. Later it  led to the war of independence. (Total 206 words)

14. What policy instruments were deployed to contain the Great Economic Depression? (200 words)  10

Important Points for Answer:

Hover’s response

Agencies for assistance


Roosevelt’s response



Answer: Herbert Hoover was president when the Great Depression began with the stock market crash in 1929.

The two presidents during the Great Depression, Herbert Hoover (1929-1933) and Franklin D. Roosevelt (1933-1945) had varying attitudes about the economy and response.

Hoover called for a series of conferences to talk about the problem. He increased public works programs, including government financed building projects. But the public works provided by Hoover were not on a large enough scale to really help.

He created agencies to provide assistance, which included:

   (a)       National Credit Corporation–money for banks to continue to operate.

   (b)       Reconstruction Finance Corporation – loans to railroads, agriculture and banks,were given out.

   (c)       Relief– money that went directly to impoverished families.

Hoover did not respond immediately so his actions can be summarized as “too little, too late.”

Roosevelt’s response included the New Deal. Roosevelt’s plan (1933) for ending the Great Depression was to create many agencies and programs to address specific needs in the economy. In 1935, Roosevelt created the Second New Deal to make the economy grow faster which focused on the three R’s:

   1.       Relief– ease the suffering of the needy

   2.       Recovery – lay the foundation for economic growth

   3.       Reform – prevent a future economic crisis

They helped to some extent in providing relief during the great depression. (Total 220 words)

15.     Discuss the various social problems which originated out of the speedy process of urbanization in India. (200 words)10

Important Points for Answer:




Answer: Population residing in urban areas in India, according to 1901 census, was 11.4%. It increased to 28.53% according to 2001 census, and crossing 30% as per 2011 census.

Better government services, developed infrastructure, more employment opportunities, educational and healthcare facilities attracted more and more people to migrate towards urban areas.

Urbanisation is taking place at a faster rate in India.Rapid rise in urban population, in India, is leading to many problems like increasing slums, decrease in standard of living in urban areas, also causing environmental damage.

India has around 300 million people living in metropolitan areas. This has greatly caused slum problems, with so many people over-crowding cities and forcing people to live in unsafe conditions which also includes illegal buildings.

Water lines, roads and electricity are lacking which is causing fall of living standards. It is adding to the problem of all types of pollution. Urbanisation results in a disparity in the market, owing to the large demands of the growing population and the primary sector struggling to cope with them.

The unemployment rate is increasing. Due to unemployment, crime rate is increasing which creates social and legal problems for administration of urban areas. Lack of fund also results into insufficiency of infrastructure. (Total 206 words)

16. “Male membership needs to be encouraged in order to make women’s organisation freefrom gender bias”. Comment. (200 words)10

Important Points for Answer:

Gender bias


Male perspective

Complementary role

Answer: Sometimes in the zeal of protecting women, feminism grows to the extent of chauvinistic approach. This leads to complete bias picture of the society and organisation. The women’s organisation, focused on the rights and upliftment of women, should be made more inclusive to have better understanding of the society.

Gender bias occurs due to personal values, educational and social upbringing of a person.

Gender bias can easily crept in women’s organisation due to higher sensitivity towards the women specific issues. Intervention and opinion of men can bring a new perspective.

Having men in women’s organisation will also make them sensitive towards crimes and mis-happening against women.

Men member can suggest measures for upliftment of women and protection of their rights in the society.

False allegations of crimes and harassment raised against men, taking advantages of existing women friendly law, should be examined not only by women but also by a men member.

Male member can provide moral support to the organisation of women and thus encourage them by assuring that in fight against injustice women are not alone.

Therefore, to bring counter and complementary view of the societal values, men members in women’s organisation can be useful to make it unbiased. (Total 202 words)

17. Critically examine the effect of globalisation on the aged population in India. (200 words)10

Important Points for Answer:


Aged population in India

Positive impacts

Negative impacts

Answer:Globalisation has made trade and commerce easy among nations. It also resulted into increased socio-cultural interactions among different communities of the world. It certainly has impacted all class and category of people, including ageing population.

India is a country of youth but still being the second largest populated country in the world, it has sizeable aged people number of which is expected to reach 135 million by 2021.

India has become medical hub, due to globalisation, of which first impact on aged population is availability of better medical facilities. However, prices of medical services have gone up but government hospitals are a boon. Age related health issues are no more incurable in India.

Internet connected society has developed due to globalisation which has engaged all generations, including aged. Good impact on aged people is that they have connectivity but demerit is less attention by youth on elderly people. Many facilities are now available through internet which helps elderly people.

Travelling has become faster, smoother and easier for elderly people due to benefits of globalisation.

Pension schemes and insurance schemes are available to elders from many private sector companies which have improved financial status of aged population of India.

However, globalisation has increased migration which has left more and more elderly people alone.

Thus, globalisation has mixed impact on aged population of India. (Total 223 words)

18. Growing feeling of regionalism is an important factor in generation of demand for aseparate State. Discuss. (200 words)    10

Important Points for Answer:


Demands for separate States

Reasons for such demands


Answer:Regionalism is attachment and respectful feeling of people who are living in a geographical area towards the region. It also results into political chauvinistic attitude, sometimes. In India, diversity has melted into unity. But regional groups have grown stronger politically. Their region specific demands and interests have strengthened regionalism.

Such regionalism has generated demands for separate states. Demand for Harit Pradesh in the Western Uttar Pradesh, Purvanchal in Eastern Uttar Pradesh, Bodoland in Northern Assam, Saurashtra in Southern Gujarat, Ladakh in Eastern Jammu and Kashmir, Gorkhaland in Northern West Bengal, Kongu Nadu in South Tamil Nadu, Vidarbha in Eastern Maharashtra, Telangana in Andhra Pradesh, Tulu Nadu in Karnataka, Kukiland in Manipur are the main demands being raised by various regions in India.

Regionalism is main factors for such demands for a separate state which arises when the people of particular area feel their regional identity is distinct and separate from the rest of the people of the State. Sometimes this regional identity is also accompanied by feeling of being marginalised or alienated.

In 2000, Chhattisgarh from Madhya Pradesh, Uttaranchal from Uttar Pradesh and Jharkhand from Bihar were created due to such demands. As per one report, if all demands for creation of separate states are conceded to, there would be almost 50 states in India. (Total 215 words)

19. (a) What do you understand by the theory of ‘continental drift’? Discuss the prominentevidences in its support. (100 words) 5

Answer: (a) Continental drift is the movement of the Earth’s continents relative to each other by appearing to drift across the ocean bed. The speculation that continents might have ‘drifted’ was first given by Abraham Ortelius in 1596.


Similar plant and animal fossils are found around different continent shores, suggesting that they were once joined.

The fossils of Mesosaurus, a freshwater reptile rather like a small crocodile, found both in Brazil and South Africa.

Widespread distribution of Permo-Carboniferous glacial sediments in South America, Africa, Madagascar, Arabia, India, Antarctica and Australia was one of the major evidence for the theory of continental drift. (Total 102 words)

(b) The recent cyclone on east coast of India was called ‘Phailin’. How are the tropical cyclones named across the world ? Elaborate. (100 words)        5

Answer: (b) Tropical cyclones have officially been named since 1945. More than one can occur in the same region at the same time, therefore names are given for identification.

Names are drawn in order from predetermined lists and are usually assigned to tropical cyclones with one-, three-, or ten-minute sustained wind speeds of more than 65 km/h (40 mph) depending on which area it originates.

‘Phailin’, a Thai word meaning sapphire, was a cyclone along the Bay of Bengal. It was named by Thailand in the list of assigned names. The next cyclone in the region will be Helen, a name by Bangladesh.      (Total 103 words)

20. (a) Bring out the causes for the formation of heat islands in the urban habitat of theworld. (100 words) 5

Answer: (a) An urban heat island (UHI) is a metropolitan area that is significantly warmer.

The main cause of the urban heat island effect is from the modification of land surfaces, which use materials that effectively store short-wave radiation.

Waste heat generated by energy usage is a secondary contributor.

Population centre tends to expand its area and increase its average temperature.

Nighttime warming is due to the short-wave radiation which is still within the concrete, asphalt, and buildings.

Other reasons are decreased amount of vegetation, geometric effects, changes in the thermal properties of surface materials and lack of evapotranspiration in urban areas. (Total 102 words)

(b) What do you understand by the phenomenon of ‘temperature inversion’ in meteorology? How does it affect weather and the habitants of the place? (100 words)  5

Answer: (b) In meteorology,”temperature inversion”, is an increase in temperature with height, or to the layer within which an increase  of temperature occurs.

An inversion can lead to pollution such as smog being trapped close to the ground, with possible adverse effects on health. An inversion can also suppress convection by acting as a «cap». Temperature inversion can notoriously result in freezing rain in cold climates.

Temperature inversion stops atmospheric convectionfrom happening in the affected area. It can lead to the air becoming stiller and murky from the collection of dust and pollutants. This can become a problem in cities where many pollutants exist. (Total 104 words)

21. Major hot deserts in northern hemisphere are located between 20-30 deg N latitudes and on the western side of the continents. Why? (200 words)          10

Important Points for Answer:

Hot Deserts

Ocean currents

Distance from ocean

Rain shadow

High pressure

Answer:The hot deserts are located between 20-30° latitude and on the western side of the continents are because these climatic deserts are produced due to cold ocean currents, distance from oceanic moisture sources, mountain produced rain shadow which are the main factors for desert in these latitudes.

Earth rotates from west to east, so first the sun rays will fall on the eastern side of earth. As a result of high temperature, low pressure is created which will result in rainfall. There will be many obstructs on the way of these moisture laden clouds. So the western part will remain dry, creating deserts.

In the horse latitudes where constant high pressure and low temperature caused cold current, such deserts are created.

Complex air circulation patterns caused by the rotation of earth, Coriolis effect, is also a reason.

Areas within a continent may become desert because air currently reaching them already lost the moisture.20-30 degree latitude appears directly overhead at the noon.

Major desert land appears in these two discontinuous belts because more land surface occur in these latitudes.

The Great Basin of USA and deserts Australia are caused by “rain shadow effect” through which coastal mountains milk rain from the air before it passes inland. (Total 208 words)

22. (a) Bring out the causes for more frequent occurrence of landslides in the Himalayasthan in the Western Ghats. (100 words)    5

Answer: (a)Landslide includes a wide range of ground movements, such as rockfalls, deep failure of slopes and shallow debris flows.

The Himalayas and the Western Ghats are the two regions most vulnerable to landslides.

The Himalayas Mountain belt comprise of tectonically unstable younger geological formations. They are subjected to severe seismic activity. The slides in the Himalayas region are huge and massive.

The Western Ghats and nilgiris are geologically stable. However, they have uplifted plateau margins influenced by neo-tectonic activity.

Some natural activities such as heavy rainfall, large temperature variation, occurrence of large magnitude of earthquakes etc cause frequent landslides in Himalaya region. (Total 103 words)

(b) There is no formation of deltas by rivers of the Western Ghats. Why? (100 words)          5

Answer: (b)There are many rivers flowing from Western Ghats such as Narmada, Tapti, Godawari, Krishna, Kaveri, Tunga, Many of which originate from the western Ghat Mountains and fall in to the Arabian Sea. As they pass through the hard rocks, these rivers contain very little amount of slits. Due to the high gradient and steep slope of Western Ghat, these rivers flow at a high speed and so they are unable to deposits slits. There is lack of plain land to slow down the velocity of rivers and bifurcate in to tributaries. Rock terrain of western ghats does not allow the rivers to spread out much. Therefore, they do not make delta, but estuaries. (Total 113 words)

23. (a) Do you agree that there is a growing trend of opening new sugar mills in southernstates of India? Discuss with justification. (100 words)       5

Answer: (a) Main centre for sugar mills of India had been North India, especially UP. New sugar mills opening in South India is a new trend. Recently plantation of sugarcane has started in south India which has attracted more sugar mills. Uniform temperature, better irrigation facilities, moisture effects of ocean has better effect on sugar contents which yields high productivity of sugar. Transportation of sugarcane from south India to north India is expensive but establishment of a sugar mill is not heavy capital intensive industry. Sugar is also an export oriented commodity which are better facilitated by vicinity of South Indian ports. Due to all these reasons, south India has more sugar mills now.           (Total 112 words)

(b) Analyze the factors for the highly decentralized cotton textile industry in India. (100 words)  5

Answer:(b) India is the second largest producer of cotton in the world. Its cotton textile industry was primarily located in Gujarat and Maharashtra. But with widespread cultivation of cotton seeds throughout India, cotton textile industry are also becoming decentralised. Local weavers, artisans, market,  less transport cost, local fashion and traditions and entrepreneurship has been responsible for such widespread of industry. Irrigation facilities, better return in cotton, non-perishable commodity and less capital required in growing cotton seeds has encouraged farmers to grow cotton instead of other crops. This has resulted into establishment of less capital intensive mills at clusters. Availability of labour and technology has also played role. (Total 107 words)

24. With growing scarcity of fossil fuels, the atomic energy is gaining more and more significance in India. Discuss the availability of raw material required for the generation of atomic energy in India and in the world. (200 words)          10

Important Points for Answer:

Scarcity of fossil fuel

India’s atomic energy programme

Availability of raw material

Answer: Fossil fuels are formed after a lengthy process of millions of years. Due to limited reserve, they are going to be exhausted in 50-80 years of period. They are environmental hazard. India is mostly dependent of imported fossil fuels which costs on FOREX reserve. In such situation, the atomic energy programme is very the best alternative.

Atomic energy is the source of Nuclear power, which uses sustained nuclear fission to generate heat and electricity.Among all the radioactive elements – Uranium and Thorium are the most critical for generation of Nuclear Energy. Thorium is much more abundant in nature than uranium. India has around 1-2% of the global uranium reserves and about 21% of the world’s known thorium reserves.

India has three-stage nuclear power programme which was initiated by Dr. Homi Bhabha.

Uranium and thorium reserves are found in the monazite sands of coastal regions of South India. Kazakhstan, Canada, Australia, Niger, Namiba and Russia are largest Uranium reserves of the world.

Largest deposits of thorium is found in Malabar coast of Kerala which is sufficient to generate 3.5 lakh MW energy for 300 years.  India is the largest reserve of thorium, followed by Australia, USA and Turkey. (Total 200 words)

25. It is said that India has substantial reserves of shale oil and gas, which can feed the needsof the country for quarter century. However, tapping of the resource does not appear to be high on the agenda. Discuss critically the availability and issues involved. (200 words)10

Important Points for Answer:

Shale oil and gas

India’s reserve

Policy in India



Answer: Shale gas & oil is defined as natural gas & oil from shale formations. Shale gas is natural gas which is found trapped within shale formations. The shale acts as both the source and the reservoir for these unconventional hydrocarbons.

India has an estimated 96 trillion cubic feet of recoverable shale gas reserves. In India, shale oil and gas reserves are found mainly in Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Rajasthan. Sedimentary basins like Cambay Basin, Gondwana Basin, KG Basin, Cauvery Basin, Indo-Gangetic Basin, Assam & Assam-Arakan Basin etc are considered prospective from Shale oil and gas point of view.

Shale gas requires complex extraction process and its drilling requires more land than natural gas or coal bed methane. Minimum 80-160 acres necessary for each well. Technology and investment are also major issues. Only shale formations with certain characteristics will produce gas and oil.

To exploit shale gas and oil in the country, the government on October 14, 2013 announced the policy guidelines for exploration and exploitation of shale gas and oil by ONGC and OIL in their on-land Petroleum Exploration Licence and petroleum mining lease areas awarded under the nomination regimes.

However, the policy is yet to be tested on the anvil of time. (Total 205 words)

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