Time Allowed : Three Hours      Maximum Marks : 250

Instructions : There are TWENTY FIVE questions printed both in English and in Hindi. All questions are compulsory. The number of marks carried by a question/part is indicated against it. Answers must be written in the medium authorised in the Admission Certificate which must be stated clearly on the cover of this Question-cum-Answer (QCA) Booklet in the space provided. No marks will be given for answers written in medium other than the authorised one.

Word limit in questions, wherever specified, should be adhered to.

Any page or portion of the page left blank in the answer book must be clearly struck off.

1. The role of individual MPs (Member of Parliament) has diminished over the years and as a result healthy constructive debates on policy issues are not usually witnessed. How far can this be attributed to the anti-defection law which was legislated but with a different intention? (200 words) 10

Important Points for Answer:

Individual MPs role

Anti-Defection Law



Answer: Parliament can be effective only if individual MPs have a significant role as law makers, and if they can be held accountable for their actions by their electorate. In the last few years, the role of individual Members of Parliament diminish on account of the Anti-Defection Law.

The 10th Schedule to the Constitution, popularly referred to as the ‘Anti-Defection Law,’ was inserted by the 52nd Amendment in 1985. It specifies grounds of disqualification. A member would incur a disqualificationwhen he “voluntarily gives up his membership of a party” and when he/she votes or abstains from voting contrary to the directive issued by the party.

The ruling party can ensure the support of each of its MP by issuing a whip. If it needs to build further support to get a majority, it only needs to convince the leaders of other parties, and not individual MPs. In a sense, the role of an MP is diminished to just a person who has to follow orders from the party bosses.

It was believed that Anti-Defection Law would ensure stability of the government in an environment where money power can be used to persuade individual MPs to bring down elected governments. The other argument is that MPs are elected on the party ticket.       (Total 215 words)

2. Discuss Section 66A of IT Act, with reference to the alleged violation of Article 19 of the Constitution. (200 words)    10

Important Points for Answer:

PILs against Section 66A

Restriction on speech

Violation of Article 19

Answer: Recently several PILs have been filed challenging the constitutionality of Section 66A of the IT Act. It is submitted to the Supreme Court that Section 66A curbs freedom of speech and expression and violates Articles 14, 19 and 21 of the Constitution.

The petition further contends that the expressions used in the Section are “vague” and “ambiguous” and that 66A is subject to “wanton abuse” in view of the subjective powers conferred on the police to interpret the law.

The Union government has defended the constitutionality of Section 66A relying first on the “Advisory on Implementation of Section 66A of the Information Technology Act 2000” issued by the Department of Electronics and Information Technology on January 9, 2013.

The drafters of Section 66A(b) have equated known criminal offences in the real world with acts such as causing annoyance and inconvenience that can never constitute an offence in the real world and should not be offences in the virtual world.

Therefore, the legislative restrictions on freedom of speech in Section 66A(b) cannot be considered as being necessary to achieve a legitimate objective. Section 66A should not be considered a ‘reasonable restriction’ within the meaning of Article 19 of the Constitution and must be struck down as an unconstitutional restriction on freedom of speech. (Total 214 words)

3. Recent directives from Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas are perceived by the ‘Nagas’ as a threat to override the exceptional status enjoyed by the State. Discuss in light of Article 371A of the Indian Constitution. (200 words)10

Important Points for Answer:

Nagaland and Article 371A

Resources in Nagaland

Order of MoPNG

Legal status


Answer: The 1960 Agreement was the basis for the creation of Nagaland in December 1963. Article 371A facilitated negotiated sovereignty of the Nagas on matters pertaining to their religious and social practices, customary laws and procedure, administration of civil and criminal justice, ownership and transfer of land and resources.

Legal  luminaries have concurred that “land and its resources” as used in Article 371 A(1)(a)(iv) includes mines and minerals.

The Nagaland Legislative Assembly passed a resolution on July 26, 2010 to the effect that laws made by Parliament on petroleum and natural gas would be inapplicable in Nagaland with retrospective effect. Then after Ministry suspended all oil operations in the State.

Recently Nagas have objected to the June 2013 request of Union Minister Mr. Moily to withdraw the Nagaland Petroleum and Natural Gas Resolution, 2012. The Nagaland government held a consultative meeting with various sections of civil society and rejected Mr. Moily’s request and also demanded that the GoI implement the unfulfilled clauses of the Sixteen Point Agreement, 1960, and place Nagaland under the Ministry of External Affairs. This may set up a new confrontation with the Central government.

The issue needs to be resolved, given the constitutional status of Nagaland under Article 371A, Centre government has to take into confidence the Nagas on the issue at hand.         (Total 219 words)

4. ‘The Supreme Court of India keeps a check on arbitrary power of the Parliament in amending the Constitution”. Discuss critically. (200 words)10

Important Points for Answer:

Article 368 and amending power

Judicial decisions



Answer: The Constitution can be amended only by Parliament and only in the manner provided in Article 368. Although Parliament must preserve the basic framework of the Constitution, there is no other limitation placed upon the amending power, meaning that there is no provision of the Constitution that cannot be amended.

The current limitation on amending power of Parliament comes from the decision of Keshavananda Bharati v. The State of Kerala, 1973 where the Supreme Court ruled that amendments of the constitution must not violate the “basic structure” of the constitution, and certain fundamental features of the constitution cannot be altered by amendment.

Parliament attempted to remove this limitation of ‘basic structure’ by enacting the Forty-second Amendment, 1976 which declared, inter alia, that “there shall be no limitation whatever on the constituent power of Parliament to amend”. However, this change was itself later declared invalid by the Supreme Court in Minerva Mills v. Union of India, 1980.

The entire constitutional amendment is not void for being violative of the limitations provided by the constitution and judicial decisions on the parliament. As declared by the Supreme Court in Kihota Hollohonv. Zachilhu 1993, that if part of amendment which is violating the basic structure of constitution is severable, only part will be void and rest of the amendment will be valid.                  (Total 220 words)

5. Many State Governments further bifurcate geographical administrative areas like Districts and Talukas for better governance. In light of the above, can it also be justified that more number of smaller States would bring in effective governance at State level ? Discuss. (200 words) 10

Important Points for Answer:

Administrative divisions

Small states benefits

Small states disadvantages


Answer: Country is divided into states, states into districts, districts into talukas, talukas into villages, villages into wards for administrative purposes. Smaller divisions can be administered and managed efficiently.

On the same argument, though for different reasons, there are demands for smaller states in India. The premise of creating smaller States in India shifted from the formation of linguistic states to one of, since the 1990s, rearranging them on the basis of backwardness and a lack of development.

Smaller states mean key decisions will be taken closer to the ground. Administering large and diverse states is more complex and probably inefficient as well, though there can be economies of scale in some ways.

The average Indian state is 4.2 crores people, where actual sizes vary from the 20 crores of Uttar Pradesh to states such as Arunachal, with just a few thousand people scattered all over.The 50-state USA has an average state population of just 62 lakh.

A smaller state is vulnerable politically and on local, racial, cultural or religious issues. Ananalysis of Uttarakhand, Chhattisgarh and Jharkhand proves that mere formation of a smaller State is no guarantee for better lives.

Therefore, all options need to be weighed but we do not need to be completely averse to the idea. (Total 212 words)

6. Constitutional mechanism to resolve the inter-state water disputes have failed to address and solve the problems. Is the failure due to structural or process inadequacy or both? Discuss. (200 words)   10

Important Points for Answer:

Act of 1956

Creation of tribunals

Awards of tribunals



Answer: The Interstate River Water Disputes Act, 1956 (IRWD Act) is an Act of the Parliament of India enacted under Article 262 of Constitution of India. It aims to resolve the water disputes that would arise in the use, control and distribution of an interstate river or river valley.

All these tribunal awards were issued before the year 2002 which cannot be altered by the new tribunals. The tribunals formed on sharing water of Ravi & Beas rivers, Cauvery/Kaveri river, Vamsadhara River, Mahadayi/Mandovi River and Krishna River (tribunal 2) are either yet to pronounce the verdicts or the issued verdicts are to be accepted by the Government of India.

Recently, Cauvery water disputes tribunal order was notified by the Gol in February 2013.In the case of Cauvery River basin, SC directed the Gol to set up a temporary Supervisory Committee to implement the tribunal order till the constitution of Cauvery Management Board by Gol. Gol established the said temporary Supervisory Committee in May 2013. The issue has yet not been resolved.

In the case of Babli barrage dispute, SC itself constituted the Supervisory Committee to implement the water sharing agreement between Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh in middle Godavari sub basin. The issue remains unresolved.

Thus, the mechanism has not proved to be adequate and no dispute has been solved satisfactorily.           (Total 221 words)

7. Discuss the recommendations of the Thirteenth Finance Commission which have been a departure from the previous commissions for strengthening the local government finances. (200 words) 10

Important Points for Answer:

13th FC

Two types of grants

Nine conditions

Answer: The 13th FC has given some recommendations departing from the previous Finance Commissions. It has divided the grants to be distributed to the states for local bodies into two parts – general basic grant and general performance grant.The performance grant can be accessed only if the state complies with nine conditions, which in other words can be called reforms. States are given one year 2010-2011 to comply with these conditions before they can access the performance grant from 2011-2012.

These nine conditions are:

The State Government must put in place a supplement to the budget documents for local bodies.

The State Government must put in place Audit System.

The State Government must put in place a system of independent local body Ombudsmen.

The State Government put in place a system to electronically transfer local body grants provided by the Commission.

The State Government must prescribe through an Act the qualifications of persons eligible for appointment as a member of the SFC.

All local bodies should be fully enabled to Levy Property Tax without hindrance.

The State Government must put in place a State Property Tax Board.

The State government must gradually put in place standards for delivery of essential services.

All municipal corporations with a population of more than one million (2001 census) must put in place a Fire -hazard Response and Mitigation plan for their respective jurisdictions. (Total 230 words)

8. The product diversification of financial institutions and insurance companies, resulting in overlapping of products and services strengthens the case for the merger of the two regulatory agencies, namely SEBI and IRDA. Justify (200 words) 10

Important Points for Answer:

Insurance Products

Financial Products

IRDA function

SEBI function

Proposed merger

Answer: Insurance companies are offering equity linked plans, mutual fund type of policies and various other products which are mainly dependent on market performance. This is no more a insurance product but more on share, debenture and equity based policies.

Similarly financial institutions like banks have started offering insurance policies and mutual funds. Financial institutions have also embarked in the fields of equity, shares and insurance

IRDA has the duty to regulate, promote and ensure orderly growth of the insurance business and re-insurance business.

SEBI’s primary function is described to protect the interests of investors in securities and to promote the development of, and to regulate the securities market and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto. A multiplicity of regulatory agencies has created scope for regulatory arbitrage and are facing difficult to protect consumer interest.

But as the products have divulged the boundaries and submerged into each other’s domain, these institutions cannot control them in isolation. Therefore, the Financial Sector Legislative Reforms Commission (FSLRC) has recently recommended for a single or super regulator to replace those in equity, commodities, pensions and insurance sectors.

The 2010 spat between SEBI and IRDA on the jurisdiction over ULIP is a case in point.The idea is to move from sectoral regulation to a broader framework of rules and principles. (Total 217 words)

9. The concept of Mid Day Meal (MDM) scheme is almost a century old in India with early beginning in Madras Presidency in pre-independent India. The scheme has again been given impetus in most states in the last two decades. Critically examine its twin objectives, latest mandates and success. (200 words)  10

Important Points for Answer:

Mid Day Meal in Madras

Aims/Objectives of MDM

Right to Food a Fundamental Right

Answer: The Mid Day Meal scheme was first introduced in Madras Corporation by the British administration in 1925 which was followed in Puducherry by French administration in 1930.

The Mid-day Meal Scheme involves provision of lunch free of cost to school-children on all working days which aims at addressing malnutrition by ensuring that every child is provided at least one nutritious meal every day.

It also aims at enhancing school enrollment and attendance, since kids are encouraged by the meal to attend school.

Other benefits of the scheme, such as helping kids to concentrate on classroom activities, improving socialization among children belonging to different castes, and providing employment to women to cook the midday meal are also ancillary.

Cooked midday meals are provided to all children attending Classes I-VIII in government, local body, government aided, and National Child Labour Project (NCLP) schools.

The cooked meal provides an energy content of 450 calories and protein content of 12 grams at primary stage and an energy content of 700 calories and protein content of 20 grams at upper primary stage.

The Supreme Court delivered a judgement that under the People’s Union for Civil Liberties(PUCL) v Union of India, providing that Article 21 read with Articles 39(a) and 47 makes the right to food a fundamental right. (Total 218 words)

10. Pressure group politics is sometimes seen as the informal face of politics. With regard to the above, assess the structure and functioning of pressure groups in India. (200 words)      10

Important Points for Answer:

Pressure groups

Their importance

Types and examples

Their importance in India

Answer: Pressure groups play a vital role in democracy by seeking  to promote, discuss, debate and mobilize public opinion on major public issues. They educate people and widen their vision, enhance their democratic participation and raise and articulate various issues. In India, there are many pressure groups.

There are pressure groups based on traditional social structure.There are groups like Arya Pratinidhi Sabha, Sanathan Dharma Sabha, Parsee Anjuman, and Anglo-Indian Christian Association.

There are the caste groups such as the Brahmin Sabha, the Nair society, and the language groups such as the Tamil Sangh, the Anjuman-e-Terraqi-e-Urdu.

Bodies such as the Federation of the Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI) or those related to workers and peasants like All India Trade Union Congress, Bharatiya Mazdoor Sangh, the Kisan Sabha, etc. also play important role in Indian politics.

The Self-Employed Women‘s Association (SEWA) has influenced the government to improve its policies on the rights of women workers.

Mazdoor Kisan Shakti Sangathan led the people‘s movement which got the government to bring about the law on ‚Right to Information‘.

Pressure groups also use politicalmethods of holdingdemonstrations, sitting on dharnas, going on strikes, organising public meetings, presenting memorandums to legislative committees, promoting their causes through use of media and creation of public opinion. (Total 217 words)

11. The legitimacy and accountability of Self Help Groups (SHGs) and their patrons, the micro-finance outfits, need systematic assessment and scrutiny for the sustained success of the concept. Discuss. (200 words)    10

Important Points for Answer:




Answer: Self-Help Group (SHG), a smallassociation of people, more or less from the same socio-economic background, are formed to protect and promote interest of the group. The purpose of solving their common problems through self-help and mutual help is served through SHG. They promote small savings among its members which is kept in a bank. Usually, the number of members in one SHG does not exceed twenty.

However, legitimacy and accountability of Self Help Groups are facing a lot of problems, including multiple lending, over borrowing, ghost borrowers and coercive method of recovery. For this purpose, a Sub-Committee of the Central Board of the RBI under the Chairmanship of Y. H. Malegam was constituted. It suggested, inter alia, to have a sufficient moratorium period between the start of repayment and the disbursement of loan, to restrict borrower membership of only one SHG to tackle multiple-lending, to allow MFI to give loans to people as members of SHGs, and not as mere individuals, to avoid multiple lending and over-borrowing, to ensure that one borrower is not taking a loan from two MFIs at a time and no further loan until prior loans are not paid fully.   (Total 201 words)

12. The Central Government frequently complains on the poor performance of the State Governments in eradicating suffering of the vulnerable sections of the society. Restructuring of Centrally sponsored schemes across the sectors for ameliorating the cause of vulnerable sections of population aims at providing flexibility to the States in better implementation. Critically evaluate. (200 words)10

Important Points for Answer:

Centrally Sponsored Schemes





Answer: Centrally Sponsored Schemes (CSSs) are those for which finance is provided by Centre Government but their implementation rests on the states.

Centre complains poor performance on the parts of States in implementation of these schemes. States lay emphasis on release of funds by the Centre rather than ensuring the quality of expenditure and attainment of the objectives. Misuse of the funds provided for vulnerable sectors and sections of the society is also a problem. It happens some time due to political reasons, corruption, infrastructural and other issues. Union government, due to lack of machinery, is not able to controltvhe execution of such schemes. It results into poor result, overrun of cost, maladministration etc.

Therefore, to get better result, central schemes need restructuring so that the vulnerable sections of the society get intended advantage. Number of central government schemes are reduced and instead of fully funded schemes of centre, now partially funded schemes are implemented which encourages states to perform better in execution. Direct transfer of funds to the beneficiaries, involvement of Panchayats, Social audit and other checks are useful for better result. It is also considered that more financial autonomy to states may result into better implementation of central schemes. (Total 200 words)

13. Electronic cash transfer system for the welfare schemes is an ambitious project to minimize corruption, eliminate wastage and facilitate reforms. Comment. (200 words)     10

Important Points for Answer:

Electronic Cash Transfer


Benefits in Welfare Schemes


Answer: Government launched cash transfer by electronic mode in 51 districts in 2013 for 29 schemes. Subsidies in kerosene, fertilisers and LPG will be transferred as cash to the beneficiaries in their bank accounts. Benefits such as scholarships, pensions, and MGNREGA (Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act) wages will be directly credited to the bank or post office accounts of identified beneficiaries.

This is linked to the Aadhaar number of Individuals to prevent cash leak, duplication, fake subsidy and other problems related to the benefit transfers of welfare schemes of the government. It will reduce paper work and ensure that only intended beneficiaries get the cash. Fast, efficient and automated system will be set up. It will minimise inclusion and exclusion errors as well as corruption that are associated with manual processes.

However, there are challenges like non availability of bank accounts with all beneficiaries, bank or post offices do not have branches in small rural areas, illiteracy and lack of infrastructure and logistics. Time frame for bringing all schemes and beneficiaries under direct electronic transfer of cash is longer and will require a robust IT infrastructure.

Given the size of population and geographical extent of country, it will be a robust task but will ensure efficient, non-corrupt and targeted cash benefits. (Total 213 words)

14. The basis of providing urban amenities in rural areas (PURA) is rooted in establishing connectivity. Comment (200 words)     10

Important Points for Answer:


Main objectives



Answer: Provision of Urban Amenities to Rural Areas (PURA) was given by former president Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam and discussed in his book Target 3 Billion which he co-authored with Srijan Pal Singh.

This concept PURA proposes that urban infrastructure and services be provided in rural hubs to create economic opportunities outside of cities.

Main aspect of PURA is dependent on physical connectivity by providing roads, electronic connectivity by providing communication network, and knowledge connectivity byestablishing professional and Technical institutions. It will have to be done in an integrated way so that economic connectivity will emanate. Such a model of establishing a circular connectivity among the rural village complexes will accelerate rural development process.

The Indian central government has been running pilot PURA programs since 2004.The Mission & Vision of PURA is to bring together the experience & expertise of both public & private players to achieve the objectives.

To make the basic amenities like good roads and drinking water accessible to people even in remote villages, The Ministry of Rural Development (MoRD), re-launched the scheme PURA as a Central Sector scheme during the remaining period of the eleventh five-year plan.

The vision of the scheme in particular is providing dual benefits like rural infrastructure development along with economic re-generation activities. (Total 215 words)

15. Identify the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) that are related to health. Discuss the success of the actions taken by the Government for achieving the same. (200 words) 10

Important Points for Answer:


Health related MDG

Indian programmes

Answer: Eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) for 2015 were set by UN in 2000. All 191 countries and 22 international organisations committed to them.

The goal to combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases included target to halt and begin to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS, to halt and begin to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases. Government of India launched a comprehensive National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) (2005) to improve and strengthen the existing rural health care.National AIDS Control Programme aims at prevention for those whole infected and care, support and treatment for those who have been infected. Launched in July 2007, National AIDS Control Programme Phase-III (2007 – 2012) has the goal to halt and reverse the epidemic.

The goal to reduce child mortality included target to reduce under five mortality rate by two-thirds. Government of India has launched various programmes in this direction which include Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illnesses (IMNCI), Home-Based Newborn Care (HBNC), New Born Care Scheme (NBCS), and Immunization facilities.

The goal to improve maternal health included target to reduce maternal mortality ratioby three quarters. The Janani Suraksha Yojana launched in 2005 by government aims to bring down the MMR by promoting institutional deliveries conducted by skilled birth attendants. (Total 214 words)

16. Though Citizens’ charters have been formulated by many public service delivery organisations, there is no corresponding improvement in the level of citizens’ satisfaction and quality of services being provided. Analyse. (200 words)          10

Important Points for Answer:

Citizens’ Charter      




Answer: Citizen’s Charter is a document which represents a systematic effort to focus on the commitment of the Organisation towards its Citizens in respects of Standard of Services, Information, Choice and Consultation, Non-discrimination and Accessibility, Grievance Redress, Courtesy and Value for Money.This also includes expectations of the Organisation from the Citizen for fulfilling the commitment of the Organisation.

However, the Citizen’s Charter is not legally enforceable and, therefore, is non-justiciable. But it is a tool for facilitating the delivery of services to citizens with specified standards, quality and time frame etc. with commitments from the Organisation and its clients. 

Sometimes though Citizens’ Charter is prepared but Citizens’ are not satisfied due to various reasons like not being transparent, not being self-explanatory, being too complex, or for not being followed. Sometimes important functions are delegated to non-responsive and less efficient officers which results into failure to deliver service in time bound manner.

The charter is prepared, sometimes, without consultation, without realising limits of resources in the organisation, which results into failure to implement it properly. Charter is not updated and revised properly, resulting into outdated information. Lack of awareness among general public may also result into dissatisfaction of the beneficiaries. (Total 203 words)

17. ‘A national Lokpal however strong it may be, cannot resolve the problems of immorality in public affairs.’ Discuss. (200 words)        10

Important Points for Answer:

Lokpal bill   


Public morality        



Answer: Lokpal bill, which aims to prevent corruption but to punish the corrupt, targets executive, bureaucratic and judicial authorities. By absorbing all existing anti-corruption agencies, the Lokpal will have complete powers of independent investigation and prosecution. There is lack of an approach which is qualitatively different from that of existing institutions of the state.

But if public morality is touching lows, this will not help. A transparent system will prevent corruption. In order to ensure transparency, the process of decisionmaking has tobe fundamentally altered.

There are cases where people encourage officers to take bribe and do illegal work, not the other way round. Lokpal can tackle corruption only if a complaint is brought forward by people. In case public is conniving to bypass the system and get advantage by avoiding procedures, Lokpal will not be able to detect such corruption with agreement.

If people are not aware of Lokpal and its power, function of Lokpal will be limited and curtailed. Therefore, there is requirement of education and awareness of people to not encourage or promote corruption by getting involved in these practices. Apart from enacting Lokpal bill, there is need to start an active campaign to improve public morality.  (Total 201 words)

18. The proposed withdrawal of International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) from Afghanistan in 2014 is fraught with major security implications for the countries of the region. Examine in light of the fact that India is faced with a plethora of challenges and needs to safeguard its own strategic interests. (200 words)      10

Important Points for Answer:

Withdrawal of ISAF  

Inability of ANSF

Political instability   


Drug trade   

India’s interest

India’s options

Answer: Withdrawal of ISAF from Afghanistan would be a proven security threat to the region. Militants might be restructured and could threaten the peace of south and central Asia.

Afghan forces are not ready and able to discharge their responsibility effectively. NATO’s withdrawal from Afghanistan can provide a chance to Taliban to challenge the Afghan National Security Force(ANSF).

As political process and nation building is not very effective, Jihadi groups can affect the process.

Islamabad has assisted the Taliban and is accused of supporting the Taliban groups fighting ISAF forces in Afghanistan.

Afghanistan remains a leading cultivator and producer of opium in the world, threatening the health and well-being of people and fuel crime and corruption, and can be used to finance terrorist activity.

India has vital strategic interests in Afghanistan  and has invested in various projects. It provides strategic depth to India and peace and stability of Afghanistan is of utmost importance to India.

Options for India include active engagement with government and people of Afghanistan as also providing economic aid, technical assistance and training to armed forces and police.

Afghanistan is vital for the revival of the silk route, a gateway for India to Central Asia for trade and energy resources. (Total 204 words)

19. What do you understand by “The String of Pearls”? How does it impact India ? Briefly outline the steps taken by India to counter this. (200 words)          10

Important Points for Answer:

String of Pearls

Ports with China

Indian strategy

Answer: China has established a number of port relationships in the Indian Ocean that make it possible for them to support increased navy operations.All these ports are commercial operations, where Chinese firms have upgraded or built commercial ports and run them.

This makes it easy for the Chinese Navy to visit (for repairs, supplies, or shore leave for the crews). Till now”string of pearls” includes Bangladesh (Chittagong), Burma (Sittwe and Coco Island), Sri Lanka (Hambantota), Pakistan (Gwadar), and Tanzania (Bagamoyo).

In 2007, the Indian Navy published the “Indian Maritime Doctrine”, a document outlining prospective Indian naval strategies. It describes ambitions for an active Indian naval presence from the Strait of Hormuz to the Strait of Malacca.

The doctrine makes explicit mention of the need to police international shipping lanes and control choke points of Indian Ocean trade in particular. In 2011, the Indian government further announced that the government-financed deepwater port in Sittwe, Burma is to be functional by June 2013, with an additional highway connecting the port to India to be completed by 2014.

In the last two decades, India has stealthily straddled its interests in the Indian Ocean Rim.

This is the classical strategy of gaining influence by conjoining economic perks and power, with military diplomacy called ‘Showing the Flag’. (Total 214 words)

20. Economic ties between India and Japan while growing in the recent years are still far below their potential. Elucidate the policy constraints which are inhibiting this growth. (200 words)      10

Important Points for Answer:

Bilateral trade & investment

Cooperation in projects

Policy constraints

Answer: Japan is currently India’s third largest source of foreign direct investment with Japanese companies have made cumulative investments of around US$2.6 billion in India since 1991.

Japan has assisted India in infrastructure development projects such as the Delhi Metro Rail Project. Both sides are discussing the Delhi-Mumbai Industrial Corridor Project and Dedicated Freight Corridor Projects on the Mumbai- Delhi and the Delhi-Howrah routes.

The Japanese government has expressed interest to help establish a Chennai- Bangalore Industrial corridor and a Dedicated Freight project in the South, connecting the cities of Bangalore and Chennai.

During Prime Minister Manmohan Singh’svisit to Japan in 2010, both countries agreed expand cooperation.

After signing the Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement between India and Japan, it is expected that trade might double in the coming years.

Despite all this, economic ties between India and Japan are far below from their potential. Some of the policy constraints which are inhibiting this growth are:

Japan is reluctant to provide free movement of professionals between the two countries.

The mutual complementarities among the two countries has been remained underexploited.

The lack of a civil nuclear agreement is stopping Japanese big companies like Hitachi, Toshiba and Mitsubishi from exporting nuclear reactors and technology to India who wants to its nuclear capacity. (Total 213 words)

21. The protests in Shahbag Square in Dhaka in Bangladesh reveal a fundamental split in society between the nationalists and Islamic forces. What is its significance for India? (200 words)       10

Important Points for Answer:

The protest   



India’s concerns

Answer: The 2013 Shahbag protests began on 5 February 2013 and later spread to other parts of Bangladesh.

The International Crimes Tribunal had sentenced Abdul Quader Mollah to life in prison after he was convicted on five of six counts of war crimes. People demanded capital punishment for Abdul Quader Mollah who had been sentenced to life imprisonment, and for others convicted of war crimes by the International Crimes Tribunal.

Later demands included banning the Bangladesh Jamaat-e-Islami party from politics and a boycott of institutions supportingthe party.

Protesters considered sentence too lenient, given his crimes. Tens of thousands of people joined the demonstration, which gave rise to protests across the country.

The Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP) welcomed the Shahbag protest, while warning the government not to make political mileage from a movement demanding capital punishment for war criminals.

India cannot intervene or step in but can demand the Bangladeshi State to look after its minorities and prevent further attacks on Hindus.

The protests were a sign of the open-mindedness of the Bangladeshi youth, who were battling extremism and upholding fundamental values of democracy.They show their concern, their involvement, and their aspiration. India is affected by any turbulence in Bangladesh which may result into instability and influx of refugees in India. (Total 214 words)

22. Discuss the political developments in Maldives in the last two years. Should they be of any cause of concern to India? (200 words)     10

Important Points for Answer:

Protest in Maldives

Resignation of Nasheed


New elections

India’s concern

Answer: A series of peaceful protests broke out in the Maldives on 1 May 2011. The protests occurred during the Arab Spring.

They continued, eventually escalating into the resignation ofPresident Mohamed Nasheed in disputed circumstances inFebruary 2012.

Demonstrators were protesting government’s mismanagement of the economy and were calling for the ouster of President Mohamed Nasheed.

The main political opposition, Maldivian People’s Party, led by the former president of the country Maumoon Abdul Gayoom accused President Nasheed of talking about democracy but not putting it into practice. The primary cause for the protests was rising of commodity prices and a poor economic situation in the country.

The protests led to a resignation of President Mohamed Nasheed on 7 February 2012, and the Vice President Mohammed Waheed Hassan Manik was sworn as the new president of Maldives.

In April 2012, new elections were announced to be held in July 2013. Maldives police joined the protesters after refusing to use force on them.

Stability in Maldives is of concern for India from strategic, political and economic perspective. India has provided extensive economic aid. Approximately 29,000 Indians live and work in the Maldives and almost 22,000 of them live in the capital city. The Indian government has expressed concern over continuing political instability in the Maldives. (Total 213 words)

23. In respect of India-Sri Lanka relations, discuss how domestic factors influence foreign policy. (200 words)   10

Important Points for Answer:

Tamil community      

International issues

Pressure from Tamil Nadu    

Effects on bilateral relations

Answer: India and Sri Lanka relations are greatly influenced by domestic politics because of fate of sizeable Tamil community living in Sri Lanka.

In 2012 Washington sponsored a resolution intended to press for accountability for the events that took place at the end of Sri Lanka’s civil war. India’s “yes” vote reflected pressure from Tamil Nadu. This was a departure from normal practice of not voting for country-specific resolutions.

The second act took place at the March 2013 UNHRC meeting. The release of film footage reportedly showing the killing of the Tamil rebel leader’s twelve-year-old son, created widespread revulsion in India.

The Sri Lanka conflict is deeply embedded in Tamil parties and they use alliances and disputes with the party in power in Delhi to further their quest for state primacy.

The DMKmounted a demand that India not just vote for the resolution but amend it to accuse the Sri Lankan government of “genocide and war crimes.”

The DMK took its campaign on the road. The Government of India cancelled the upcoming India-Sri Lanka defence dialogue. The DMK pulled out of the government coalition, citing the U.N. resolution.

India and Sri Lanka were left with some difficult fences to mend. (Total 205 words)

24. What is meant by Gujral doctrine? Doesithave any relevance today? Discuss. (200 words)        10

Important Points for Answer:


Five principles


Answer: The Gujral Doctrine is a set of five principles to guide the conduct of foreign relations with India’s immediate neighbours as spelt out by IK Gujral, first as India’s foreign minister and later as the prime minister.

These five principles arise from the belief that India’s stature and strength cannot be divorced from the quality of its relations with its neighbours. The doctrine recognises the supreme importance of friendly, cordial relations with neighbours.

These five principles are:

   1.       With neighbours like Bangladesh, Bhutan, Maldives, Nepal and Sri Lanka, India does not ask for reciprocity, but gives and accommodates what it can in good faith and trust;

   2.       No South Asian country should allow its territory to be used against the interest of another country of the region;

   3.       No country should interfere in the internal affairs of another;

   4.       All South Asian countries must respect each other’s territorial integrity and sovereignty;

   5.       They should settle all their disputes through peaceful bilateral negotiations.

The Gujaral doctrine remains of relevance even today because if these five principles, adhered to, would achieve a fundamental recasting of South Asia’s regional relationships. The implementation of these principles would create mutual cooperation in the region. (Total 200 words)

25. The World Bank and the IMF, collectively known as the Bretton Woods Institutions, are the two inter-governmental pillars supporting the structure of the world’s economic and financial order. Superficially, the World Bank and the IMF exhibit many common characteristics, yet their role, functions and mandate are distinctly different. Elucidate. (200 words)10

Important Points for Answer:

Bretton Woods Institution

World Bank Functions

IMF Functions

Answer: Known collectively as the Bretton Woods Institutions after a place where they were founded in July 1944, the Bank and the IMF are twin intergovernmental pillars.

The World Bank is to deal with issues more related to structure within a country. There is a major difference that world bank provide a long term loan for distressed economy and member countries. Three priorities guide World Bank with countries to end poverty and boost prosperity for the poorest people. To create sustainable economic growth, as the surest path out of poverty. To invest in people, through access to health care, education, water and sanitation, and energy. To build resilience to shocks and threats that can roll back decades of progress.

The IMF concerns itself with macroeconomics issues, such as balance of payment issues, international trade policy, and exchange rates. The IMF grants the short term loans to develop the cyclical disturbance in economy.The IMF’s fundamental mission is to ensure the stability of the international monetary system. It does so in three ways: keeping track of the global economy and the economies of member countries; lending to countries with balance of payments difficulties; and giving practical help to members. Thus, having many common characteristics, the Bretton Woods Institutions have distinct functions. (Total 209 words)

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