Time Allowed : Three Hours      Maximum Marks : 250

Instructions : There are TWENTY FIVE questions printed both in English and in Hindi. All the questions are compulsory. The number of marks carried by a question/part is indicated against it. Answers must be written in the medium authorised in the Admission Certificate which must be stated clearly on the cover of this Question-cum-Answer (QCA) Booklet in the space provided. No marks will be given for answers written in medium other than the authorised one.

Word limit in questions, wherever specified, should be adhered to.

Any page or portion of the page left blank in the Question-cum-Answer Booklet must be clearly struck off.

1. With a consideration towards the strategy of inclusive growth, the new Companies Bill, 2013 has indirectly made CSR a mandatory obligation. Discuss the challenges expected in its implementation in right earnest. Also discuss other provisions in the Bill and their implications. (200 words)          10

Important Points for Answer:

Companies Act 2013

Provisions of the bill

CSR Mandatory

Challenges in implementation

Answer: The Companies Act 2013 received assent of the President in August 2013 and replaced the earlier Act of 1956 in partial manner.

The act requires companies to set up a CSR board committee consisting of at least three directors, one of whom must be independent. The company requires to spend at least 2 percent of the average net profits made during the three immediately preceding financial years on CSR activities. If the company fails to spend this amount on CSR, the board must disclose reasons in its annual report.

The act defines CSR as activities that promote poverty reduction, education, health, environmental sustainability, gender equality, and vocational skills development. Companies can choose which area to invest in, or contribute the amount to central or state government funds earmarked for socio-economic development.

New provisions of the Act may be hailed as a positive step forward in ensuring that profit making corporates contribute to equitable and sustainable development of the society. However, it may not greatly improve CSR. Indian companies still equate CSR with corporate philanthropy.

Among others, it makes provision requiring one-third of a company’s board comprise independent directors, and that at least one board member be a woman.           (Total 201 words)

2. What were the reasons for the introduction of Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management (FRBM) Act, 2003? Discuss critically its salient features and their effectiveness. (200 words)10

Important Points for Answer:

FRBM 2003 

Salient Features


Answer: The Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management (FRBMA) Act, 2003 is an Act which was enacted with objective to institutionalise financial discipline, reduce India’s fiscal deficit, improve macroeconomic management and the overall management of the public funds by moving towards a balanced budget.

The main purpose of FRBM was to eliminate revenue deficit of the country and bring down the fiscal deficit to a manageable 3% of the GDP by March 2008. It was expected that the act would benefit the country by maintaining stable inflation rates which in turn would promote social progress.

However, due to the 2007 international financial crisis, the deadlines for the implementation of the targets in the act was initially postponed and subsequently suspended in 2009. In 2011, given the process of ongoing recovery, Economic Advisory Council advised the Government to reconsider the FRBMA.

The Act is criticised as it might require the government to cut back on social expenditure and general upliftment of rural poor of India.

There were some critical failure points of the Act which were not taken into account while fixing targets that including the vagaries of monsoon in India, the social dependence on agriculture and over-optimistic projections of the task force in-charge of developing the targets. (Total 207 words)

3. What is the meaning of the term ‘Tax expenditure’? Taking housing sector as an example, discuss how it influences the budgetary policies of the government. (200 words) 10

Important Points for Answer:

Tax Expenditure       

Housing Sector

Budgetary Policy

Answer: A tax expenditure is government spending through the tax code. Tax expenditures alter equity of the basic tax system by allowing exemptions, deductions, or credits to select groups or specific activities. Tax expenditures have the same effect on the budget deficit as appropriations spending.

Tax expenditure function like government’s social programmes which means that it may be considered harmful or gainful depending on perspective. As subsidy on fertiliser harms exchequer but at the same time is very useful for agriculture.

Exemptions allowed for deduction of HRA from Income tax and various other income tax deductions and exemptions; Exemptions allowed for interest payment and principal repayment for housing loans, etc are some examples of tax expenditure of housing sector. 

Due to various policies of government, the number of persons who own houses have increased. People can afford to spend on infrastructure as they don’t have to give taxes.

Impact of tax expenditure on budgetary policy can be seen from Union Budget of 2013 where first home loan from a bank of housing finance corporation upto INR 25 lakh is entitled to additional deduction of interest up to INR 1 lakh. As per an estimate, revenue forgone by tax expenditure is around 6.5% of GDP which amounts to 80% of the realised revenue. (Total 211 words)

4. Food Security Bill is expected to eliminate hunger and malnutrition in India. Critically discuss various apprehensions in its effective implementation along with the concerns it has generated in WTO. (200 words)          10

Important Points for Answer:

Food Security Bill



Answer: The National Food Security Act, 2013 aims to provide subsidized food grains to approximately two-thirds of India’s 1.2 billion people. Under the provisions of the bill, beneficiaries will be able to purchase 5 kilograms per eligible person per month of cereals at the following prices of Rs. 3 per kg for rice, Rs. 2 per kg for wheat and Re.1 prt kg for coarse grains (millet). Pregnant women, lactating mothers, and certain categories of children are eligible for daily free meals.

The bill has been highly controversial and its effectiveness has been argued politically and economically. The enactment of the Bill could be expected to induce severe imbalance in the production of oilseeds and pulses. It may result into demand pressures which will spillover to market prices of food grains.

The higher food subsidy burden on the budget will also raise the fiscal deficit, resulting into exacerbating macro level inflationary pressures. There are also concerns over the procurement and distribution of highly subsidised food grains.

It will shift money from investments in agriculture to subsidies, and continue focus on cereals production when shifts in consumer demand patterns indicate a need to focus more on protein, fruits and vegetables.

The Bill would restrict private initiative in agriculture, reduce competition in the market. (Total 213 words)

5. What are the different types of agriculture subsidies given to farmers at the national and at state levels? Critically analyse the agricultural subsidy regime with reference to the distortions created by it.       (200 words) 10

Important Points for Answer:

Types of Subsidies at:

National Level

State Level


Answer: Subsidies have been central to the development of the agricultural sector, especially since the Green Revolution. The major subsidies are as follows-

Central level

Fertilizers: Urea is sold at statutory notified uniform sale price as it is the only controlled fertilizer. Other nutrients (P and K) are under nutrient based subsidy regime.

Minimum Support Price (MSP) regime: This enables the state to cushion farmers in case crop prices fall below MSP.

Fuel subsidy-agricultural sector is provided subsidized diesel

Agricultural credit

Loans are disbursed through Regional Rural Banks, Cooperatives etc

Interest subvention scheme (2006-07) to enable banks to provide short term credit upto Rs.3 lakh at 7% interest to farmers.

Agricultural Debt Waiver and Debit Reliever Scheme, 2008

Kisan Credit Card Scheme (1998-99) to enable farmers to purchase agricultural inputs

State level

Electricity is provided at low prices, or free of cost.

Irrigation subsidy, such as in the form of subsidy for electrical pumps.

The distortions arising from the subsidy regime are as follows-

The urea subsidy has led to unbalanced use of (NPK) nutrients and soil degradation.

MSP incentivized rice and wheat cultivation only.

Debt waivers erode the credit culture.

Electricity and irrigation subsidies have led to ground water depletion and poor financial condition of Discoms mainly benefiting rich farmers.  (Total 214 words)

6.India needs to strengthen measures to promote the pink revolution in food industry for ensuring better nutrition and health. Critically elucidate the statement. (200 words)

Important Points for Answer:

Pink Revolution        



Answer: Pink Revolution refers to the meat and poultry sector. There is vast scope for development of the sector in light of India’s huge population of cattle and poultry and average annual sectoral growth rate of 10-15%.

India is one of the largest exporter of meat and now in India 100% FDI is permitted in this sector. Comprehensive scheme for the modernization of slaughter houses to address quality standards and meat wastage have been launched. 

More than 50% of the Indian population is under-nourished. In fact, India ranks number one in terms of low birth weight infants at an estimated 7.4 million undernourished kids.

Due to food habits of Indians, current per capita meat consumption is 6 grams/day which is expected to increase to 50 grams/day in a decade. India accounts for only 2% of the global market despite its large livestock population.

This shows poor nutrition choices in our food habit which results into nutrition deficiency related health issues.

The Pink Revolution has to result into better nutrition and health of Indians by increasing consumption of nutrition rich meat and poultry products. For this, food industry, including packaging and processing, needs to be developed by modernisation, investment and upgradation of technology. (Total 205 words)

7. Examine the impact of liberalization on companies owned by Indians. Are they competing with the MNCs satisfactorily? Discuss. (200 words) 10

Important Points for Answer:

LPG of 1991

Impact on Indian companies

Disadvantages viz a viz MNCs

Current situation

Answer: The 1991 LPG reforms were aimed at opening up the Indian economy and reducing bureaucratic controls so as to facilitate faster economic growth. They succeeded in making India globally competitive, especially in the services sector, software sector etc.

The impact on Indian companies includes:

Ease in setting up and expanding businesses. This had faced restrictions in the License Raj era, especially in light of the Monopolies and Restrictive Trade Practices Act. Firms can now benefit from economies of scale.

Greater operational autonomy, such as through abolition of the phased manufacturing programme

Access to investors due to increased financial inflows in the form of FDI and FII.

R&D growth and technological advancement, leading to rise in innovation

Improvement in delivery of services

Better corporate governance

Fewer industries are reserved solely for the public sector.

However, introduction of global MNCs has created an unequal situation and many Indian companies often find themselves unable to compete. This is because of their limited financial capacity and inability to incur losses. Higher cost of capital for Indian companies and rigid labour laws have given better status to MNCs who had access to better R&D facilities and technical personnel.

This initially led to displacement of many Indian companies by their foreign counterparts. However, with time, Indian companies have growth strong by mergers, acquisitions and expansion to compete with MNCs.  (Total 225 words)

8. Establish relationship between land reforms, agriculture productivity and elimination of poverty in the Indian economy. Discuss the difficulties in designing and implementation of agriculture-friendly land reforms in India. (200 words) 10

Important Points for Answer:


Land reforms


Answer: In light of inequalities in Indian agriculture, land reforms have been a top priority for the India since1947. The First Five-Year Plan termed it as a fundamental issue of national importance.

Land reforms refer to re-distribution of land from large holders to poor tenants and tillers. The objective relationship that was expected by land reforms programme was to eliminate poverty by giving land to landless farmer. However, it has resulted into smaller land holdings and productivity has been affected due to lack of modernisation and capital.

In light of its anti-inequality goals, poverty alleviation has always been a central thread. There is a strong link between tenancy reform and poverty reduction. Further, they establish that land reforms primarily benefit the landless.

Productivity enhancement, which leads to improvement in economic conditions of farmers and tenants and thus enables them to invest in agriculture, has also been a crucial goal of land reforms.

However, there are some difficulties in design and implementation:

Lack of political and administrative will, as a result of laws were kept pending for decades and were full of loopholes.

High ceiling limits by states

Lack of uniformity in laws due to land being a state subject

Small size of landholdings creates structural problems

Patriarchal mindset still prevalent in the society.

Absence of land ownership records led to decades-long litigations.       (Total 225 words)

9.(a) Discuss the impact of FDI entry into Multi-trade retail sector on supply chain management in commodity trade pattern of the economy. (100 words)5

Answer: (a) Retailing in India accounts for 14 to 15 percent of its GDP and is estimated to be US$ 500 billion and one of the top five retail markets in the world by economic value. With 1.2 billion people, India is one of the fastest growing retail markets in the world.

India’s government announced retail reforms, in November 2011, for both multi-brand stores and single-brand stores. These market reforms paved the way for multi-brand retailers such as Walmart, Carrefour and Tesco.

It is envisaged that FDI investment into retailing may change trade pattern from small shops to big super markets.           (Total 102 words)

(b) Though India allowed Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in what is called multi-brand retail through the joint venture route in September 2012, the FDI, even after a year, has not picked up. Discuss the reasons. (100 words)          5

Answer: (b) In September 2012, the Government notified the FDI reforms for single and multi brand retail. In December 2012, the Government allowed 51% FDI in multi-brand retail in India.

PWC estimates the multi-brand retail market to grow to $220 billion by 2020. A number of merger and acquisitions have begun in Indian retail market. Over 90% of trade in India is conducted through independent local stores. However, there are significant challenges against FDI attraction in India’s retail sector such as geographically dispersed population, small ticket sizes, complex distribution network, and little use of IT systems, limitations of mass media and existence of counterfeit goods.    (Total 105)

10. Discuss the rationale for introducing Goods and Services Tax (GST) in India. Bring out critically the reasons for the delay in roll out for its regime. (200 words)  10

Important Points for Answer:





Reasons for delay

Answer: The Goods and Services Tax (GST) is a Value Added Tax (VAT) to be implemented in India which will replace all indirect taxes levied on goods and services by the Indian Central and State governments. The GST is aimed at being comprehensive for most goods and services.

Exports will be zero-rated and imports will be levied the same taxes as domestic goods and services adhering to the destination principle.

It is claimed that CGST, SGST and IGST are nothing but new names for Central Excise/Service Tax, VAT and CST and hence GST brings nothing new to the table.

Roll out of GST is being delayed as GST will be implemented concurrently by the central and state governments as the Central GST and the State GST respectively. As there is heterogeneous State laws on VAT, the debate on the necessity for a GST has taken place. The best GST systems across the world use a single GST while India has opted for a dual-GST model. This change in the tax structure is going to have a huge impact in the supply chain of India. It is currently in sub-optimal and has been structured in such a fashion to avoid taxes.    (Total 203 words)

11. Write a note on India’s green energy corridor to alleviate the problem of conventional energy. (200 words)         10

Important Points for Answer:

Green Energy Corridor         

Problems of conventional energy


Answer: The Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) has firmed up international cooperation agreements with Germany and United States to establish “Green Energy Corridors” in the country.

The conventional energy has various problems like it is non-renewable, causes pollution, creates burden on India’s forex, makes India dependable on energy supply from oil and gas reach countries which creates perpetual risk on energy security.

India’s wind and solar capacity has more than doubled in the last five years. As of 2013, India has 19,564 MW of wind energy while solar has 1,208 MW of installed capacity. India could break the 2 GW solar power barrier by 2020 due to plummeting costs, extensive roof space and the rising demand for electricity.

Therefore, the green energy corridor aims to facilitate the flow of renewable energy into its grid electricity. The corridor will be built across seven states over the next five to six years. The project will be implemented with the assistance of Germany. The grid will also receive support from the World Bank and India’s National Electricity Fund. It aims to connect the southern grid to the national grid by 2014 to create the single largest transmission grid in the world. (Total 200 words)

12. Adoption of PPP model for infrastructure development of the country has not been free from criticism. Critically discuss pros and cons of the model. (200 words) 10

Important Points for Answer:

PPP Model  


Pros & Cons

Answer: PPP model involves government and private sector partnership in execution and operation of projects. The PPP model can be highly beneficial if projects are designed intelligently and innovative models such as the Swiss Challenge Method are incorporated.

Pros of PPP model:

Speedy, efficient and cost effective project delivery

optimal risk management

Efficiencies from integrating design and construction of public infrastructure with financing, operation and maintenance/upgrading

value addition through synergies through the integration and cross transfer of public and private sector skills, knowledge and expertise

Alleviation of capacity constraints and bottlenecks in the economy through higher labour productivity and capital resources availability

Competition and greater construction capacity

Accountability in public service delivery through performance incentive management/regulatory regime.

Innovation and diversity in the provision of public services

Effective utilisation of state assets to the benefit of all users of public services

Cons of PPP model:

PPP contracts are typically much more complicated than conventional procurement contracts.

Development, bidding and ongoing costs are likely to be greater.

Given the long-term nature and complexity of these projects, it is not possible to account for all contingencies.

Profits of the projects can vary depending on the assumed risk, complexity etc

Government representative must be highly specialized personnel and contracting experts so as to be able to protect public interest. (Total 217 words)

13. Bringing out the circumstances in 2005 which forced amendment to the section 3(d) in Indian Patent Law, 1970, discuss how it has been utilized by the Supreme Court in its judgment in rejecting Novratis’ patent application for ‘Glivec’. Discuss briefly the pros and cons of the decision. (200 words)           10

Important Points for Answer:

Amendment of Patent Act in 2005

Decision in Novartis case

Section 3(d)

Pros of decision

Cons of decision

Answer: In March 2005, Indian Parliament approved patent regulations to stop local drug makers from copying new drugs developed by Western companies. The new law amends India’s 1970 Patent Act.

Novartis v. Union of India & Others is a landmark decision by the Supreme Court on the issue of whether Novartis could patent Gleevec in India. The Supreme Court upheld the Indian patent office’s rejection of the patent application. In applying 3(d) of the Act, the Court decided to interpret “efficacy” as “therapeutic efficacy” because the subject matter of the patent is a compound of medicinal value.

Pros of the decision:

Exclusions under section 3(d) present the hard cases that lie at the margins of the patent system.

There will be huge price difference between patented Glivec of Novartis and the generic versions of other companies.

Strict patent requirement would actually enhance innovation as the pharmaceutical companies would have to invest more in R&D to come up with new cures rather than repackage known compounds.

Cons of the decision:

Companies like Novartis would invest less money in research in India as a result of the ruling.

It is another example of a deteriorating innovation environment in India.

This decision is a setback for patients that will hinder medical progress for diseases without effective treatment options.        (Total 216 words)

14. What do you understand by Fixed Dose Drug Combination and demerits. (200 words) 10

Important Points for Answer:


Reasons for FDCs


Answer: Combination products, also known as fixed dose drug combinations (FDCs), are combinations of two or more active drugs in a single dosage form.

It is accepted that most drugs should be formulated as single compounds. Fixed ratio combination products are acceptable only when the combination has a proven advantage over single compounds administered separately.

FDCs are highly popular in the Indian pharmaceutical market. The rationality of FDCs should be based on certain aspects such as:

The drugs in the combination should act by different mechanisms.

The combination should not have supra-additive toxicity of the ingredients.

Most FDCs have the following demerits:

Dosage alteration of one drug is not possible without alteration of the other drug. There are increased chances of adverse drug effects and drug interactions compared with both drugs given individually. FDCs expose patients to unnecessary risk of adverse drug reactions.

In India, a variety of NSAID combinations are available, often as over the counter products. These combinations are an easy way to sell two drugs when one may be needed for the patient.

There is no synergism when two drugs acting on the same enzyme are combined. Combinations of NSAIDS/analgesics with antispasmodic agents are also available in India. They are not only irrational but also could be dangerous. Irrational FDCs also impose unnecessary financial burden on consumers. (Total 221 words)

15. What do you understand by Umpire Decision Review System in Cricket? Discuss its various components. Explain how silicone tape on the edge of a bat may fool the system ? (200 words)           10

Important Points for Answer:

Umpire Decision Review System


Silicone tape

Answer: The Umpire Decision Review System is a technology-based system first introduced in Test cricket, for the sole purpose of reviewing controversial decisions made by the on-field umpires in the case of a batsman being dismissed or not.

A fielding team may use the system to dispute a “not out” call and a batting team may do so to dispute an “out” call.

The challenge can be invoked by signalling a “T” with the arms. Once the challenge is invoked, acknowledged, and agreed, the Third Umpire reviews the play. Field umpires may also request the Third Umpire for certain close calls such as line calls, boundary calls, or for close catch calls.

Hot Spot technology is used as part of a decision review system in professional cricket. It uses thermal imaging (infra-red) technology to look for the heat left behind when the ball makes contact with a surface. As the cricket ball just skims the edge of the bat, friction between the two will generate a small amount of heat at the point of contact. The thermal imagers can detect this heat and therefore prove whether the ball hit the bat or not.

If a batsman put silicon tape on the outside edge of the bat it will reduce or eliminate the ‘hot spot’ left by a ball grazing the edge.      (Total 223 words)

16. (a) What is a digital signature? What does its authentication mean? Give various salient built-in features of a digital signature. (100 words)5

Answer: (a) A digital signature is a mathematical scheme for demonstrating the authenticity of a digital message or document. It is commonly used for software distribution, financial transactions, etc.


Digital signatures can be used to authenticate the source of messages. When ownership of a digital signature secret key is bound to a specific user, a valid signature shows that the message was sent by that user.


All public key/private key cryptosystems depend entirely on keeping the private key secret.

A private key can be stored on a user’s computer, and protected by a local password, but this has two disadvantages:

The user can only sign documents on that particular computer.       (Total 111 words)

(b) How does the 3D printing technology work? List out the advantages and disadvantages of the technology. (100 words)          5

Answer: (b) 3D printing is the fully automated manufacturing process of building three dimensional objects from a digital blueprint or model.


The manufacturing speed for a large number of final products is equally fast.

Even though the initial setup costs are higher, 3D printing has become cheaper.

Possibility of manufacturing of customizable human body parts or organs.


Manufacturing jobs will decrease.

As of now it manufactures products out of plastic, resin, certain metals, and ceramics.

The printing of copyrighted products to create counterfeit items will become common and nearly impossible to determine.

It can create dangerous items, such as guns and knives, with very little or no oversight.

It will be used to create more useless stuff.        (Total 117 words)

17. (a) What is an FRP composite material? How are they manufactured? Discuss their applications in aviation and automobile industries. (100 words)           5

Answer: (a) Fibre-reinforced plastic/polymer (FRP) is a composite material made of a polymer matrix reinforced with fibres. The fibres are usually glass, carbon, basalt or aramid, although other fibres such as paper or wood or asbestos have been sometimes used.

Manufacturing FRP involves two processes. The first is the process whereby the fibrous material is manufactured and formed, the second is the process whereby fibrous materials are bonded with the matrix during moulding. They are often manufactured in sheets, continuous mats, or as continuous filaments for spray applications.

Applications in Aviation and Automobile industry:

They provide structural strength comparable to metallic alloys, but at a lighter weight. This leads to improved fuel efficiency and performance. (Total 115 words)

(b) What do you understand by Run-of-river hydroelectricity project? How is it different from any other hydroelectricity project? (100 words)          5

(b) Run-of-river hydroelectricity (ROR) is a type of hydroelectric generation whereby little or no water storage is provided. ROR power plants may either have no storage at all, or a limited amount of storage, in which case the storage reservoir is referred to as pondage.

ROR projects are dramatically different in design and appearance from conventional hydroelectric projects. Traditional hydro dams store enormous quantities of water in reservoirs, necessitating the flooding of large tracts of land. Most run-of-river projects do not require a large impoundment of water, which is a key reason why such projects are often referred to as environmentally friendly, or “green power”.     (Total 108 words)

18. How important are vulnerability and risk assessment for pre-disaster management ? As an administrator, what are key areas that you would focus on in a Disaster Management System. (200 words)   10

Important Points for Answer:

Risk Assessment

Key Areas to focus

Answer: Understanding the interaction of hazards, exposure and vulnerability is crucial to effective disaster prevention. Risk assessment determines the nature and extent of such risk, by analysing hazards and evaluating existing conditions of vulnerability.

Key areas that an administrator should focus on in a Disaster Management System, consists of the following steps:

Step 1: Understanding of current situation, needs and gaps to assess what already exists, avoids duplication of efforts, and builds on existing information and capacities.

Step 2: Hazard assessment to identify the nature, location, intensity and likelihood of major hazards prevailing in a community or society.

Step 3: Exposure assessment to identify population and assets at risk and delineate disaster prone areas.

Step 4: Vulnerability analysis to determine the capacity (or lack of it) of elements at risk to withstand the given hazard scenarios.

Step 5: Loss/impact analysis to estimate potential losses of exposed population, property, services, livelihoods and environment, and assess their potential impacts on society.

Step 6: Risk profiling and evaluation to identify cost-effective risk reduction options in terms of the socio-economic concerns of a society and its capacity for risk reduction

Step 7: Formulation or revision of DRR (Disaster Risk Reduction) strategies and action plans that include setting priorities, allocating resources (financial or human) and initiating DRR programmes. (Total 215 words)

19. What are the consequences of illegal mining ? Discuss the Ministry of Environment and Forests’ concept of GO AND NO GO zones for coal mining sector. (200 words)           10

Important Points for Answer:

Illegal Mining

Coal Mining

GO and NO GO zones

Answer: Illegal mining in India has raised many concerns among government as well as public level as it does not raise any revenue for government. Natural resources obtained through such practice deprives public of facilities that can be created by government revenue.

Illegal mining is not controlled or regulated by authorities and therefore it encroaches upon forest areas and damages environment irreparably.

The environment ministry had carried out a joint exercise with the coal ministry studying nine major coal mining areas fields (Singrauli, IB valley, Mand Raigarh, Sohagpur, Talcher, Vardha valley, Hasdeo-Arand, North karanpura and West bokaro). The ministry classified blocks into categories of ‘A’ or ‘NO GO areas’ and ‘B’ or ‘GO areas’.

The concept of ‘go and no go’ areas is a new strategy formulated by the Environment Ministry to categorise coal-bearing areas in the country for miners.

Under the Forest Conservation Act, 1980, all diversion of forest cover for non-forest uses requires the approval of FAC.

There is an overlap of the regulations by the Coal Ministry and Environment Ministry over the coal mine rights. The Ministry of Coals had earlier (2010) considered keeping 10% of thickly forested areas in the “no go” zone and open others for mining after following the due clearance process. (Total 210 words)

20. Enumerate the National Water Policy of India. Taking River Ganges as an example, discuss the strategies which may be adopted for river water pollution control and management. What are the legal provisions of management and handling of hazardous wastes in India. (200 words)    10

Important Points for Answer:

National Water Policy

Pollution Control

Hazardous wastes

Strategies – Ganges

Answer: National Water Policy governs the planning and development of water resources and their optimum utilisation.

It envisages that each State shall formulate its own State Water Policy and an operational Action Plan in a time-bound manner so as to promote sustainability and availability of water resources.

It seeks to establish a Water Regulatory Authority and support a National Water Framework Law.

River pollution is a major problem in India, as demonstrated by the Ganga’s status as the sixth most polluted river in the world. While a number of river-clean up initiatives have been undertaken, they have failed to deliver desired results.

Ganga Action Plan (1986) was launched to reduce the pollution load. Supreme Court has ordered relocation of various industrial plants along the Ganges and declared the Gaumukh-Uttarkashi stretch as an “eco-sensitive zone”.

In order to control pollution, strategies to be adopted are :

Inclusion of civil society in pollution management and spread of best practices.

Stringent penalties for polluting industries. The fine amount should be used for pollution management.

Utilize traditional and social media for awareness generation.

Legal provision for hazardous waste:

Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974

Hazardous Wastes (Management, Handling and Transboundary Movement) Rules, 2008 under Environment (Protection) Act, 1986

India is a signatory to the Rotterdam Convention (Total 216 words)

21. Money Laundering poses a serious security threat to a country’s economic sovereignty. What is its significance for India and what steps are required to be taken to control this menace? (200 words)          10

Important Points for Answer:

Money laundering


Steps required

Answer: Money laundering seriously damages economy by creating a parallel economy. Illegally accumulated wealth impedes with decision making by using financial means. Money laundering has been used to finance terrorist and criminal activities.

In India, to control money laundering, it should be ensured that businesses are required to establish appropriate risk-sensitive policies and procedures in order to prevent activities related to money laundering and terrorist financing.

The procedure should provide for identification and scrutiny of complex or unusually large transactions.

Any unusual patterns of transactions with no apparent economic or lawful purpose and other activities should be immediately reported.

Internal control, risk assessment and management, compliance monitoring, management and communication should be part of the policy.

It should also prevent of use of products favouring anonymity.

Procedure should involve customer due diligence involving procedures designed to acquire knowledge about the firm’s clients and prospective clients and to verify their identity as well as monitor business relationships and transactions.

Businesses should ensure sufficient senior management oversight, appropriate analysis and assessment of the risks of clients.

Record keeping, including details of customer due diligence and supporting evidence for business relationships, records of transactions, should be made compulsory.

Businesses are required to take measures to make relevant employees aware of the law relating to money laundering and terrorist finance and also to train those employees. (Total 227 words)

22. What are social networking sites and what security implications do these sites present ?(200 words) 10

Important Points for Answer:

Social Networking

Security implication

Answer: Social networking sites are websites which enable users to share content, original or otherwise, and network with other users. In recent times, they have become one of the primary sources of news dissemination. They are also a key avenue for targeted advertisements and this has solidified their economic importance.

These sites present some major security implications-

They provide an easy avenue for criminal activities due to negligent regulation of activities on the sites.

The anonymity available on these sites enables hate speech and radicalisation of youth. Some terrorist organisations misuse social media for brainwashing young adults.

Such sites have access to our personal data. Since they are private bodies, they are not accountable in the same manner that governments with access to such data are.

The proliferation of fake accounts and troll bots has led to harassment of individuals and groups. Such accounts are sometimes weaponised by sovereign nations as a tool for cyber attack.

Porn activities attacks mainly children and vulnerable ladies. 

They have been medium to commit white collar crimes including banking scams.

The state must facilitate effective regulation of such sites, while taking care that such regulation does not stifle positive aspects of social media such as free speech.           (Total 202 words)

23. Cyber warfare is considered by some defence analysts to be a larger threat than even A1 Qaeda or terrorism. What do you understand by Cyber warfare ? Outline the cyber threats which India is vulnerable to and bring out the state of the country’s preparedness to deal with the same. (200 words) 10

Important Points for Answer:

Cyber warfare


India’s vulnerability


Answer: Cyber warfare is motivated hacking to conduct sabotage and espionage. It is a form of information warfare.

There were 23 reported cyber security breaches in 2004. The Department of Information Technology created the Indian Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT-In) in 2004 to thwart cyber-attacks in India. Yet the breaches increased to 13000 in 2011. So,  the government created a new subdivision, the National Critical Information Infrastructure Protection Centre (NCIIPC) to thwart attacks against energy, transport, banking, telecom, defence, space and other sensitive areas.

Nuclear Power Corporation of India (NPCIL) reported to block up to ten targeted attacks a day. CERT-In was left to protect less critical sectors.

A high profile cyber attack in July 2012 breached the email accounts of about 12,000 people, including those of officials from critical organisations of government. A government-private sector plan began in October 2012 and is overseen by National Security Advisor (NSA). It intends to strengthen India’s cyber security capabilities.

The NCIIPC finalized policies related to national cyber security that would focus on domestic security solutions, reducing exposure through foreign technology.

Other steps include the isolation of various security agencies to ensure that a synchronised attack could not succeed on all fronts and the planned appointment of a National Cyber Security Coordinator.          (Total 212 words)

24. Article 244 of the Indian Constitution relates to administration of scheduled areas and tribal areas. Analyse the impact of non-implementation of the provisions of the Fifth schedule on the growth of Left Wing extremism. (200 words) 10

Important Points for Answer:

Article 244

Fifth Schedule

Left Wing Extremism

Answer: Article 244 requires that the provisions of the Fifth Schedule shall apply to the administration and control of the Scheduled Areas and Scheduled Tribes in States.

The Fifth Schedule of the Constitution [Art 244(1)] appoints Governors as the custodians of tribal rights. It appoints tribal advisory councils to assist Governors in their mandate to development and maintenance of peace.

Customary law has been given primacy in such areas so as to facilitate protection of indigenous cultures.

Governors must make annual reports to the President, and the President is further empowered to issue such directives to the State as might be necessary.

Tribal people are given rights over minor forest produce and minor minerals, and their lands cannot be alienated to non-tribals or otherwise acquired without the Governor’s approval. This is in recognition of the historical harm rendered by outsiders such as ‘Dikus’.

No legislation is applicable to Fifth Schedule Areas unless approved by the Governor with or without modifications.

Despite these extensive provisions, the Schedule is largely ignored in routine governance. This approach towards tribal rights has led tribal peoples to the bosom of Maoists-Naxalists as they have promised preservation of their ‘Jal-Jangal-Jameen’ rights, an approach that tribals find lacking in the governmental machinery.    (Total 209 words)

25. How far are India’s internal security challenges linked with border management particularly in view of the long porous borders with most countries of South Asia and Myanmar ? (200 words)          10

Important Points for Answer:

Internal Security

Border issues


Answer: India’s internal security, act of keeping peace within the borders of a sovereign state,  problems are influenced by a host of factors including its colonial legacy and socio-economic disparities. India’s internal security is also inextricably linked with the border management too, as India shares international borders with 7 countries.

The Indo-Pak border has given rise to internal security challenges stemming from cross-border terrorism, such as in Kashmir.

Illegal immigration, trafficking, smuggling etc along the Indo-Bangladesh border makes it an area of concern, with illegal immigrants in particular presenting a security threat.

India’s open border with Nepal is used for easy entry and exit by terrorists. Further, since Nepal is a surrender route for transformed militants, terrorists can enter in the guise of such militants.

Ethnic clashes in Myanmar impact India’s internal security, as seen in the Bodh Gaya blasts. The Free Movement Regime also aids illegal activities.

China’s assertive posturing towards the Indian state of Arunachal Pradesh and its potential plans to enter India through Myanmar establish it as a threat to Indian borders.

India’s 7500 km maritime border is also vulnerable to infiltration as demonstrated by the 2008 Mumbai terror attacks.

These are some of the challenges faced by India at its borders, which need to be effectively tackled to secure peace within the country. (Total 220 words)

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