Time Allowed : Three Hours      Maximum Marks : 250

Instructions : There are TWENTY questions printed both in English and in Hindi. All tire questions are compulsory. The number of marks carried by a question/part is indicated against it. Answers must be written in the medium authorised in the Admission Certificate which must be stated clearly on the cover of this Question-cum-Answer (QCA) Booklet in the space provided. No marks will be given for answers written in medium other than the authorised one.

Word limit in questions, wherever specified, should be adhered to.

Answer the questions in not more than 200 words each. Contents of the answer is more important than its length. All questions carry equal marks.

Q.1. Normally countries shift from agriculture to industry and then later to services, but India shifted directly from agriculture to services. What are the reasons for the huge growth of services vis-A-vis industry in the country? Can India become a developed country without a strong industrial base?

Important Points for Answer:

•       Agriculture to industry

•       Agriculture to services

•       Lack of growth of industry

•       Growth of services

•       Assessment

Answer: In all societies, initial economic activities are related to agriculture which slowly shifts towards mechanization, modernization and industrialisation as the economy develops. The next stage is service sector.

However, India has more than 50% of workforce engaged in agriculture sector which produces only 14 percent of the GDP. Currently, service sector contributes about 60% of GDP while manufacturing sector accounts for 26%.

In India, industry sector did not grow due to various factors like lack of infrastructure, transportation, energy and capital investment. Government policies, like stringent labour laws, were also hindrance for industrial growth till 1991. Foreign Investment has also not been attracted to industry sector.

However, due to huge demographic dividend, educated young population shifted towards less capital intensive sectors like IT and related industry, tourism, banking, insurance, medical and other sectors.

As Indian economy is already growth riding at the back of service sector, Governement has taken measures like Make in India, Skill India, Start Up India, to promote manufacturing and industry sector. (Total 165 words)

Q.2. “While we flaunt India’s demographic dividend, we ignore the dropping rates of Employability.” What are we missing while doing so? Where will the job that India desperately needs come from? Explain.

Important Points for Answer:

•       Demographic dividend

•       Unemployability

•       Reasons & Loss

•       Sources of employment

Answer: India is a young country with 50 percent of population below age of 25 but productiveness of this available workforce is questionable.

As per a study, only 10% of MBA graduates in India and 17% of engineering graduates are employable. Thus, by 2020, we could have a skill gap of 75-80% across industrial sectors.

The main reason for this low employability is India’s education system which does not focus on training students in employable skills. Moreover, link between industries requirement and education curriculum is largely missing. Resultantly, most industries are currently struggling with scarcity of skilled workforce.

National Policy on Skill Development and has set a target for providing skills to 500 million people by 2022. The policy emphasises on providing vocational education and training to the workforce.

Another issue for decreasing employability is direct shift of Indian economy from agriculture to service sector. But, the services sector employs only highly educated people, whereas most of the Indian labour force is comparatively illiterate. Apart from this, agriculture sector is also lagging behind because of limited land and poor technological base.

To revive the manufacturing, government needs to push labour and tax reforms. The recent roll out of GST and labour reforms along with the Make in India initiative are steps in the right direction to reap India’s demographic dividend. (220 words)

Q.3. There is also a point of view that Agricultural Produce Market Committees (APMCs) set up under the State Acts have not only impeded the development of agriculture but also have been the cause of food inflation in India. Critically examine.

Important Points for Answer:

•       Problems with APMC

•       Mention Link between mandis and inflation

•       Needed Reforms

Answer:The APMC (Agriculture Produce Marketing Committee) is a mandi set up by the state acts to provide an organised market for farmers to sell their produce in fair and transparent manner.

However, over the years APMC mandis have become counterproductive to their cause and created problems for farmers due to restrictions imposed by APMC Acts.

The farmer fail to realize fair price for their produce because of collusion of middleman and traders in the mandi. Moreover, due to lack of cold storage and transportation facility farmers is in no position to take back their produce or to store it.

Farmers have to bear the cost of  transportation and multiple mandi taxes which jack up cost.Apart from that hoarding by traders of commodities like onion creates artificial inflation of food prices.The barriers created by APMC act of states prove hinder in free flow of farm produce compelling farmers to sell their produce on low prices.

Thus, APMC reforms are required including de-listing vegetables and fruits from APMC Act and creating network of E-Mandis as it will give the farmers freedom to sell their products directly to retailers/consumers without the agricultural produce being routed through mandi or middlemen.It will help in bring down food inflation and increase farm income.(213 words)

Q.4. “In the villages itself no form of credit organisation will be suitable except the cooperative society.” — All India Rural Credit Survey

Discuss this statement in the background of agricultural finance in India. What constraints and challenges do financial institutions supplying agricultural finance face? How can technology be used to better reach and serve rural clients?

Important Points for Answer:

•       Agricultural Finance

•       Challenges to Agricultural financing

•       Use of Technology

Answer: Cooperatives are best financing institutions for small farmers in rural areas. They provide access to competitive credit and inputs sources, manage risks and assess technical assistance and other services. It is the best model for rural finance in India because it saves the farmer from the cost of high interest rates and risk of losing mortgage. Borrowing from non-institutional sources like money lenders and middleman increases risk.

Agricultural financing faces various challenges as even after government efforts like priority sector lending, farm subsidies and expansion of rural bank branches, only five percent of the credit offtake reserved for primary sector is taken by small and marginal farmers. It is due to strict guidelines and norms, such as KYC issued by the banks. And, due to lack of awareness, small farmers are not able to get the loans from the financial institutions such as banks, RRBs or NABARD.

Use of technology in agricultural financing may open up the ways to reach to the poor and rural farmers. Simple mobile enabled technology which can be linked with rural banks can be useful. Multi-lingual apps can facilitate the process. All these efforts will result in making agriculture sector productive to harness India’s demographic dividend.       (204 words)

Q.5. The Right to Fair Compensation and Transparency in Land Acquisition, Rehabilitation and Resettlement Act, 2013 has come into effect from 1st January, 2014. What are the key issues which would get addressed with the Act in place? What implications would it have on industrialisation and agriculture in India?

Important Points for Answer:

•       Main Features of the Act

•       Main issues address

•       Implications on agriculture and industrialisation

Answer: The acquisition of land in India is governed by LARR Act, 2013. Lack of transparency and allegation of corruption reduces confidence of people to give their land.

The new act has the following features:

• Higher compensation of four times the market value in rural areas and two times of the market value in urban areas.

• Consent of 70 percent affected people in for PPP projects and 80 percent in private project.

• Mandatory Social Impact Assessment for affected population with remedial measures for rehabilitation and resettlement.

Implications of the act on agriculture and industrialisation in India:

   (a)       It will provide an efficient mechanism in resolving the conflicts between the community and industries on lower compensation.

   (b)       The large scale agricultural land acquisitions will have a negative effect on the agricultural development because of the absence of the clause, that only non-agricultural land can be acquired for projects.

   (c)       Absence of clear cut policy for returning the unused land would seriously harm the land resources and also affects the food security negatively.

   (d)       Private industries fear delay in projects because of mandatory Social Impact Assessment and 80% consent requirements.

   (e)       The act might affect the manufacturing industries in a significant manner as these units require large land and acquiring such large amount of might be a problem.          (216 words)

Q.6. Capitalism has guided the world economy to unprecedented prosperity. However, it often encourages short-sightedness and contributes to wide disparities between the rich and the poor? In this light, would it be correct to believe and adopt capitalism for bringing inclusive growth in India? Discuss.

Important Points for Answer:

•       Capitalism

•       Benefits of capitalism

•       Limitations of capitalism

•       Relevance in bringing inclusive growth in India

Answer: Capitalism is an economic system in which means of production are largely or entirely in private hands. Historically, capitalism has been one of the most successful economic system, but at times it also breeds inequality, repression of workers and concentration of wealth in few hands. Labour revolutions are result of such capitalism which has neglected social and moral aspects of society and concentrated only on profit making.

As India strives to become an economic giant in the world where capitalism and globalisation remain the two important drivers.India need to create a free market to shoot up its growth but it must be the inclusive growth.The business environment in India is changing, allowing entrepreneurial spirit to flourish. This trend is reflected in corporate profit and wages relative to GDP.

With effective and rational regulations and fair competition, capitalism can bring fast and inclusive growth in India. Measures like corporate social responsibility give a welfare face to capitalism in India.

Overall, in India the meaning of capitalism should not be absence of regulations over industries but to provide mechanism to facilitate industries to function for benefits of workers as well as to ensure environmental sustainability.(195 word)

Q.7. Explain how Private Public Partnership arrangements, in long gestation infrastructure projects, can transfer unsustainable liabilities to the future. What arrangements need to be put in place to ensure that successive generations’ capacities are not compromised?

Important Points for Answer:

•       What is PPP?

•       Burden on future

•       Needed reforms

Answer: Private Public Partnership arrangements (PPP) as defined by government of India is an agreement where public sector entity (sponsored authority) and a private sector entity collaborate to manage or create a public infrastructure project.

These projects often have long gestation with limited scope of renegotiation along with other issues like project becoming unviable for private firm, issues in land acquisition, delay in environmental clearance, etc.

Moreover, in majority of cases the project is financed by a public sector bank and failure of project creates problem of non performing assets.

Accordingly, urgent PPP reforms are suggested:

• Timing and cost of the project should be assessed and fixed in more transparent manner with well defined penalties in case of delay of project.

• The model should be prepared with assessment of future conditions in mind.

• Risk-sharing model should be more comprehensive and critical issues should be addressed with future reference in mind.

• PPP policy should focus on creating investor friendly atmosphere so that finance is available to finish project on time.

• New investment options like sovereign bonds must be introduced.

India needs infrastructure to boost her economic growth and rolling out PPP project is the best option to reduce infrastructure crunch, thus prompt reforms must be taken. (205 words)

Q.8. National Urban Transport Policy emphasises on ‘moving people’ instead of ‘moving vehicles’. Discuss critically the success of the various strategies of the Government in this regard.

Important Points for Answer:

•       National Urban Transport Policy

•       Measures

•       Strategies

•       Success

Answer: With a vision to create sustainable cities, government has come up with the National Urban Transport Policy(NUTP) in 2014.The policy aims to move people rather than vehicles by taking the following steps:

• To allocate more road space for public vehicles

• Introduction of Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) system

• Integration of land use and transportation planning

Moreover, the government has, under the NUTP, required that cities must comply with the new NUTP to have access to JNNURM funds for city development. Now, each city must come up with a City Mobility Plan to guide future growth of transportation in cities.In addition to that, the Government has also initiated the Sustainable Urban Transport Project in partnership with Global Environment Facility, World Bank and UNDP.

Government has initiated Sustainable Urban Transport Project (SUTP) with the support of Global Environment Facility (GEF) and the World Bank.

However, even while government is trying to encourage people to use public transport but, with exception of a few cities, people still prefer private vehicles. As people find issues with availability, condition of public vehicles and dissatisfactory safety arrangements in public transport.

Thus public transportation needs more improvement but cooperation and support of city dwellers is also required to turn cities into engine of growth.(Total 209 words)

Q.9. Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in the defence sector is now set to be liberalized. What influence this is expected to have on Indian defence and economy in the short and long run?

Important Points for Answer:

•       FDI in defence manufacturing

•       Influence of liberalised FDI in defence

Answer: India, the largest importer of defence equipment, has recently liberalised FDI norms in defence sector with 49% investment allowed under direct route and 100% investment allowed in special cases where sensitive technology would be brought in.

This is a very critical step to boost up India’s defence manufacturing sector, which till now remains untapped due to the strict regulations. Easing up FDI would positively affect the defence sector and Indian economy in various ways.

In the short term, the defence sector will attract much needed capital from both foreign as well as Indian investors. Now with liberalised FDI India, defence sector will have access to state of the art technology through transfer of technology arrangement. It will keep Indian defence forces up to date and reduce cost of import of military equipment.

In long term, the liberalised FDI policy will save precious FOREX of India and will help in strengthening Indian rupee. Over the time India could turn from defence equipment importer to exporter.  Additional employment opportunities will be created at defence manufacturing units. With arrival of private defence manufacturers, DRDO will be able to increase its capability and  performance to remain in competition.

If explored carefully and utilised properly, the FDI measures can bring India enormous benefits for her economy as well as defence.(Total 215 words)

Q.10. Scientific research in Indian universities is declining, because a career in science is not as attractive as are business professions, engineering or administration, and the universities are becoming consumer-oriented. Critically comment.

Important Points for Answer:

•       Situation of research in India

•       Reasons for the dismal picture

•       Importance of research and way forward

Answer: One of the important task of universities is to perform research over the important needs of society with changing times. However, India spends less than 1% of its GDP in R&D, while China as well as some other nations spend around 5% of their GDP on research. The primary issue for this peculiar position is the flawed policy framework which do not provide enough opportunities for students to pursue research.

Research in science requires huge supporting facilities such as laboratories, equipment and finances. But due to lack of government encouragement and funding, universities are not able to provide the same. Therefore, students do not get opportunities to conduct and carry on science research. Therefore, universities provide demand based education.

Similarly, as mostly Indian students come from middle class, without adequate government support, they tend to go in field which provides adequate and immediate financial benefits.

Further, Government and big universities has failed to make young populace aware about the importance of research which makes them to go for engineering, management, banking, etc. rather than towards research.

Other avenues are giving profitable careers than science research. Poor IPR regime also leads to patent violation of scientific research. It discourages students to invest valuable time in invention and R&D in science. (Total 211 words)

Q.11. Can overuse and free availability of antibiotics without Doctor’s prescription, be contributors to the emergence of drug-resistant diseases in India? What are the available mechanisms for monitoring and control? Critically discuss the various issues involved.

Important Points for Answer:

•       Antibiotics-overuse

•       Problems

•       Drug Resistance

•       Monitoring and Control

Answer: An antibiotic is a bio-chemical agent that kills or inhibits the growth of microbes. However, its frequent and inappropriate use can develop resistance in microbes such as NDM1, XDR-TB, MDR-TB and I TDR-TB.

In India, the problem is very serious because of popular use of self medication, over the counter sale of antibiotics and presence of quacks.In addition that antibiotics fed to poultry and mulched animals also contribute in creating drug resistant bacteria strain.

Available mechanism to control this menace are:

Over the counter sale of antibiotics should be restricted and sale of drugs without doctors prescription must be banned by enforcing available regulations.

Awareness campaign for reduced use of antibiotics must be started in an aggressive mode.

People must be made aware of importance of keeping hygiene around themselves. It would reduce bacterial spread.Swacth Baharat mission is a good step in this direction.

Various livestock farms and hospital units should be monitored carefully so that overuse of antibiotics can be controlled.

Advance antibiotics must be used on line with the directions of WHO.

India has already started her fight against anti-microbial infection with Chennai Declaration and „RED LINE CAMPAIGN“.           (Total 197 words)

Q.12. In a globalized world, Intellectual Property Rights assume significance and are a source of litigation. Broadly distinguish between the terms—Copyrights, Patents and Trade Secrets.

Important Points for Answer:

•       Intellectual Property Right

•       Significance and Litigations

•       Distinguish—Copyrights, Patents and Trade Secrets.

Answer: Intellectual Property Right is a legal right granted to protect a form of intellectual property for example, a patent right, design right, trademark right or a copyright. The right is accorded to a creative work, invention or design, if it is an original work of a person. The same being intangible property is susceptible to theft and commercial misuse to the disadvantage of the owner. Therefore, it has become a source of litigation in the globalised work.

These terms – Copyrights, Patents and Trade Secrets can be differentiated on the basis of type, requirement, period and need of registration.

Patent: Patent grants exclusive rights for the production, sale and profit from the invention. It is usually granted for 15-20 years. And needs compulsory registration in original country.

Copyright: Legal right granted to an author, composer, playwright, publisher or distributor to exclusive publication, production, sale or distribution of literary, musical, dramatic or artistic work. It is based on originality and wide utility and granted for different period in different type of works. Its infringement is very common.

Trade Secret: It is a form of industrial property which refers to a non-patented process, mechanism or formula, known only to its owner that is used in producing something of commercial value. It involves something confidential. It also does not grant any legal rights.(Total 221 words)

Q.13. Should the pursuit of carbon credits and clean development mechanisms set up under UNFCCC be maintained even though there has been a massive slide in the value of a carbon credit? Discuss with respect to India’s energy needs for economic growth.

Important Points for Answer:

•       Carbon credit

•       Reason for decline in prices

•       India’s Position

•       Way Forward

Answer: A carbon credit is a generic term for any tradable certificate or permit representing the right to emit one tonne of carbon dioxide or the mass of another greenhouse gas equivalentto one tonne of carbon dioxide.

In recent times, because of the following reasons, carbon credit prices took a slump:

• Over supply of carbon credits.

• Speculation about ban of carbon credits in European Union system.

• Recession resulted reduced production, hence, reduced demand of carbon credits.

• Non-materialisation of KYOTO protocol also discouraged businesses to adopt clean energy.

India along with other developing countries is a major seller of carbon credits and reduced prices are hurting India. Moreover, energy needs of India is increasing given to her expanding urbanisation and rising living standards. In this scenario continued pursuit of carbon credit may have long term investments in power plants, which would be very negative in the context of Indian energy needs.

However, the concept of carbon credit is for reducing green house gases, pollutants and having replaceable clean environment to compensate the industrial growth. Any shift from cleaner practice, only because of reduced prices and non following of carbon credit, would harm environment. India being a developing and energy hungry economy, addition in pollutant would harm in long term as expenditure in health sector would be costlier.           (Total 217 words).

Q.14.Drought has been recognised as a disaster in view of its spatial expanse, temporal duration, slow onset and lasting effects on vulnerable sections. With a focus on the September 2010 guidelines from the National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA), discuss the mechanisms for preparedness to deal with likely El Nino and La Nina fallouts in India.

Important Points for Answer:

•       Droughts

•       El Nino, La Nina, Indian monsoon

•       Guidelines and their implemention

Answer:Droughts is a condition of water stress. It can be caused due non-availability of water or mismanagement of water. India with over 40 percent rain fed agriculture area is very much prone to droughts almost every year.

Since El Nino and Indian Monsoon are inversely related, so during the El Nino years, monsoon have generally been poor in India. While La Nina usually results in better than normal monsoon in India.

In response to this condition, National Disaster Management Authority(NDMA) issued guidelines in 2010 on the management of drought, so that the consequences of drought can be minimized.The guidelines include establishment of India Drought Management Centre as well as Separate Drought Monitoring Cells at the State level, who will work under the control of the respective State Governments.

The other important guidelines suggest that when the monsoon is good, i.e. during the La Nina period, promoting conservation of water with rainwater harvesting, promoting watershed approach, and use of remote sensing to determine crop water needs can be practiced.

Establishment and maintenance of transportation links to ensure regular supply of food and other essentials. Increased insurance coverage for crops as well as livestock. Implementation of works under MNREGA should also be priortised. Delineation of drought prone areas is also necessary for effective mitigation and targeted response.(219 words)

Q.15. Environmental Impact Assessment studies are increasingly undertaken before a project is cleared by the Government. Discuss the environmental impacts of coal-fired thermal plants located at coal pitheads.

Important Points for Answer:

•       Environment Impact Assessment (EIA)

•       EIA of coal fired thermal plants

Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is a process of evaluating the likely environmental impacts of a proposed project or development, taking into account inter-related socio-economic, cultural and human-health impacts.

However, in case of coal mining and coal based power plants, EIA is recently started and still a rare phenomenon. Resultantly, coal based thermal power plants continues to create problems. Moreover, it becomes local problem for coal bearing areas as maximum coal based power plants are located at coal pitheads to avoid transportation costs.

Coal based thermal power plants create heavy air pollution in surrounding areas. It contributes to 20 per cent of greenhouse gas emissions.

• Most of the coal bearing areas in India are situated in the place with thick forests, hence its exploitation would have adverse impact of deforestation combined with pollution.

• The dumping of coal slurry pollutes local land and water resources by heavy metals like boron.

• Further, the natural soil near coal pitheads becomes more alkaline due to fly-ash, thereby damaging the agriculture in the surrounding region.

• Thus, EIA should be made compulsory for both existing and newly planned thermal power plants.Effective ash usage policy and  strengthened monitoring by regulators will go in a long way to reduce this localised pollution with global effect.       (Total 211 words)

Q.16. “The diverse nature of India as a multi-religious and multi-ethnic society is not immune to the impact of radicalism which is seen in her neighbourhood.” Discuss along with strategies to be adopted to counter this environment.

Important Points for Answer:

•       Radicalism

•       Radicalisation in neighbouring countries

•       India’s vulnerability

•       Measures needs

Answer: Radicalisation is the process by which individuals, usually young people, are introduced to an overtly ideological message and belief system that encourages movement from moderate, mainstream beliefs towards extreme views.

Radicalism has become a primary threat in neighbouring areas of Pakistan, Iran, Iraq, etc.,due to rise of Islamic groups like ISIS and Al Qaeda.

India is also not completely immune from radicalisation due to various reasons including diverse population and different religions. There are poverty and illiteracy to add to the vulnerabilities. Possible religious extremism and dissatisfaction towards the governance system may also result into radicalism in India. Multi religious society has many fractured lines on religious grounds which can be exploited by domestic and external factors. Similarly, ethnicity has, on occasions, created tension among various parts of India, thus, creating a risk of radicalism.

Therefore, India needs to adopt effective strategy to counter radicalization. It includes various steps like:

Firstly, terrorism must be controlled and uprooted from India.

Secondly, intelligence network need to be strengthened and law and order situation must be closely monitored in critical areas.

Thirdly, India needs to remain vigilant against cyber indoctrination which is a preferred method for spreading terrors by the extremists.(Total 199 words)

Q.17. International civil aviation laws provide all countries complete and exclusive sovereignty over the airspace above their territory. What do you understand by ‘airspace’? What are the implications of these laws on the space above this airspace? Discuss the challenges which this poses and suggest ways to contain the threat.

Important Points for Answer:

•       Airspace

•       Laws which guides air space

•       Challenges and ways

Answers: Airspace, in international law, is the space above a particular national territory, treated as belonging to the government controlling the territory. Sovereignty of a nation includes territorial waters but excludes outer space.

It may be categorised as :

   (a)       Controlled airspace: it exists where it is deemed necessary, that air traffic control has some form of positive executive control over aircraft flying in that airspace.

   (b)       Uncontrolled airspace: is airspace in which air traffic control does not exert any executive authority, although it may act in an advisory manner

This exclusion of outer space remains a very serious issue. As there is no single definition of vertical extent of air space. And in every country, there is a different limitation,eg USA considers 100 km limitation of outer space.

In present technological advanced era, this loophole provides space for militarisation  of outer space. Technically advanced countries can place weapons vertically over another country by claiming it as free zone outside airspace of target country. This uncontrolled outer space may create existential threat to a nation.

Thus now its high time for countries and international organisations to take up this issue and declare outer space as no weapon zone on the line of Antarctica for sake of whole humanity.(Total 207 words)

Q.18. How does illegal transborder migration pose a threat to India’s security? Discuss the strategies to curb this, bringing out the factors which give impetus to such migration.

Important Points for Answer:

•       Transborder migration

•       Impact on India’s security

•       Strategy

Answer: Open, porous and non demarcation of eastern borders of India creates a conducive environment for illegal immigrants to sneak in towards India. This has become a major issue in states of North-East especially Assam.

Lack of job opportunities in home countries and better opportunities in India, threat of persecution, etc., drive people out of their country. Recent Rohingya crisis is result of such exodus.

This illegal immigration poses numerous threats to country’s security:

It creates pressure over scarce resources which leads to conflict and violence.

Illegal border crossing is disturbing regional demographics,resulting into mass clashes with the local residents.

Migrants have also promoted anti-national extremism in border states.

Terrorist also use Trans-border illegal migration to get into Indian borders.

Fake currency and drugs smuggled into the Indian territory with help of illegal migrants.

Even flesh trading is being reported.

Some of the suggested strategies to curb illegal migration are:

Use of unique identification methods like UIDAI to weed out illegal migrants.

Better border management practices like fencing, introduction of floating barriers etc will help in reducing flow of illegal migrants.

Use of diplomacy to pursue neighbouring countries to stop illegal migration and take back those which are illegally living in India.

Moreover, it should be communicated that any threat to Indian security will be dealt stringently.     (220 words)

Q.19. In 2012, the longitudinal marking for high-risk areas for piracy was 65 degrees east to 78 degrees east in the Arabian Sea by the Int Maritime Organisation. What impact does this have on India’s security concerns?

Important Points for Answer:

•       Explain reasons of change

•       Highlight impacts it has on India’s maritime security

Answer: Indian ocean remained vulnerable to piracy especially on Somalia coast but sometimes piracy incidents extend upto Lakshdweep. International Maritime Organisation and the Contact Group on Piracy Off the Coast o (CGPCS) decided to move the longitudinal marking of the high risk area in Arabian Sea from 65° to 78° east.

This decision of IMO is having following implication on India:

Now merchant vessels can have armed guards while sailing close to Indian shores. Thus it can create situation like  enrica lexica where two Italian marines shot Indian fisherman.

Moreover, insurance has become 300 times more expensive for Indian ships because they have to sail into high risk zones.This makes shipping costly which makes imports expensive and exports uncompetitive for Indian traders.

Along with that, navigation of international ships creates hindrance in Indian coastal traffic.

This action creates a serious issue for India’s maritime trade as well as its national security.

It will also deviate ships to other routes, which may create loss to Indian industry as availability of ships will be reduced.

Due these issues along with the fact that piracy is coming down,India has been demanding rollback of this international regulation.(194 words)

Q.20. China and Pakistan have entered into an agreement for development of an economic corridor. What threat does this pose for India’s security? Critically examine.

Important Points for Answer:

•       China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC)

•       Strategic importance

•       Threats to India

Answer: China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) is a network of railways, roads and pipeline which connects Xinjiang province of China to Gwadar port of Pakistan located in Persian gulf of Indian ocean.

Though China sells the project as an economic project but its strategic importance is much more than its economic importance. The project has direct security and strategic implications for India.

Firstly, the projects runs through POK and Aksai Chin areas which are de jure Indian territories, thus, infringes India’s territorial integrity.

Secondly, the presence of Chinese troops near construction site have military implications for India.

Thirdly, this multi model project provides improved connectivity to Indian borders which could be used by Pakistan based terrorist groups to harm India.

Strategically, presence of Chinese in Persian Gulf undermines India’s security in that area. Resultantly, India’s energy security becomes vulnerable, since India’s oil imports pass through Persian Gulf.

However, on a positive note, the corridor can bring stability and jobs for Pakistani youth which is good news for India as it will make harder for terrorist group to hire youth.

Overall India must take a cautious approach while dealing with issue of this China Pakistan Economic Corridor on the ground of violation of its sovereignty as it passes through Indian territory. (Total 209 words)

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