Time Allowed: Three Hours       Maximum Marks: 300

Candidates should attempt All questions strictly in accordance with the instructions given under each question.

Q. 1 Answer any TWO of the following (Answer to each question should be in about 150 words):  15×2= 30

(a) Discuss the major irritants in Indo-China relations and highlight the latest moves to overcome these.

Important Points for Answer:

India – China relations

Problematic issues

Steps of solution


Answer: India and China have major irritants in their relations, from historical times, related to borders and boundary issue. Both have disputed border of 1,25,000 square km.

Some boundary issues are also hurdles. China claims a part of Arunachal Pradesh and does not recognise Sikkim as Indian territory, showing it as a separate nation over its website. While India does not consider Tibet a part of China, which China claims to be. These issues and illegal trades between two countries are major irritants. But in recent time, positive and constructive changes are there in this direction.

Chinese President’s visit to India and Jaswant Singh’s China tour has influenced policy of each country. Both have decided to solve the problem of Line of Actual Control. Both nations agreed to fight terrorism with joint cooperation.

In economic field, they cooperated and proposed to reconstitute joint economic group. Tourism and space cooperation issues also played a role in overcoming the irritants between India and China. (Total 161 words)

(b) How did U.S. respond to the problem of Cross-border terrorism in the State of Jammu and Kashmir after the Kaluchak events?

Important Points for Answer:

Kaluchak event – detail

Response of US

Answer: Kaluchak is a place in Kashmir where a terrorist attack killed thirty four army soldiers of India in May 2002.. This attack by Laskar-e-Toiba terrorists is, in fact, a part of Pakistan supported terrorist activities. All the three terrorists killed in this incident were Pakistani nationals.

The President of the United States George W. Bush condemned the massacre as a “terrible and outrageous act” and said that he was “appalled at the incident”. America has also expressed discontent with Pakistan’s attitude. Almost the whole world has expressed support to India’s fight against terrorism.

Arrival of Mr. Armitage after this incident in India, led to detailed discussion for the fight against terrorism and expression of America’s support.

America has praised India’s fight and assured to stand by in this fight. Both the countries have agreed to create a strong voice in all over the world against such cross border terrorism and to combine in such efforts. (Total 157 words)

(c) Account for India’s opposition to Comprehensive Test Ban treaty.

Important Points for Answer:

CTBT – provisions

India’s contention


Answer: India opposes the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) on the following grounds:

It does not provide for the total disarmament of atomic or nuclear weapons.

It has provisions to increase influence of the five nations with nuclear weapons by allowing them to retain.

Other developing countries are devoid from gaining nuclear power capacity under the treaty.

It encourages computerised use and experiments of nuclear weapons.

This treaty does not put the work of inspection in any international organisation but in a nation, America, which India does not find a neutral provision.

It is to bind other nations, like India from acquiring nuclear capacity and yet not removing nuclear capacity as a whole from the world.

It does not propose a nuclear power free world and a time for that.

Because of these impartialities of provision in this treaty, India has not signed and has opposed the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. (Total 150 words)

Q. 2 Answer the following (Answer to each question should be in about 20 words):         2 × 5 = 10

(a) Explain India’s stand on LTTE.

Answer: Indian Peace Keeping Force in Sri Lanka confronted with LTTE. India has always taken strict stand against LTTE in efforts for peace. LTTE suicide bomber killed PM Rajiv Gandhi.

(b) What does ‘Gujral doctrine’ stand for ?

Answer: Propounded by former Foreign Minister and Prime Minister I K Gujaral, the doctrine has five principles of India’s foreign policy to end contestations with neighbours and walk extra mile.

(c) How does India benefit from good neighbourly relations with Bangladesh ?

Answer: Hydrological power generation, flood control, control on terrorist activities and prevention of illegal infiltration are the main benefits of good neighbourly relations with Bangladesh.

(d) What do you know about ‘Pinaka’ ?

Answer: Pinaka is a multiple rocket launcher produced indigenously in India by DRDO for theIndian Army, having capability of 40 km range for Mark 1 and 75 km for Mark 2.

(e) Explain India’s ‘No First Use’ policy in context of Nuclear Weapons.

Answer: It means that India will use nuclear weapons only to counter a nuclear attack and not use them in first instance.

Q. 3 Answer the following (Answer to each question should be in about 20 words):         2 × 5 = 10

(a) What are the problems NRIs have to face if they decide to settle in India ?

Answer: Changed patterns of life and standard of living, difference of culture, social traditions, administration, customs and governance are the factors they have to set up with. They may face problems in such set up.

(b) What was India Millennium Deposit Scheme ?

Answer: The State Bank of India proposed this scheme to attract Indians abroad to invest foreign currency capital in India by offering attractive terms and benefits, to counter the depreciation of Indian rupee.

(c) What has been the impact of Gulf remittances on India’s economy ?

Answer: It has given India a huge amount of foreign currency. During the 90s it played a great role in India’s social and economic development.

(d) Name the nodal agency to deal with issues relating to Indians abroad and explain its main task.

Answer: Indian Embassy or Consulates under the Ministry of External Affairs is the nodal agency of Government of India and it assists Indians in any eventuality as well as all procedural issues.

(e) What is distinction between ‘Non Resident Indian’ and ‘People of India origin’ ?

Answer: NRIs are those who stay out of India for more than 182 days in a year or have not stayed 365 days in India in last four years. PIO, is that who had acquired Indian Passport anytime or either of his parents or grand parents is Indian and had been resident of unpartitioned India.

Q. 4 Answer any ONE of the following (Answer should be in about 250 words) :

(a) Outline the main targets fixed in the National Population Policy 2000. What have been the follow up measures to this policy?      30

Important Points for Answer:

Policy – provisions, targets

Follow-up Measures

Answer: Indian Population Policy – 2000 adopts some clear objectives, strategic themes and operational strategies. Some socio-demographic goals are to be achieved by 2010 according to the policy.

Policy aims to achieve stabilised population by 2045. To reduce Infant Mortality Rate to 30 per one thousand live births. Mortality Rate is targeted to achieve at 100 per one lakh persons. It ensures that, according to its target, 100 percent delivery should be by trained doctors and 80 per cent institutional delivery is targeted.

For the achievement of these objectives and goals, education is considered to be of much importance and necessity. The age of marriage of a girl is fixed at 18 years and for a boy is 21 years, minimum. Delivery and abortion centres are increased in numbers to prevent unwanted child births and ensure proper delivery for a healthy child.

To implement and follow the targeted policies various economic and other rewards are proposed. Follow up measures to ensure the policy implementation are:

To strengthen community, primary and sub-health centres.

Integrated package of necessary health services to extend basic health services and child health at village and household levels are to be provided through mobile clinics and counselling services.

This policy convergences the Family Welfare Programmes necessary for this policy with related social services to make it people centred.

More important among all is that the policy sets up a National Commission on Population under the Chairmanship of the Prime Minister to oversee the implementation of the National Population Policy. (Total 252 words)

(b) The main thrust of Export-Import Policy 2002 – 07 is on creating a framework for enhancing India’s export capability. In the light of this statement outline the salient features of EXIM Policy 2002-07. 30

Important Points for Answer:

EXIM Policy 2002-07 – features

Salient Features

Answer: The Export-Import Policy, 2002-07 aims at enhancing exports from India, both in terms of quantity and types.

To realise this objective, it has provided some special exemptions, liberalisation and policy benefits, to export oriented units.

It has, to enhance agricultural exports from India, allowed export of crops. For this, the policy has abolished quantitative restrictions from every crop except onion and jute. Not only permission, but subsidy is being provided to export fruits, vegetables, milk products and some other selected goods. This was necessary for them to compete with the subsidised goods of agricultural production exported from the developed countries. The Government has established 20 Agricultural Export Zones for promotion of agricultural goods export.

Besides these, provisions for Agricultural Export Promotion, some other changes are also introduced. With the abolition of ‘Duty Exemption Entitlement Certificate’, it was necessary and so introduced the scheme of “Advanced Licence” for exports. For African, Russian and Latin American exporters, “Export House” series is constituted. Units exporting goods of more than five crore rupees annually would be included in this series and provided with tax benefits and some policy liberalisations.

Handicrafts and cottage industries are also proposed duty exemptions if they account for exports of more than five crore rupees a year.

Mainly, Special Economic Zones (SEZ), constituted under the policy are hoped to promote exports from India and so are provided with facilities of Reduced Cash Reserve Ratio, permission to get loan and investment from foreign investors, exemption from Central Sales tax etc.

This aims to increase India’s export by 12 percent and increase India’s share in the foreign trade to one percent from present 0.6 percent. (Total 275 words)

Q. 5 Answer any TWO of the following (Answer to each question should be in about 150 words):  15 × 2 = 30

(a) What are ‘Minimum Support Prices’ in agricultural products? What are their objectives?

Important Points for Answer:

MSP – meaning


Answer: First time announced in 1965, the ”Minimum Support Prices” (MSP) are those prices at which the Government is ready to purchase the production of crop from the farmers, in case of fall in market prices below the MSP. Because of this assurance by the Government, the market prices never come down than the minimum support prices.

These prices are announced on the recommendations of Agriculture Cost and Price Commission (ACPC), by the Government with the objectives of

   (i)        Assure remunerative and relatively stable price environment for the farmers by inducing them to increase production and thereby augment the availability of food grains.

   (ii)       Improve economic access of food to people.

   (iii)      Evolve a production pattern which is in line with overall needs of the economy.

These Minimum Support Prices have given rise to the production of crops in our country leading, sometimes, to surplus of some particular crops and their export, contributing to our economy. (Total 155 words)

(b) Outline the main objectives and achievements of the policy of disinvestment in India.

Important Points for Answer:


Main objectives

Effects on economy

Policy measures

Answer: The New Industrial Policy of 1991 has started plan for disinvestment. The Government has public sector undertakings in which massive investment is that of the Government.

Some objectives of the disinvestment include to release government’s capital from PSUs and to divert them into social sectors which can raise standard of living of people. By disinvestment, to increase private sector participation and to create a competitive market by withdrawing government monopoly and regulations. Maximum distribution of wealth by shares distribution to wide base of public. And the most important among all is to reduce the Government’s expenditure. Due to implementation of this disinvestment policy, some benefits that have been achieved are that Government could raise twenty thousand crores of rupees by disinvestment of about fifty PSUs and this amount can be directed towards social sector for raising basic facilities like education, health, etc. Salaries of employees has been increased, quality is being improved due to competition and the Government expenditure is reduced to a portion. (Total 164 words)

(c) With what objectives was ‘Essential Commodities Act 1955’ amended last year?

Important Points for Answer:

Act – Main provisions

Amendment – objectives

Answer: The Essential Commodities Act 1955 imposes restrictions and regulations on trade and distribution of some commodities declared to be essential for human life. The list of items under the Act include drugs, fertilisers, pulses and edible oils, and petroleum and petroleum products.

It was amended, the step known as ‘New Grain Policy’ to liberalise the regulations with objectives of :

opening the market to make it competitive

to protect the interests of farmers by increasing chances of earning higher profits.

to make production reach to scarce areas.

to increase investment of private sectors.

to increase exports of production to foreign markets.

All these objectives behind the amendment are to be achieved through some positive provisions like elimination of License system. Wheat, rice, oil seeds, etc. can be stored and distributed now, as the regulating and restricting provisions have been removed.

Behind all these, was the aim of encouraging free trade and its benefit to India. (Total 154 words)

Q. 6 Answer the following (Answer to each question should be in about 20 words):         2 × 15 = 30

(a) What is peak rate of Custom duty ? What are its objectives in India ?

Answer: The peak rate of Custom duty is the highest rate, currently 35 percent. Its main objectives are Revenue and Protection to home industries.

(b) Define fiscal deficit.

Answer: Fiscal Deficit is the excess of total expenditure over total receipts excluding borrowings and other liabilities.

Fiscal Deficit = Budgetary Deficit + Borrowings and other liabilities.

(c) Explain the provision of OGL.

Answer: An Open General Licence (OGL) is a type of export licence issued by a government to its domestic suppliers. In most countries, they are the licences with minimal restrictions. It may be an import licence which facilitates free import without limitations.

(d) Elucidate ‘Special Economic Zones’.

Answer: They provides relaxation in tax and duties for the purpose of encouraging export and are considered foreign territory for the customs purpose.

(e) Highlight salient feature of ‘National Highway Development Project’.

Answer: It is a 14000 km long road project to join ports and important commercial cities, to boost trade and commerce through good transportation facilities.

(f) What is the role of SEBI ?

Answer: SEBI plays a role of regulating body which deals with all matters relating to development and regulation of Securities market and investor protection, also it advises the Government on all these matters.

(g) Explain RBI’s ‘Automatic route’ in FDIs.

Answer: No permission is required for foreign direct investment through this route. NBFCs, Non-Banking Finance Companies and SEZs – Special Economic Zones are parts of the RBI’s Automatic Route.

(h) With what objectives was ’Annapurna’ Scheme launched ?

Answer: Annapurna Scheme was launched in March 1999 to provide 10 kg food grains to those senior citizens who do not get pension. Later on, it was extended to cover those people also who get old age pensions.

(i) Elucidate ‘Sampoorna Gramin Rozgar Yojna’.

Answer: Aimed at providing employment to rural labours, food security and social and economic progress, this is a Central Government Scheme implemented from September, 2001.

(j) The Union Budget 2002-03 recommended some services to be taxed. Name any 4 of these services.

Answer: Four services are:

Life insurance.

Ware houses.

Health clubs.

Transportation of goods from ports in country.

(k) What is ‘dumping’?What is its objective ?

Answer: It is selling of goods and services at very low cost in foreign markets. Objectives are to destroy the market or industries and producers of that country or to exit the unnecessary production void of demand in home country.

(l) What do you understand by ‘Capital Account Convertibility’ of Rupee ?

Answer: Also known as Capital Assets Liberation, it is the ability to conduct transactions of local financial assets into foreign financial assets freely or at country determined exchange rates.

(m) Define Sex ratio in the population of India. What is its present status ?

Answer: It is number of females in per 1000 population of male in the area. Presently, India’s sex ratio is 933, i.e. 933 females per 1000 males.

(n) Distinguish between ad-valorem and specific duties.

Answer: Ad-Valorem duty is based on value of goods or services, changing in rate with the price. Specific duty is fixed on Weight, Area etc.

(o) Define zero-based budget.

Answer: Zero-based budget recognises no base or minimum expenditure for any activity. It insists for the justification of each item of expenditure. So, all departments have to start from a scratch.

Q. 7 Answer any TWO of the following (Answer to each question should be in about 150 words):  15 × 2 = 30

(a) Highlight the main points of Nuclear Disarmament Treaty signed by U.S. President George Bush and Russian President Vladimir Putin in May 2002.

Important Points for Answer:

Treaty – provisions

Effect on world scenario

Answer: President Bush and President Putin signed the treaty in Moscow on 24 May 2002. The treaty’s main points are :

To increase cooperation in the field of missile testings.

To interchange informations regarding the missile defence programme.

Treaty will substantially reduce nuclear — strategic nuclear warhead arsenals to the range of 1,700 to 2,200, the lowest level in decades.

Both have emphasised the need of strategic and security cooperation.

For purposes of implementing the Treaty, both countries will hold meetings at least twice a year of a Bilateral Implementation Commission.

This treaty liquidates the Cold War legacy of nuclear hostility between the two countries. The treaty is important for the world as the recent declaration of America’s Anti Missile Defence Project had alerted all nations and again a race of arms would have lead to second cold war between Russia and America.

The treaty will remain in force till 31 December 2012. This treaty will have effect to build up an environment of trust between them. (Total 164 words)

(b) Outline the features of latest Saudi Peace Plan for West Asia Crisis and assess its importance.

Important Points for Answer:

Plan – details

Crisis – solution


Answer: West Asian crisis due to Israeli occupation of some areas of Palestine and other reasons have been attempted to be solved out by some nations frequently to maintain peace in the Asian continent. Recently Saudi Arabia’s crown Prince Sheikh Abdullah bin Abdul Aziz presented plan to solve these disputes.

This is called the “Saudi Peace Plan”. This plan contains provisions that Israel should evacuate the occupations of West Bank area, Jerusalem and Golan mountain regions and recall its army from there, which are occupied since 1967.

If Israel accepts the condition, as the plan goes ahead, it will be recognised by the Arab world establishing trade and diplomatic relations in time to come. Cordial relations will be possible, the plan says, and security of Israel will be respected by Arab nations. The plan, thus attempts to remove Israel from its occupation which is about 35 years old and, practically it seems impossible that Israel would recall its army so easily. (Total 160 words)

(c) “NAM (Non-Aligned Movement) is relevant in Unipolar World as well.” Comment.

Important Points for Answer:

NAM – policy, development



Answer: Non-Aligned Movement came into existence not only to deviate pressures of two pole of the world at the time of Mid-twentieth century, but for the cause of removal of exploitation, influence and political interference in poor and under developed nations, by the super powers i.e., the USA and the USSR.

After the dissolution of USSR, only America has influenced the world, making it like a unipolar world. The objectives of NAM are counter acting against any influence as a United vote and force, for the cause of equality, economic development and removal of exploitation, this movement is continue in unipolar world also, making the concept that it was emerged as a third political pole, false from the very base.

Thus, NAM has truly acted for the cause of mankind and welfare of poor, underdeveloped and developing nations making them immune from empirical and influential social, political and economical hands of the developed and rich nations, equally against the only pole, now, America. (Total 165 words)

Q. 8 Answer the following (Answer to each question should be in about 20 words):         2 × 5 = 10

What do the following stand for?

   (i)       WCRA: World Conference Against Racism

   (ii)      SPDC: State Development Planning Commission

   (iii)     INTERPOL: International Police

   (iv)     WIPO: World Intellectual Property Organisation

(b) Why was Bander Seri Begawan in news recently ?

Answer: The ASEAN Regional Forum Conference was held in Bander Seri Begawan in September 2002 and so it was in news.

(c) Who is Xanana Gusmao ?

Answer: He is the first President and who was a leader of the freedom struggle of East Timor, a newly independent country.

(d) What do you mean by Uni-Polar World ?

Answer: A Uni-Polar World is a situation where all economic, political and strategic powers are concentrated in any single country. In present time, the USA has been such centre after the dissolution of the USSR.

(e) What do you know about North-South dialogue ?

Answer: North-South dialogues are proposed by the Branch Commission to hold talks for cooperation in development among North-South developed and developing countries.

Q. 9 Answer the following (Answer to each question should be in about 20 words):         2 × 5 = 10

(a) What do the following stand for?

   (i)       UNCHR: United Nations Commission for Human Rights

   (ii)      UNIDO: United Nations International Development Organisation

   (iii)     WTO: World Trade Organisation

   (iv)     MIGA: Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency

(b) What is meant by AU ?

Answer: The African Union (AU) is a continental union consisting of all 55 countries on the African continent, extending slightly into Asia via the Sinai Peninsula in Egypt. It was established on 26 May 2001 in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, and launched on 9 July 2002 in South Africa.

(c) Explain U.S. stand on the proposal for establishing an International Crime Court.

Answer: US is against the establishment of an International Crime Court and is not ready to accept it as a part of International Legal Machinery.

(d) What is the main purpose of G-15 ?

Answer: The main purpose of G-15 is to co-operate in economic development of members by promoting investment technology exchange and trade relations.

(e) Why is SAFTA being mooted ?

Answer: South Asian Free Trade Agreement (SAFTA) will promote trade relations among SAARC nations by economic liberalisations and freedom of trade. So, to develop co-operation in this field, SAFTA is being mooted.

Q. 10 Answer any ONE of the following (Answer should be in about 250 words):

(a) Plastic hazards – Discuss.

Important Points for Answer:




Answer: Plastic is widely used in our day to day life. Starting from a pen to a polythene bag in which we carry fruits and books are forms of plastic. Though convenient in our day to day use, it has posed an alarming threat to the environment.

Non biodegradable:

Plastic is non-biodegradable and do not decay by biological actions of microbes. They remain in the same state as we throw them. So dumps or garbages are created making our cities and soil polluted.

Harmful Chemical:

To destroy plastics, we can either recycle or burn them. If we burn plastic, they emit harmful chemical gases like carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrous oxide (NO), methane (CHJ, sulphur dioxides (SO2), etc. These gases pollute our environment, though in negligible content, they add to green house effect and endanger our environment.

Damage Sanitary System:

The wastes of plastic block pipes and sanitary lines so that dirty water came out on roads. This cause fear of malaria, cholera and other diseases.

Ocean Pollution:

The wastes of plastic bags, bottles, etc. are drawn to a sea or an ocean by rivers and they are deposited in them. They pollute and disturb the eco-system of the sea or the ocean.

Ecosystem Imbalance:

Due to wide scale use of plastic, water, soil and air pollutions are caused. These polluted component of environment lead to imbalance of various ecosystem of the Earth.


   –         to reduce use of plastic wherever possible

   –         to use recyclable bags and things

   –         to recycle the used plastic

   –         not to throw used plastic here and there

   –         to collect the used plastic by the Government and then to recycle them (Total 276 words)

(b) Discuss in detail “The Internet Telephony as an alternative”. 30

Important Points for Answer:

Internet telephony – technology, progress



Comparison as an alternative

Answer: Internet Telephony means talking facility through Internet connection between a computer and a computer or a computer and a telephone or two telephones. Earlier there were only telephones for voice-transfer technology of conversation but even simple telephone services now have internet connected personal computers using either the same telephone lines or higher speed DSL or cable connections.

This internet telephony can be availed with a suitable software installed in user’s PCs. Conversation between users can be carried either over a local network or between users anywhere on the world wide network. In local contacts, intercoms or local phones and in distant contacts long distance phone services are replaced by the Internet Telephony.

This Internet Telephony provides some obvious advantages like cost benefit. Charges of distance telephone calls are higher. Instead, most of the internet service users have local, toll free connections to their internet services providers and they have to pay a flat rate for internet services. Now, if they use internet telephony, they do not require to pay much additional charges apart from these expenses. They can avail a virtually free conversation over the Internet.

However, there is one disadvantage, if poor quality microphones are used, they would result into fidelity of the voice transmission, congestion in internet network may make voice choppy or interrupted.

One more limitation is that it can be used only if both the users have PCs.

Yet, comparatively internet telephony is a good quality service – cheap and easily available as an alternative to the telephones and their modes of communication. (Total 257 words)

Q. 11 Answer any TWO of the following (Answer to each question should be in about 150 words):        15 × 2 = 30

(a) What are the fundamental constants and their use in the measurement system ?

Important Points for Answer:

Fundamental constants – example


Answer: A physical constant, sometimes referred as Fundamental constants are those values of various measurements which are constant and can be used as units of multiplications of value. For example, speed of light in vacuum is measures in meter per second unit. Its value is used as a unit of measuring some other distances.

It is represented as (C) which values about 299792458 unit meter per second (ms-1). Similarly, electric charge is measured in Coulumb unit, Planck’s constant etc. are other fundamental constants.

Speed of light as a fundamental constant is used in measuring other quantities, as a unit of formula. For example, the formula of Einstine is E = Amc2, where “E” is “produced energy”, “Am” is “change in mass”, “c” represents “speed of light” in vacuum. Thus, fundamental constants have facilitated measurement system and formulae by providing some units that can be used for various purposes and in many formulae. (Total 151 words)

(b) Discuss about ‘Environment’, its components and its awareness.

Important Points for Answer:




Answer: Environment is the sphere around us which include living and non-living components, including physical, chemical and other natural forces.

Living components include microbes, animals and vegetations. Non-living components consists of water, air, soil, rock, etc. Environment provides interaction and interdependency among all components.

In balanced environment there is balance in various eco-systems. All species of life exploit the environmental resources or their existence and growth. But in last some decades, due to industrialisation and other activities of men, the environmental condition is degraded. Soil conservation is necessary to get maximum benefit from it. Water needs to be secured from pollutions. Atmosphere gets polluted and dire need is there to save it. Only if limited use of natural resources is done, the fruits can be ripen for a long period.

To make the growth and existence of environment sustainable, man have to be aware enough to ‘save the environment.’ (Total 151 words)

(c) What is Human Cloning ? Is it dangerous or beneficial? Discuss.

Important Points for Answer:

Cloning – technique




Answer: Human Cloning is creating a human baby in test-tube without use of sexual reproductive system. It is created using stem-cells taken from embryo of human which would be capable of being developed into a tissue, organ or a human. Human cloning can be used to produce a person from a cell by using scientific techniques.

As cloning can be helpful in curing many diseases, henceforth critical to cure. It can be utilised for therapeutic purposes and help mankind to get rid of Heart diseases, diabetes, Alzaimer’s disease, cancer and so on.

But if misused, it can be used to produce many human beings for using them in harmful purposes. A copy of any person can be cloned from a single stem cell derived from his body.

It is feared that such use will destroy culture, race and ethics in mankind. On moral, ethical and social grounds it is rightly opposed due to fear of its misuse as other scientific inventions have been.      (Total 164 words)

Q. 12 Answer the following (Answer to each question should be in about 20 words):         2 × 5 = 10

(a) What is a digital camera?

Answer: Digital Camera is a camera using an electronic sensor and memory system instead of a film to record images. Images can be transferred to a computer, internet or can be printed.

(b) What is firewall in Computer Language?

Answer: Firewall in Computer language is a security device to protect computer networks from external access. It keeps data secret and do not allow others to interfere or damage it.

(b) What is Multimedia?

Answer: Multimedia is a programme software of computer which uses simultaneously audio, video, virtual reality and telephony techniques as medium of expression.

(d) What do the following stand for ?

   (i)        HTML

   (ii)       FTP

   (iii)      MELOPS

   (iv)      PLANIT


   (i)        HTML : Hyper Text Markup Language

   (ii)       FTP    : File Transfer Protocol

   (iii)      MELOPS       : Million Floating Points Option Per Second

   (iv)      PLANIT         :

(e) What is Piracy ?

Answer: Copy of any original version of programme, without authority or permission of the owner of copyright, being sold in black market illegally is called Piracy.