Time Allowed: Three Hours       Maximum Marks : 300

Q. 1 Answer any TWO of the following (Answer to each question should be in about 150 words):  15 × 2 = 30

(a) Discuss the role played by the United States in promoting /hindering improved relations between India and Pakistan.

Important Points for Answer:

• Indo-Pakistan relations

• US–role, reasons, influence

Answer: India-Pakistan relations have almost and always down slope graph, with occasional and small period rises. In all the conditions, it has been concluded by experts that American influence exists. Mostly American influence decides the relations between the two nations at a point of time. America wants its supremacy and therefore disturbs the relations.

America gives massive financial support to Pakistan while towards India, it looks as a developed country, considering Pakistan as an under-developed nation.

But due to big market of India and fast developing economy, American shift has changed after 1991. Trade and cooperation in other fields, possible in India is not available in Pakistan which American industries require. On the other hand, Pakistan is its one major arms and weapons purchaser. So, American attempt is to keep both the aims fulfilled by adopting shrewd policy.

After the attack on World Trade Centre, its anti-Iraq and anti-Afghanistan steps, only Pakistan was his ally to use its territory as the base of attack. By this time, a common target of combating terrorism exist with India, but attack was possible only from the land of Pakistan over Taliban.

So, America has in fact keep its policy as maintaining both the countries in cordial or at least coordinated relations with it and also with each other.

(b) Explain India s strategic relationship with Russia.

Important Points for Answer:

• Indo-Russia – relations, progress

• Mutual strategic importance

Answer: From the time of Independence, India had good relations with USSR. After the dissolution of USSR, Indo-Russia relation has paved the way of friendship.

Russia had requirement of a world leader which can help in keeping the world multipolar. Same policy was adopted by India. India’s agreement with Russia on defence cooperation had provided India a secure position.

Both the countries have come forward with the objectives of multi-polar world, expansion of the security council, etc are the points for which both cooperate.

In 2002-Delhi Declaration, both countries decided to co-operate in various fields. To increase trade relations, science and technology cooperation, security-nuclear energy, defence sector partnership; all were included in it.

Now both the countries have decided to increase bilateral trade, to hold meeting once in every year, between the highest authorities. This summits have produced good result in binding them together. In combating terrorism, both are united to increase awareness and anti-terrorism opinion among the world nations.

(c) Account for India’s increasing involvement in the South-East Asian region.

Important Points for Answer:

• ASEAN      


• India’s involvement


Answer: Under the South-East Asian Region comes mainly the ASEAN nations . After the Look East policy of India, the trade and political relations with these countries have been increased. Till that time India had negligible trade with them and few political interaction.

After the 1992 ‘Look East’ policy, India was included as Regional Dialogue partner of ASEAN, in 1995 it was accorded Full Dialogue Partner status and in 1996 Indian got membership in the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF).

Thus, Indian involvement is increasing with the fast emerging economies of the South East Asian countries, and by 2011, India and China will be involved in the Free Trade Agreement of ASEAN.’

Though the nations of the South East Asia like Indonesia, Cambodia, Thailand, Singapore,  Myanmar, Malaysia, Philippines, etc. have cultural and historical attachment with India, they are now increasingly inclined to develop trade-economic relations with India, as to exploit the benefits of growing economy of India.

Moreover, strategically India acquires a better importance to diffuse the military tension in the block by large Chinese forces, as only India is another major military player in this block.

Q. 2 Answer the following (Answer to each question should be in about 20 words):         2 × 5 = 10

(a) The Panchsheel Pact.

Answer: It was endorsed between India and China in 1954, contains five valuable principles of  ideal foreign policy.

(b) India-Israel Cooperation.

Answer: Combating terrorism, high technology transfer and cooperation in the field of space research and energy.

(c) European Union’s trade restrictions against India.

Answer:  Health and quality based, quota and price policy based, anti-dumping and subsidy policy based and also packaging and labelling based restrictions are imposed by EU.

(d) Weak-spots in India-Nepal relations.

Answer:  Maoist struggle in Nepal and the hiding in India, ISI agents activities on the land of Nepal, Indo-Sino relations etc. are the weak points of India-Nepal relations.

(e) Hot Line between Islamabad and New Delhi.

Answer:  At the level of Director-General of the Coast Guard and Army apart from the decision of starting a hot line at the Foreign Secretary level is under consideration.

Q. 3 Answer the following (Answer to each question should be in about 20 words):         2 × 5 = 10

(a) Categorize the People of Indian Origin (PIO).

Answer:  Four categories of the PIO are :

Those workers taken away from India on contract labour in the Nineteenth century.

Those who settled in African countries for business.

Those Indians who are working and residing in Gulf nations.

The Indians who went to abroad after, 1960s for development of their business.

(b) Point out the difference between the Jewish Diaspora and the Indian Diaspora.

Answer: Some economical and political reasons, time period and cultural interactions are the differences between the Jewish Diaspora and Indian Diaspora.

(c) What are the references made to the NRI in the Union Budget July 2004?

Answer:  The Income tax imposed on the interest on deposits of NRIs, in FCNR are reduced from April 1, 2005.

(d) What is known as reverse migration?

Answer:  Return of the people who have settled in another countries to their own country is called reverse migration.

(e) Why was January 9 chosen to observe the NRI (Pravasi Bharatiya Diwas) Day?

Answer:  Gandhi returned to India on 9th January, 1915 from South Africa after winning Satyagraha for Pravasi Bharatiya there. Based on the recommendation of L. M. Sanghvi Committee, it was chosen to commemorate that day.

Q. 4 Answer any ONE of the following (in about 250 words) :       30

(a) State the comprehensive structural reforms undertaken to improve the Indian economy since 1991.

Important Points for Answer:

• Reform of 1991      

•Structural reforms

• Indian economic development         


Answer: After the economic crisis of 1990s, many economic reforms were introduced in our country by the policy of 1991. This policy mainly was based upon the principles of Liberalisation, Privatisation and Globalisation.

The economic policy introduced liberal policies regarding financial management, opening the economy for the world investors. It promoted investment in every field, provided basic facilities and necessary changes in administrative and legal structures to make it convenient for the investors to invest in the fields of their choice. Excluding some sectors of strategic importance, almost all sectors were opened for the Foreign Direct Investment in India.

It ensure easy and efficient availability of raw materials for various industries, removed the Licensing policy, dereserved items from the small scale industries, removed the quantitative restrictions on imports and more importantly introduced automatic routes for foreign investment doing away with the requirements of permission.

It has also made Indian rupee fully convertible in current account and capital account, liberalise tax policies and complexities, reduced duties and taxes on imports and productions.

It established special economic zones to provide an interference less area and sector for production for such investors, to promote employment and exports.

To summarise, we can say that the structural changes were directed to target the trade policy, industrial policy, investment policy, disinvestment policy and to develop infrastructure to attract investment.

All the structural reforms introduced, in phases, by the 1991 policy resulted in higher growth rate of GDP, more investment, increased trade, rise of service sector share and decrease in the share of primary sector – a characteristic of developed economy, world level trade market and services availability in India.

Overall, they gave a boost to the Indian economical development.

(b) How is poverty level measured? Evaluate poverty eradication programmes in India.

Important Points for Answer:

• Poverty line – measure, formula

• Programmes – schemes, policies

• Result

• Evaluation

Answer: Poverty level, of course, the absolute poverty, is measured in India on the basis of Minimum nutritional level requirement and its availability.

In Rural areas, a person requires 2400 calories a day and in urban areas, the requirements is 2100 calories per person per day, according to the Indian measurement. In terms of money, based on 1993-94 prices, those persons who is not able to spend Rs. 228.90 per month in rural areas and Rs. 264.10 in urban areas, per month are below poverty line. According to the 2000 Census, there is 26 percent people below poverty line in India. To eradicate poverty, employment generation or raising in their earning can be the best way.

From the Fifth Five Year Plan, the Central Government has emphasised the poverty eradication programmes in its plannings, policies and schemes.

Major steps taken towards this direction are :

During the Fourth Five Year Plan, Small Farmer Development Programme, Marginal Farmer and Agricultural Agency, Crash Scheme for Rural Employment, etc.

During the Fifth Five Year Plan,

         –         Food for Work Programme

         –         Minimum Needs Programme

During the period of Janata Government, Antyodaya Programme was launched in 1977-78.

In the Sixth Five Year Plan, the Government started the National Rural Employment Programme in 1980 to increase beneficial employment opportunities substituting some earlier programmes.

TRYSEM, Training to Rural Youth for Self-Employment Plan was started in 1979 to remove poverty among rural youth and to provide self-employment.

In 1983, Rural Landless Employment Guarantee Programme was started.

Jawahar Rozgar Yojana in 1989, The Employment Assurance Scheme, Ganga-Kalyan Yojana etc. were also started in this direction.

Swarna Jayanti Gram Swarojgar Yojana – 1999, Jawahar Gram Samridhi Yojana-1999 etc. are the schemes aimed mainly to eradicate poverty.

All these schemes launched by the Government have aims to provide assistance which can help relief, only some schemes are directed to provide proper employment and only they can give results in this direction, of course, if implemented efficiently.

It can be concluded that till now, though many ambitious programmes are there, only little success has been achieved in this direction. So, awareness among people, effective implementation on the part of administration and absence of corruption are necessary factors for a good result.

Q. 5 Answer any TWO of the following (in about 150 words each):          15 × 2 = 31

(a) Describe the recommendations of Narasimham Committee regarding the banking sector in India.

Answer:  Narsimham Committee on Banking Sector Reforms recommendations can be summarised as below:

To promote banks having capacity and reach to compete in the national and international financial markets.

To constitute an independent Debt Review System.

Merger of Public Sector Banks and the merger not to be taken as an instrument to save and protect losing banks.

In the time of changes, the Development Finance Institutes to convert themselves into Banks in a certain time period so that proper regulations can be m£ financial transactions.

To bring down the minimum equity share of the Government through the RBI, in Nationalised and State Banks to 33%.

To remove the liberalised policies in regard to interest over debts to the primary sector.

All these were the main recommendations of Narsimham Committee to make the Banking Sector’s performance more profitable, more efficient and beneficial in growth of the economy.

(b) Examine the effect of economic development on environmental degradation in India

Important Points for Answer:

• Economical development

• Environmental degradation

• How does it effect?

• Conclusion

Answer: Since Independence, India has adopted planning, for development. India plans for  economic development for social welfare, but in no process, environmental policies were outlined to grow with them, till it was noticed that the development has resulted in the degradation of environment.

The Industrialisation resulted in various types of pollutions. Air pollution due to industries and automobiles has been growing. Wastes of chemicals from industries are being thrown into rivers polluting water. Waste-management has been a problem due to dangerous chemicals in them.

Inconsiderable and thoughtless use of natural resources and minerals have posed a threat against the World including India, of their exhausting.

Even the Green Revolution which is considered to be a boon for India has resulted in degradation of agricultural land due to use of chemical fertilisers and pesticides. Most growing fields of scientific progress, industries or other development have not taken into account the environmental protection and hence, in the absence of sustainable development environment has been continuously degraded.

Now, India and the world have been conscious for the protection and conservation of environment and its various components.

(c) What ails India’s road transport economy? Suggest measures of remedy.

Important Points for Answer:

• Road importance    

•Improvement – measures

• Suggestions

Answer: India has one of the largest road networks of the world. India’s most of I of goods and passengers are through roads. The National Highways (which after the Golden quadrilateral scheme will comprise length of more than 65 thousand km) account for only two percent of total road network but helps transporting 40% of the total transportation of goods and passengers. It is a bitter fact, even after six decades of our freedom, that most of the roads in India are rough-non metallic roads which cannot sustain all weathers.

Though considered to be the life lines of Indian economy, they are not yet treated with priority and so in monsoon conditions, goods cannot be transported from villages to cities due to the rough positions of roads. And even in regular time, such roads cost much higher than the metallic one in terms of fuels and maintenance of vehicles.

The roads are, of course, expensive to build up but cannot be set aside due to their importance in Indian economy and so the following measures can be taken :

Giving roads to be built up by private sector and then right to operate for some years by collecting tolls.

Village roads should not be ignored in comparison to the National Highways. ,

Government-Private partnership and short-cut route development can be proved very useful.

Q. 6 Answer the following (in about 20 words each): 2 × 15 = 30

(a) What are the major provisions of Agreements on Agriculture in the context of World Trade Organisation?

Answer: The Blue Box contains provisions of 5% subsidy limit, and to reduce in case of higher. To reduce domestic subsidy by 20% to agriculture, according to the WTO agreements.

(b) Elucidate Special Drawing Rights.

Answer: Under the International Monetary Fund Mechanism, SDRs are given as credit to the member nation. These are not paper currency but only reserved in written forms as International currency.

(c) What is Cash Reserve Ratio?

Answer: All Scheduled Banks are required to reserve a part of its total deposits and assets as deposits with the RBI. This is called ‘Cash Reserve Ratio’.

(d) What does “priority sector lending” mean?

Answer: Some undeveloped or underdeveloped sectors cannot afford to the market rate in interest and cannot compete with others. To develop them the RBI issues guidelines to all commercial banks for lending. These lending are called priority sector lending, i.e. agriculture, small scale industries etc.

(e) What is Minimum Alternative Tax (MAT)?

Answer: Normally a company is liable to pay tax on income computed in accordance with the provisions of the Income Tax Act but the profit and loss account of the company is prepared as par provisions of the Companies Act. It is called MAT.

(f) What is Business Process Outsourcing (BPO)?

Answer: Work completed by workers of and in a country and then send to another country is called BPO. It includes expertise services on contract.

(g) What is ‘social justice’ in the context of Indian economy?

Answer: Equal distribution of wealth and natural resources to all classes of persons in the society. It requires equal Opportunities to develop.

(h) Explain the objectives of Plant Varieties Right Act, 2002.

Answer: To protect Intellectual Property Rights, related to new varieties of plants, copyrights, seeds and their trade.

(i) How is human development index for life expectancy measured?

Answer: For the life expectancy maximum age is 85 years and minimum age is 25 years. Formula to measure life expectancy index:

(j) What are the objectives of the Twelfth Finance Commission?

Answer: To suggest measures for development, reduction in debt, stability of economy, improvement in state financial condition and balanced budget.

(k) Explain the necessity and role of controls in a mixed economy like India.

Answer: For balanced development in India including welfare of society, the Government requires to control and regulate investment in various sectors, otherwise private sector would invest only for profits.

(l) Distinguish between primary sector, secondary sector and tertiary sector. What is the change in the share of each sector in Gross Domestic Product (GDP) during period of 1950-2000?

Answer: Primary sector include agriculture and other basic economic activities – its share reduced from about 56% to nearly 24%. Secondary sector include industries based on primary’ sector – its share increased from about 11% to 22% while the tertiary sector include services of which share has increased to about 54% from nearly 32%.

(m) What is the main objective of Security and Exchange Board of India (SEBI)?

Answer: To safeguard investors’ interest, to regulate capital market, to register and control collective investment plans and mutual funds and to eliminate mal-practices of security market.

(n) What has been the policy of agricultural development during last two decades in India?

Answer: To encourage private investment, to introduce modern technology, to use modern techniques of bio-technology, to increase production and quality through application of biotechnology.

(o) What is deficit financing?

Answer: To finance budget deficit of the Government is called deficit financing. Indian Government finances its deficit through loans and debts from the RBI.

Q. 7 Answer any TWO of the following (Answer to each question should be in about 150 words):  15 × 2 = 30

(a) Discuss the role of ‘intelligence’ in the making of foreign policy.

Important Points for Answer:

• Foreign policy – how formulated?

• What role can ‘intelligence’ play?

Answer: ‘Intelligence’ means ability to get information which has been concealed by the opposite party. Such information is necessary to direct foreign policy towards any direction.

Foreign policy is the way on which a nation will behave and react. So, the nation’s behaviour and reaction depends on the factors that stand against it. So, if intelligence services are active and efficient, hidden factors can be brought to the information of authority.

Sometimes, international relations, largely were dependent on the power of arms and forces of nations. In that time, secret military planning were important to be kept under information to save one’s existence. Nowadays, terrorist activities and economic importance have raised need for intelligence.

If a country is ignorant of any terrorist activities being undertaken against it, it can not pose a threat to prevent the same, as was the case of Kargil intrusion with India.

Economic capacities and levels are now deciding factors though not dangerous factors for formation of foreign policy of a nation.

Information through intelligence services are the force which directs foreign policy of a nation.

(b) Describe the role of the Amnesty International in securing human rights.

Important Points for Answer:

• Establishment

• Functions

• Contribution in protection of Human Rights

Answer: Amnesty International was established in 1961 by a British lawyer, Peter Beneson, as one year campaign for the release of the prisoners of conscience.

But it continues as an International organisation and has won the Nobel Peace Prize of 1977. Today, the organisation acts for the protection of Human Rights.

It has adopted the UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights as its mandatory aim. The organisation, therefore, acts to save the people from the Human Rights violation in any manner. It has now over one million members, subscribers and regular donors in more than 100 countries.

The organisation publishes a global report each year to provide details over the violation of human rights in all regions of the world. Thus, it exposes any violation of human rights by any group, government or armed forces. It takes help and provides help for the conservation of human rights to the media and other organisations working in this direction.

Human Rights Index, published by the Amnesty International is circulated and respected in all over the world as a neutral report. Today, the organisation has acquired an important place in the human rights conservation field.

(c) Examine the relevance of Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru’s ideas in the international relations of today.

Important Points for Answer:

• Nehru’s ideas

• Importance then

• International scenario

• Their relevance today

Answer: Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, the first Prime Minister and Foreign Minister of India was really a world citizen. His ideas about internationalism and world unity are of great importance in todays time. The concept of United Nation’s equality of all nations based on their sovereignty are the mirror of Pt. Nehru’s ideas which co-exist at that time and even today with emphasis on protection of Human Rights.

Panchsheel Pact of 1954 proposed by Pt. Nehru has been very popular since than and the principles of Sovereignty, Non-aggressive policy, non-intervention and peaceful co-existence have been accepted by all nations either expressly or impliedly.

The Non-Alignment Policy has also acquired and has been proved to be of great importance in the world, at the time of bipolar world and today in unipolar world equally by neutrally expressing and favouring true position in the world.

All these are relevant to the ideas of Nehru in context of economic co-operation and development as it is possible by, as he said, peaceful co-existence and co-operation.

Q. 8 Answer the following (Answer to each question should be in about 20 words):         2 × 5 = 10

(a) ICJ verdict on Israel’s erection of barrier on the West Bank.

Answer: In its advisory opinion, the International court of justice gave verdict that the erection of barrier on the West bank by Israel from 2002 was illegal and ordered to remove it earlier.

(b) Beijing-Taiwan Spat.

Answer: Taiwan vested its President with the power of referendum. China is feared that through this power, the President of Taiwan can proclaim the country independent.

(c) Prospects of international water-wars.

Answer: In the Third World Water Forum, the UN Secretary-General, Kofi Annan warned that  sovereign countries may go to war in future for control over water resources.

(d) Al Gharib Prisoners.

Answer:  Al Gharib or Abu Gharib is a prison in Baghdad where atrocities and inhuman acts over Iraqi prisoners by American soldiers created world-wide controversies.

(e) Recent developments in India-Myanmar relations.

Answer: Both the countries emphasised the need to develop trade co-operation, road and railway network development and more investment between the two countries through agreements recently.

Q. 9 Answer the following, by expanding and explaining the objectives (Answer to each question should be in about 20 words):     2 × 5 = 10


Answer:  Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sector Trade and Economic Co-operation. This is an organisation of 7 bordering nations of the Bay of Bengal. Its main objective is to promote economic co-operation among themselves.

(b) ART

Answer: ASEAN Regional Forum is a platform to join the countries of the South East Asian block on security concern.

(c) Red Cross

Answer: It is an international organisation which helps victims in the time of war and natural disasters.

(d) OPEC

Answer: Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries is made of oil producing countries to consolidate petroleum policies so that they can maximise their benefit from oil.

(e) IAEA

Answer: International Atomic Energy Agency is a specialised agency of the UN, working as a watch dog over nuclear programme of nations and to promote peaceful and developmental use of nuclear energy.

Q. 10 Answer any ONE of the following (Answer should be in about 250 words) :

(a) Discuss in detail “Alternative Energy Sources”.   30

Important Points for Answer:

• Details – various sources

• Needs for alternative sources

Answer: The rapid increase in the demand of energy has caused worry about its supply. The main sources of energy are conventional sources. They are non-renewable and exhaustible sources. The demand of energy has increased all over the world and the condition poses a threat on the sources of energy like Petroleum and Natural gas by the year 2030-35 if any alternative sources do not substitute or supplement them.

The Government of India gives high priority to the use of alternative, non-conventional and renewable energy sources as supplement to the depleting conventional sources of energy. These alternative sources include – Solar energy, Wind energy, Geo-thermal energy, Tidal energy, Biomass energy, etc.

These energy sources have huge potential of energy and they can be useful in various ways.

Solar energy is a wide source. Solar cells, solar cookers, solar ponds etc. are the devices to trap solar energy. It can produce electricity, cook food, heat water and can be converted to other forms of energy.

The solar photovoltaic system which uses solar cells to convert the solar energy into electrical energy is the most promising and progressive sources of alternative energy.

Wind energy is in form of Kinetic Energy. A blade of windmill is moved by blowing winds and could be exploited for doing work. Theoretically about 60% of the wind energy can be converted into other forms of energy. Wind mill farms are being set up in the world to exploit this energy at suitable places.

Geothermal energy can be used to produce electricity. However, the inner heat of the earth not available every where which can be commercially exploited. Such potential has been found in Pegu valley in Jammu and Kashmir in India.

Tidal energy associated with the kinetic energy of tides can be converted into electricity by using turbine. In the coastal areas this possibility is available.

Biomass energy is being used in villages but improvement in method and scientific equipments can increase utilisation. It reduces waste materials and gives cheap energy.

Hydrogen is also proved to be a great advantageous source of energy.

Nowadays, nuclear energy is gaining utmost importance.

Jethropa is a plant that produces diesel and it is pollution free. Besides the railways lines, Jethropa planting is in implementation.

These alternative sources of energy promise a new horizon in sustainable manner.

(b) Global Warming”—Discuss.    30

Important Points for Answer:

• Global warming – causes, effects, measures

Answer: Now not a probability only but Global Warming has started to endanger the environment of the earth. Many reasons may be there for the Global Warming, Primary and main cause is considered to be the Green House Effect. This effect is mainly caused by Carbon Dioxide, Methane, Chlorofluoro Carbon, Nitrous oxides etc. gases. These gases form a cover in the atmosphere around the earth through which hot rays of the sun can enter to the earth but cannot exit. So, the heat of the sun remains in the lower circle of the earth making the temperature rise.

It is feared that the world may experience rise in temperature of about 4° to 5 °C by 2050. The average temperature of the earth has risen by about 1°C in last five centuries and of this half of the warming is caused in Twentieth century alone. The Global Warming is increasing at an alarming rate.

Due to the rise in average temperature of the earth, agricultural crops, forests and life growth is affected adversely. It also changes balanced equations of marine life. Melting of glaciers will result in the rise of sea level posing a threat upon the habitat of coastal areas.

Because of these dangerous effects of ‘Global Warming’, at the international level, measures are taken in the form of Conferences, agreements and research. The latest and most effective of them is the Kyoto Protocol of 1997 which aims at stopping the emission of three main Green House Gases, C02, CH4 and NzO from 2008 to 2012. It provides to reduce the emission by 5% average of the base of 1990 emission rate. Global Environmental Facilities (GEF) is also working in this direction.

Q. 11 Answer any TWO of the following (Answer to each question should be in about 150 words):
                    15 × 2 = 30

(a) What is ‘Superconductivity’? Give its uses and applications.

Important Points for Answer:

• Super-conductivity – meaning, technology, applications

Answer: Super conductivity is property of losing all electrical resistance. Some materials produce no resistance at the temperature absolute zero (-273°C). Such materials are called superconductors and this property is known as superconductivity.

Some pure metals, alloys and a few other substances display this behaviour. They acquire superconductivity at some specific temperature, known as critical temperature. Below it, they are not superconductors.

Superconductivity, discovered by Heke Kamerlingh of Netherlands in 1911, is useful in the following ways :

Superconductors can carry a very large electric current and they can be used to make powerful electromagnets.

They can be used to transmit electricity from one place to another without any loss of electricity. Electric circuits can be closed strictly by using superconductors.

In treatment of heart diseases, super conductive “quantum interference devices” can be used.

NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) machines use super conductive electro-magnet. This machine can produce picture of any internal organ of our body without cutting skin. This property has proved useful in medical and electrical fields.

(b) What is Biotechnology? Discuss the important applications of Biotechnology.

Important Points for Answer:

• Biotechnology – progress, uses, applications

Answer: Biotechnology relates to producing useful products from and by the use of various bacterias, plants and other organisms or their parts. Synthesis of various chemical and bio-product are derived for multiple purposes through the use of bio-technology and its branches.

Applications :

Genetically Modified Varieties of plants and animals are produced. These new breeds are with desired qualities and characteristics and have increased production in agriculture and animal husbandry.

In fields of medicine and pharmacy, this technology has given new dimensions. New medicines including production of Insulin, Vitamins, Steroids and Anti-biotics are result of progress in this direction.

As preservatives and for other uses, this technology produces many bio-chemicals.

To repair genetical disorders, to improve genome, to produce expected quality of breed and to create pest, insect and drought proof plants etc. are boons of genetical engineering.

Cloning is new research field, with the use of stem cells. It is raising hopes that new organisms, tissues and organs will be created to substitute the damaged one in the body.

DNA finger-print technology, in investigation and search of criminals is a use of Biotechnology in non-scientific field.

These proves importance of Bio-technology.

(c) Describe the importance of “Laser” in war and peace.

Important Points for Answer:

• LASER technique

• Use – defence related, scientific applications, medical, others

Answer: LASER stand for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation. It was invented by Theodore Memain in 1960. It is a monochromatic light and very directional and therefore it can be transmitted over great distances without loss or spread. Its intensity is also very high when focussed.

LASERs have find uses in defence equipments. In Radars, they are used to detect the right position of enemy tanks, ships, aircrafts, etc. It has acquired a great strategic importance due to its use as Marked Target Seeker Technology. When fitted into any missile, this MTS directs lasers to the set target and accordingly, when fired, sets its own direction according to the changing situations of the target and hits it. Many uses of laser in war time have made it a technology of security importance.

Even in peace time, the technology is used in some basic sciences like Biology, Chemistry, Spectroscopy, Physical research etc. They induce some chemical reactions. In industrial fields, they find application in survey, welding, cutting, alloying, non-destructive desting, etc. They can be used to drill holes in diamonds.

In Medical field, they can be used for some operations, medicine preparations, diagnostic, etc. Communication, computers, information technology and entertainment are the fields where we find uses of laser in our day to day life.

Q. 12 Answer the following (in about 20 words each):        2 × 5 = 10

(a) What do you understand by E-governance?

Answer: Electronic Governance is a way to computerised and thus modernise the Governance system of the country to provide easy access, effective implementation and transparency apart from speed and efficiency.

(b) What is a URL?

URL stands for Uniform Resource Locator. It is a system for naming website in the Internet accepted universally.

(c) What do the following stand for?

(i) CD-ROM

Answer:  Compact Disc Read-Only Memory.

(ii) USB

Answer:  Universal Serial Bus.

(iii) ITES

Answer:  Information Technology Enabled Services.


Answer:  Formula Transmission.

(d) What do you understand by MP3?

Answer: MP3 is nick name for “MPEG-1 Layer-3”. It is an encoding format for compressed digital music files. It is a system of music player and visual representation.

(e) What are cyber crimes? How are these protected? Answer:  Various crimes like bank forgery or theft of secret data etc. are conducted through internet connected computers. These are called cyber crimes. True Break and Cyber Check are devices for protection.