Time Allowed : Three Hours      Maximum Marks : 300


Candidates should attempt all questions strictly accordance with the instructions given under each question. The number of marks carried by each question is indicated at the end of the question.

Q. 1 Write notes on any three of the following in about 150 words each:          3 × 15 = 45

(a) India’s strategic interests in South Asia

Important Points for Answer:

South Asia

Indian position

Strategic interest

Answer: South Asia comprises of nations coming around India and India is the biggest of them.

India has been an accepted leader of South Asia. Now India is rising at a stature of becoming global leader. In this desire, India requires to maintain its stand in South Asia.

India has trade and economic interest in this region. Most of the countries are having traditional economic trade relations with India. India launched “Look East Policy” in this direction.

India is sharing river water with Pakistan, Bangladesh etc. This requires co-operation among them. India has constructed hydro-power projects in neighbouring countries to expand strategic relations.

To maintain internal security and stability, India requires not only good relations with them but also their internal stability.

Economic prosperity of South Asia is also vital for progress of the region as a whole due to inter-dependency among nations.

In defence, India has to maintain peace and security in the region.

(b) China’s ‘peaceful rise’ doctrine

Important Points for Answer:

China’s rise

Peaceful rise doctrine



Answer: China is rising in economic, political and diplomatic fronts, peacefully, smoothly without annoying other powers.

This time, China has grown on economic front unprecedentedly. It is achieving growth rate even during global melt – down. It has flooded world market with Chinese goods.

China has growing relations with USA. It has also maintained good harmony with Russia and India by BRIC and troika of RIC.

Indo-Chinese partnership is growing even though China has been continuously helping Pakistan. It is diplomatic skill of China that has proven itself in international front.

It became a mediator in North Korea and Myanmar issues. It also got entry in South Asian Organisation.

It managed Olympics. Problems of Tibet were surfacing but it managed to suppress them. China is filling the gap of Asian power vacuumed by Japan.

This is called ‘peaceful rise’ doctrine of China. The world expresses that the dragon is rising but this time it is not exhaling fire.

(c) India – Russia Defence Ties

Important Points for Answer:

India – Russia

Defence ties


Answer: Russia is an old friend which has provided defence technology and equipments to India in times of need.

Both are presently developing a Supersonic cruise missile – called as Brahmos jointly. It will have 3 Mach speed.

MIG series of fighter planes have been procured from Russia. There were issues of defective parts which questioned the genuineness of the deal.

Recently India has purchased a fighter carrier submarine called Akula. It met with some defect in its first test itself.

There are issues of delaying delivery of armed equipments and technology transfer by Russia.

Even issues of price escalation has been a hamper sometimes. Admiral Gorshkows are being sold to India.

India wanted to enter into an agreement with Russia that required timely delivery. But Russia refused to do so.

Now India has options to enter into defence deals with USA and other countries. Russia has lost one biggest deal to USA in 2008 from India. This creates irritant in Indo – Russia defence ties.

(d) India’s ‘soft’ and ‘hard’ power strategy in Foreign Policy.

Important Points for Answer:

Indian foreign policy

Hard power strategy

Soft power strategy


Answer: In diplomatic area, there may be “soft” or “hard” power strategy in foreign policy. India is presently using both of them simultaneously.

On the front of economic issues, energy resources and co-operation politics India is soft. India adopts method of slow but steady progress and achievement. India has started to play “market diplomacy” and “population diplomacy”.

India becomes hard on boundry-issues and terrorism incidents. India stationed fighter aircrafts on Aksai-Chin border to realise China that India is ready for any consequences for protection of its territories. It also spoke in clear and strong words that Arunachal is an integral part of India. India stopped dialogue with Pakistan for sometime after 26/11 terror attack.

Similarly, India also has been strategically soft when it entered into 123 agreement with USA and put 14 reactors under IAEA inspection. But on the front of right to conduct nuclear test and not signing of CTBT and NPT. India follows hard strategy.

Q. 2 Write brief notes on any four of the following in about 50 words each:          4 × 5 = 20

(a) Nuclear Supply Group (NSG) and India

(b) Your views on the recent ‘Gilgit-Baltistan Empowerment and Self-Governance Order 2009’

(c) Wakhan Corridor

(d) Nuclear Submarine ‘Arihant’

(e) National Security Advisory Board (NSAB).


(a) NSG is a multi – national body of uranium suppliers. It has 45 members. Its guidelines prohibit a member from exporting uranium fuel to a country which has not signed NPT.

For Indo-US nuclear deal to come into effect, waiver of this guidelines for India was effected by US pressure.

Now, members of NSG can enter into nuclear trade with India.

(b) This is an ordinance in Pakistan. It granted political autonomy to Pakistan’s Northern Areas. It assigned the region a new identity of Gilgit-Balistan. This order will actually strengthen the terrorist foothold in the region. It will have adverse impact on India’s internal security.

(c) It is about 210 kilometres long land corridor that forms the north-eastern extremity of Afghanistan, in Pamir Mountains. It separates Gorno-Badakhshan region of Tajikistan from the North West Frontier Province and Gilgit – Balistan of Pakistan.

Afghanistan is asking China to open this corridor as a route to fight Talibans, which China is refusing.

(d) INS Arihant is country’s first indigenously built nuclear submarine. It can carry torpedoes and missiles including 12 ballistic missiles. It is powered by an 85 megawatt capacity nuclear reactor. It can acquire speed of 22 to 28 kmph on surface and about 44 kmph when submerged.

It put India in selected group of US, Russia, China, France and UK.

(e) It is a part of National Security Council. The NSAB has been reconstituted recently. Now it will consist of 19 members and will advise the PM on new challenges for the internal and external security of India. Mr. M. K. Rastoga, former Foreign Secretary has been appointed as the Convenor for second consecutive term. Experts in external security, strategic analysis, foreign affairs, defence, internal security etc. will be the members of NSAB.

Q. 3 Comment on any two of the following in about 100 words each :    2 × 10 = 20

(a) India-USA as strategic partners

Important Points for Answer:

India-USA relations.

Recent developments

Strategic partnership

Answer: India and USA have entered into third and transformative phase of strategic partnership. The area of cooperation has increased from bi-lateral trade to security and climate change.

Recent visit of Mrs. Hillary Clinton, Secretary of State for USA to India identified five pillars of strategic partnership. They are :


Climate Change

Education and Development

Trade and Agriculture

Science and Technology

There is also military to military link between India and US in the form of joint-exercises and high level visits.

USA wants India to shoulder greater responsibilities and play greater role in world issues.

(b) Ethnic conflicts in South Asia

Important Points for Answer:

South Asian countries

Ethnic problems

Current Status

Answer: Ethnic conflicts in South Asia is an increasing problem. Recently Sri Lanka, Pakistan and India is facing greater ethnic problems.

Sri Lankan army defeated LTTE. The issue of resettlement of Tamils became an important one. The demand for separate Eelam will now be changed into autonomy and power sharing between minority tamils and majority Sinhalese.

In India Gurkha tribes of North-Eastern India is demanding autonomy and non-interference in usual life by the Government. There is also problems in Kashmir and issues of naxalism.

In Pakistan, Mohazir, Baloch and Sindhi groups started anti-state violence and demanded separation or autonomy and equality. Struggle is going on. Pakistan army took strong actions in SWAT Valley.

(c) ‘NEPAD’ and its objectives.

Important Points for Answer:




Answer: NEPAD stands for New Partnership for Africa’s Development. It is a vision and strategic framework for Africa’s renewal. Main objectives of NEPAD:

To eradicate poverty

To attain sustainable growth and development

To stop marginalisation of Africa in the on going process of globalisation

To enhance Africa’s full and beneficial integration into the global economy

To accelerate the empowerment of women.

NEPAD is an attempt for holistic development of Africa.

Q. 4 Write on any Two of the following in about 50 words each : 2 × 5 = 10

(a) Indo – Bhutan trade relations

(b) Sino – Myanmar relations

(c) Geopolitics and Geostrategy.

Answer: (a) India is the largest trade partner of Bhutan. Free Trade Regime exists between them.There is a framework, “India Bhutan Trade and Commerce Agreement” which regulates trade between the two. It was renewed for ten years in 2005. In 2008, India’s export to Bhutan constituted more than 73% of Bhutan’s total import. 99% of Bhutan’s total export is to India. Both are members of SAARC.

(b) Myanmar is a military ruled country. China has strong relations with it. It supplies defence equipments and provides economic aid, diplomatic assistance, strategic and military cooperation to Myanmar. China has access to Myanmar’s ports. Bilateral trade between them exceeds US $ 1.4 billion. Recently refugee problems strained relations between them.

(c) Geopolitics is using political power over a given territory. It suggests impact of geography in shaping up political conditions.

Geo-strategy is using foreign policy to use geographical position as a guiding principle in international affairs. It is a strategy to utilise geo-status in international political strategy.

Q. 5 Comment critically on any One of the following statements in not more than 200 words:     20

(a) “Foreign investment is far from being critical to India’s economic growth.”

Important Points for Answer:

Indian Economy

Investment Policy



Answer: Indian economic growth is witnessing a high growth trajectory for last some years. India is also one of the most preferred destination for world investors. Even during recent global crisis India emerged as a reliable destination in the world with somehow “positive shock” as well as “de-coupling” effects.

India received 85.1% growth in FDI inflows which was the highest globally, in 2008. India has received 46.5 billion dollars in 2008 as against US $ 25.1 billion in 2007. This was even despite a 14.5% decline in global FDI inflows world over.

India holds 9th position in world’s total FDI inflows in 2008. The UNCTAD Survey 2008-10 says China is the most preferred investment destination, followed by India.

Recently, following the same policy of investment liberalisation and attracting foreign investment, the RBI and Government of India announced many steps as most important among others.

Recently, initiatives are taken to liberalise flow of External Commercial Borrowings. ECB limit is enhanced up to US$ 500 mi. per year under approval route for borrowers in infrastructure. Similarly, ECB up to US$ 500 mi. per borrower per financial year is allowed for rupee and or foreign currency expenditure for permissible end-use under automatic route.

Government allowed 49% FDI in credit information companies in 2008-09. FDI up to 100% under automatic route is allowed both in setting up and in establishing industrial parks. All these policy measures have actually helped India to grow and so are far from being critical.

(b) “The lesson of the current global financial crisis is that India should halt and may be even reverse financial liberalisation.”

Important Points for Answer:

Financial Crisis

Impact on India

Financial liberalisation in India


Answer: Current financial crisis started from the USA and later on it spread to the whole world including India.

In the starting phase of this crisis, India and other developing countries witnessed positive effects. There was a theory of “decoupling” Indian economy.

However, in the last quarter of 2008-09, India also suffered. The investment that arrived in India in first two quarter due to stability and chances of good return faced reversal because of financial crunch at home countries. So, India also witnessed financial growth on negative in last quarter.

Indian rupee fall in exchange rate against dollar. RBI has to take steps to stabilise exchange rate. RBI released foreign currency for that purpose. To increase flow of money liquidity in market, RBI changed SLR, CRR, repo rate and reverse repo rate.

The Government had to announce bailout packages for industries. Tax exemptions and duty waivers resulted in increased fiscal deficit. All these steps were required due to financial meltdown at global level.

India witnessed the effect to this global meltdown but resilience of Indian economy proved stronger. Even after-effects of crisis, India achieved a growth rate of 6.7% of GDP.

This shows that India does not require to halt financial liberalisation. Although some regulations can be there on behalf of the government. As this crisis emerged in USA in absence of any regulatory authority, so it is well accepted fact that regulation and monitoring is required.

Q. 6 Answer any One of the following in about 200 words :20

(a) “In the WTO negotiations over the years of the DOHA Round, India appears to be diluting its stand on agriculture issues to pursue perceived gains in services.”Critically examine this statement.

Important Points for Answer:

Doha Round


India’s stand


Answer: Doha Round of negotiation was held in 2001. It mainly stuck on the issues related to agriculture. This round is yet going on. It is yet not complete. In this round of talks, members adopted Agreement on Agriculture (AoA). The all over issue is known as Doha Development Agenda (DDA).

Developed countries have argued in favour of opening market for agricultural products. They argue that free trade should involve agriculture also.

India and other developing countries are arguing that agriculture is not only an area of trade and commerce but also basic source of earning livelihood for a large number of people. More than 70% of Indians are dependent upon agriculture.

So, India has always been reluctant to open its market for agricultural goods. But the DDA progressed to some extent and it was agreed upon that developing countries can take special safeguard measures (SSMs) to protect poor farmers in case of either import surge or price fall in domestic product.

SSMs empower developing and poor countries to restrict import of agricultural produce in the given two situations.

Again the problem is that how to settle the issues of “import surge” on “price fall” is not agreed upon in recent Round of Talks in Geneva – 2008, these issues could not be agreed upon and so the talks were halted.

Another issue raised by India is various types of subsidies provided by developed nations to agriculture. These have indirect effect of export promotion.

India has, since starting of the talks, been the mouth piece of all developing and poor countries on AoA. Many a times India has been criticised as a “tough market to open” but it is necessary in the interest of large section of population.

It seems that India has not diluted its stand even though it has tried to be cooperative in the round of talks.

(b) Discuss the Indo-US knowledge initiative in Agriculture.

Important Points for Answer:

India – USA





Answer: In November 2005, India and USA formalised a joint declaration of Knowledge Initiative in Agriculture (KIA). Main objective of KIA is to promote teaching, research, service and commercial linkages to address contemporary challenges against agriculture.

KIA will be carried out through Public Private Partnership. KIA will facilitate technology transfer, bolster agricultural research and education and also expand and strengthen trade and regulatory capacity building.

The following fields shall be covered by KIA :

Education : Under it, both countries will focus on curriculum development and training, the proposals on building human and institutional capacity. For this purpose, Indo-US joint working group is established.

Food Processing and Marketing : Work plan is made to target training, capacity building and joint research. This plan includes quality assurance and food safety, reduction in post harvest losses etc.

Biotechnology : Both countries have envisaged a strateg’c alliance for training and research on development of transgenic crops with resistance to economically important viruses, tolerance to heat, drought and salinity.

Water Management: Sustainable use of water resources, water quality management, use of modern tools and imparting training and education for these purposes are included under it.

Q. 7 Answer any Two of the following (Each answer must not exceed 150 words):         2 × 13 = 30

(a) Evaluate the prospects for greater economic co – operation between India and China.

Important Points for Answer:

India – China relations





Answer: India and China are bordering countries. They are the fastest growing economies of the World.

Recently Indo-China bilateral trade has crossed US$ 50 bi border in 2008, despite economic slowdown. In 2007, it was US$ 38 bi and in 2015 it is expected to reach US$ 100 billion. Both countries can expect more co-operation on economic front, because they are complementary economies and not competitive one. India is mainly service sector hub while China is considered manufacturing hub.

China and India have large pool of manpower and mineral resources. Co-operation on long term is possible for joint sectors operating in automobiles, cement, steel and other machinerybased industries.

India has become a knowledge-hub. This can be helpful to China. Chinese manufacturing technology can be helpful to India.

But there are issues of concern also. They include dumping by China, balance of trade in favour of China and India exporting mainly raw materials to Chinese industries, etc.

(b) Does India need the World Bank ?

Important Points for Answer:


Role & Function

India’s need

WorldBank’s role in

Indian development


Answer: The World Bank is an international banking-financial institute. It includes multilateral funding agencies like IDA, IFC etc.

The World Bank provides loans for developmental projects to developing and poor countries. These projects include infrastructure, health, education etc.

India is one of the oldest member of the bank since 1944. India is the single largest borrower of the Bank with cumulative lending of more than US 47 billion dollars.

India is also the top annual borrower of the Bank. Bank has lent India for rural development, education and health, infrastructure and energy projects.

Various states of India have also been receiver of loans and aids from the Bank. Andhra Pradesh became the first state to get benefit of state – focused lending.

Currently Bank’s lending portfolio to India comprises about 80 ongoing projects.

It is clear that India has got much benefit from the Bank and developmental projects of India are financed by the Bank. This also helped India in improving on social indicators. So, India surely needs the World Bank.

(c) Critically assess the recent Free Trade Agreement entered into by India with ASEAN.

Important Points for Answer:

India – ASEAN

Trade Relations



Answer: India and ASEAN signed Free Trade Agreement (FTA) in August, 2009. This FT A will come into force on January 1, 2010.

There are 4185 items included in the FTA. There will be a sensitive list of 489 articles, on which concessional tariff will not apply. There are 590 articles including plantation on which tariffs elimination will not apply.

In the first year itself, the trade between India and ASEAN is expected to reach at US $ 60 bi from present US $ 38 billion. ASEAN is India’s fourth largest trading partner.

There are certain areas of concern in India that may get affected, by this FTA. They are mainly—Rubber, Coffee, Crude and Refined Palm oil. India will not reduce tariff on such items with immediate effect.

On other areas also, it is near zero duty provision and not complete elimination of duty.

Indian auto-mobiles, steel, chemical, cement and some other heavy industries will be benefitted by this FTA. But India has an advantage in service sector which is not included in this FTA.

Q. 8 Answer any Three of the following (in about 150 words each) :       3 × 15 = 45

(a) What do you understand by ‘Biosignatures’? Discuss briefly.

Important Points for Answer:





Answer: Bio indicates life and signature means any mark that can prove identity. Thus, simply biosignature means using biological traits as identification and authentication mark of an individual.

Individuals have different traits in various aspects. This can be characterised to produce biosignature. Hairs, retina, finger print, glucose level, blood group and other phenomenas can be used in this field.

Biosignatures can be helpful for authenticity of identity and records. They can be stored on a micro-chip and information can be decoded by machines.

These may help in implementation of government programmes, diagnosis, diseases, defence purposes, etc.

In astrobiology, a biosignature can represent the fact of existence of life on extra-terrestrial surface.

Similarly, fossils and other textures found from the earth can be used to study biology of ancient time.

In geochemistry, geobiochemistry and geomicrobiology also this is often used to find out what type of organisms are present in which place, from samples of their residues.

(b) Write about Green Fluorescence Protein (GFP) and its applications.

Important Points for Answer:





Answer: GFP is a protein comprising 238 amino acids. They exhibit bright green fluorescence when exposed to blue light.

It was first isolated from the jellyfish Aequorea Victoria.

GFP gene can be used as a reporter of expression in cell biology. When modified, they are used as biosensors to indicate status of body of the organism.

To use a Green Fluorescent Protein as a biosensor in a organism, it can be injected in the body. It can also be introduced by breeding or transformation of cells.

In 2008, Martin Chalfie, Osamu Shimomura and Roger Y. Tsein were awarded 2008 Nobel for Chemistry for their discovery of GFP.

Scientists have study the usefulness of GFP by introducing GFP gene into many bacteria, yeast and other species of fungi, plants, fly, fish and mammalian cells. Even research is conducted on human being also.

This branch will help in treating, diagnosing and regulating diseases apart from its uses in biotechnology.

(c) Define ‘Bioinformatics’. How does it work ? What are its major branches and applications?

Important Points for Answer:





Answer: Bioinformatics is an interdisciplinary approach in which application of computer science and information technology is to the field of molecular biology.

Mathematical and computing approaches are used to understand biological processes. Development in the field of genomics and other molecular research technologies and development in information technologies have jointly produce large amount of information related to molecular biology giving way to this new branch of science.

Bioinformatics is useful in mapping and analysis of DNA and protein sequence. It also compares different DNA and protein sequences to compare them. It helps in creating 3-D view models of protein structures.

The Human Genome project has increased importance of bioinformatics. The research will help development and success in sequence alignment, protein structure prediction, prediction of gene expression and protein-protein interactions, genome-wise association studies and many other areas.

(d) What is the ‘Hubble Space Telescope’ ? How many Servicing (SMs) have been Missions conducted for it?

Important Points for Answer:

Hubble Space Telescope



Answer: It is a space telescope. It was carried into orbit by the space shuttle in April, 1990. The name is given after American astronomer Edwin Hubble.

It is one of the largest telescope for research in astronomy. It was developed in collaboration between NASA and European Space Agency (ESA). It is one of NASA’s Great Observatories.

The Hubble Space Telescope is only one telescope designed by astronauts to service in space. There are total five service missions. The fifth mission was in May 2009. Service Mission is sent to repair any defect in the telescope.

First service mission was sent in December, 1993 to correct imaging flow.

Second, 3 A and 3B servicing missions were sent to repair various sub-systems and replaced many observing instruments with more modern and capable version.

Last service mission STS – 125 was sent to install two new instruments and make some repairs.

Q. 9 Explain any Four of the following (in about 100 words each) :        4 × 10 = 40

(a) DNA Finger Printing and its utility.

Important Points for Answer:

DNA Finger Print




Answer: It is a technique which help in identifying an individual at molecular level. This technique was developed by British Scientist Alec Jeffrey in 1984.

Each organism has a unique pattern of genes in their chromosomes and only exception to this is twins.

This technique can be used in identification of criminals by checking saliva, hair, drop of blood, semen or any other mark of body. This technique can also be used for sure identification of maternity/paternity, missing child, twins etc.

DNA finger printing technology is used in forensic science widely.

(b) What is ‘Nanotech’ ? Give a brief account of its basic concepts, materials used and applications.

Important Points for Answer:

Nano – Technology




Answer: It is short form of Nano-technology. It is study of matter which is at least in one dimension smaller than 100 nano-metres. One nanometre is one-billionth of a metre.

The technology involves controlling and developing material at this size. Matters will change their property.

Materials used – microprocessor, giant magneto-resistance – based hard drives, NEMS and microscope tips with Atomic force.

This technology can create new materials. It can be used in defence, medicine, electronics, technology, space programme and environment and ecology related devices.

Using nano-robots, operations can be performed in body with greater accuracy and without bigger cuts on body. Similarly, nanotech can reduce weight of equipments of a soldier and can reduce size of electronic and communication devices.

(c) What is “Graphene” ? Mention at least three of its applications.

Important Points for Answer:




Answer: Graphene is a one – atom thick planar sheet of sp2- bonded carbon atoms. They are denselypacked in honeycomb crystal lattice.

Length of carbon-carbon bond in graphene is about 0.142 nm. It is a basic structural element of some carbon allotropes including graphite, carbon nanotubes and fullerenes.

Application of Graphene : –

Integrated circuits

Biodevices : It is helpful for detection and diagnosis in mammalian and microbial by graphene – sheets which is functional with antibodies.

Transparent conducting electrodes Graphene has high electrical conductivity and high optical transparency. Such properties make it useful as transparent conducting electrodes. It is used in touch screens, liquid crystal displays, organic photovoltaic cells, organic light-emitting diodes and other devices.

(d) Define ‘optical frequency comb’. Suggest at least three applications.

Important Points for Answer:




Answer: An ‘Optical Frequency Comb’ is a precise tool for measuring different colours and frequencies. This technology can measure very high frequency with greater accuracy.

They are in use in meteorology laboratory and research in physics. Now they are available in commercial market also.

These Optical Frequency Comb can be used in making of optical atomic docks, detection of toxic biochemical agents in body, studies of ultrafast dynamics and quantum computing.

This technology can be applied in medical tests, telecommunication systems in defence operations and equipments. Use of Optical Frequency Comb will be possible for remote detection and range measurements.

Main benefit of this technology is accuracy.

(e) Why is tele-medicine important for country like India ?

Important Points for Answer:



Indian Context


Answer: Tele means remote. Tele-medicine means providing medicine from remote place.

Tele-medicine may include diagnosis, treatment, monitoring or prescribing medicines.

Tele-medicine may also cover performing surgery and operations using remote controlled and computer operated devices in near future on wide scale. At present, guiding in operations and surgery is used.

Combined used of medical and telecommunication as well as information technology refers to tele-medicine.

In a country like India this will prove a boon because it will provide services of experts even in remote areas without travelling there.

Less-Number of doctors, hospitals and facilities of equipments will not become a reason for improper treatment of a patient. Patient will not require to travel to Delhi, Mumbai or Chennai for treatment but will be able to get treatment from AIIMS, Delhi even sitting at a far village of Sikkim. It will also impart training and education via tele-conferences.

Q. 10 Write brief notes on any Five of the following (in about 30 words each) :         5 × 3 = 15

(a) Artificial Sun     (b) ’Vegetable Gold’

(c) PFCs and ‘liquid breathing’   (d) The ‘P-8A Poseidon’

(e) Biometric ATMs (f) Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA)

Answer: (a) It refers to replicating the ongoing nuclear fusion process of the core of the sun in the Earth to produce energy. International Thermo-Nuclear Experiment Project (ITER ) is based on this concept.

Plasma can be heated to produce large quantity of nuclear energy.

(b) Saffron is also called vegetable gold. It is useful to colour and flavour foods. It is also a stimulant in medicine. Saffron of J&K is very famous. It has been the world’s most expensive spice for decades.

(c) PFCs are Perfluoro Carbons. They are derived from hydrocarbons. They can dissolve high concentration of gases like oxygen. Leland C. Clark experimented in 1966 with liquid breathing using this quality of PFCs. This liquid breathing can be used in treating of some diseases also.

(d) It is a military aircraft. It is being developed for US Navy. It will be able to conduct antisubmarine warfare, shipping interdiction and engagement in an electronic intelligence (ELINT) operations. It is developed by Boeing’s Integrated Defence Systems division from the 737-800.

(e) Biometrics is used in such ATMs for identity of operator instead of password. Using biological traits like face, voice, retina, iris or fingerprint, the ATMs can be accessed. These methods are for uniquely recognising humans based on their physical traits. (f) It is an activity performed by an astronaut outside the spacecraft. It may be space walking or activity on extra-terrestrial surface like Moon or Mars. Recently Chinese astronaut performed EVA for a record longest time.