Candidates should attempt ALL questions strictly in accordance with the instructions given under each question.

Q. 1 Answer the following in not more than 250 words each:       20 × 2 = 40

(a) Critically examine the implications of the disintegration of the Soviet Union on India’s security and strategic perspectives. What further responses would you suggest in India’s foreign policy to accommodate these implications?

Important Points for Answer:

Impact of USSR disintegration

Changes in Indian foreign policy


Answer:(a) Soviet Union was one of the two super powers. It disintegrated in 1991 making the world unipolar. India had very good friendship with USSR.

Although India was following non – alignment policy, USSR was a major source of grant and trade. India was almost dependent on USSR for its defence procurement. USSR provided a big amount of financial aid to India.

With USSR’s disintegration, India faced a situation where it had to adjust its foreign policy in a new way so as to further its interests.

After 1991, Russia itself tried to improve relations with western powers. It was consolidating its economy. India had to find out new sources after 1991 economic crisis.

Russia had supported Pakistan baked resolution in UN for Nuclear free South Asia. Russia was also of the view that India should sign NPT. It cancelled many defence deals with India under US pressure.

So these changing defence, economic and diplomatic conditions came against India after disintegration of USSR.

Suggestions for India’s foreign policy:

India must not rely on any one country for its defence requirements. We should try to find out new suppliers.

For balance of power situation in South Asia and Indian Ocean region, we have to improve relations with US and other western powers, rather than relying on Russia.

On economic front, we have to foster out trade links with major economic powers and blocks.

(b) Evaluate India’s approach towards meeting the country’s growing energy demands. Compare the success of this approach with that of another Asian giant which has perhaps the fastest growing energy demands.

Important Points for Answer:




(b) India is the 2nd largest populated country in the world. It needs huge amount of energy to fulfil the various needs including cooking gas and fuels for the Aeroplanes. Energy plays a vital role in the economic growth. It has a direct influence or impact over the fields of industry, health, education, agriculture, transport, etc.

India’s energy policy can be summarised as follows:

   (i)        Till market matures, regulation across the energy streams is necessity.

   (ii)       Fixing the price and source allocation to be determined by market forces under an effective and credible regulatory oversight.

   (iii)      Transparent and targeted subsidies.

   iv)       Improved efficiencies across the energy chain.

   (v)       Policies that reflect externalities of energy consumption.

   (vi)      Giving incentives / disincentives to regulate market and consumer behaviour.

   (vii)     Management reforms to foster accountability and incentives for efficiency.

The policy shows the view of the Government to meet the demand for energy services of all sectors at competitive prices. And to provide subsidies to the energy needs of the households.

India’s per capita electricity consumption is only 615 KWh per year as compared to world average of 2516 KWh and 1585 KWh in China. Despite the fact that India is the sixth largest electricity market in terms of power generation.

India’s per capita oil consumption is 530 kg of oil, whereas the world average is 1770 kg of oil. And China’s per capita oil is 1240 kg of oil.

These facts shows that we are very much far behind even to the average level of International Standard. We are making civil nuclear agreement with world countries which are rich in this field to establish the Nuclear powered reactors to produce the electricity to meet the demands and also reduce the thermal power plants in order to control the pollution and also considering the availability of Coal.

We have got an exception from the NSG to import the nuclear power technology as well as resources to develop the nuclear power sector, at present it has only 4% in our total production of 1,50,574 mn. As per 31 July 2009, India’s power generation is as follows:

   1.       Thermal – 96,295 MW

   2.       Hydro – 36,917 MW

   3.       Renewable energy resources – 13,242 MW

   4.       Nuclear – 4,120 MW

However, China is presently engaged in a strong effort to control its rising energy use while promoting its rapid growth of its economy.

Both the Asian giants are progressively marching towards their goal of achieving self – sufficiency in energy sector. But China is marching fast on the track. China follows state controlled pricing formula, whereas India follows market controlled pricing formula.

Q. 2 Answer any FOUR of the following in not more than 150 words each:          12 × 4 = 48

(a) How far have Japan’s principles of Hikaku San Gensoku impacted bilateral ties with India?

Important Points for Answer:


Impact for India

Answer:In late 1960, Parliament of Japan made a resolution called “Hikaku San Gensoku” also called “Three non-nuclear principles”. This is considered as a guiding principle of the Japan’s nuclear policy.

The former Prime Minister of Japan Mr Eisaku Sato has outlined the principles as follows:

   (i)        Japan shall neither possess nor manufacture the nuclear weapons.

   (ii)       Japan shall not permit their introduction into Japanese territory.

India is one of the major country which needs to fulfil their energy demands. We are making nuclear cooperation agreement with all major nuclear powered countries like USA, France, Russia etc. On this track, Japan also increasing the export of infrastructure technology including nuclear technology. For that they have established International Atomic Energy Development Company with an aim to form a centralised platform to increase Japan’s competitiveness to win the nuclear power project contracts in the overseas.

In 2006, Prime Minister Manmohan Singh and then Japan Prime Minister Shinzo Abe signed a joint statement under which Japan made a commitment to India to enhance Civil Nuclear Energy Cooperation under safeguard of IAEA. Due fo India’s status in the NPT, Japan acted in a snail speed towards its commitment. Finally, Japan came to negotiation in 2010.

Because of the India’s stand on nuclear issue with regard to NPT and IAEA, Japan’s anti-nuclear lobbies and the media expressed their concern about the deal and criticised the government for promoting the agreement.

(b) Assess the contributions of Indian Diaspora in the Caribbean.

Important Points for Answer:

Indians in Caribbean

Their contribution

Answer:The Indian Diaspora in Caribbean countries are mainly descendants of our Indian migrated people. More than 20 lakh Indian Diaspora are living in various Caribbean countries.

They have contributed their performance in all fields including politics, arts and culture, sports, economic and industry.

Indian origins are holding many key post in the Government of various countries such as Former President of Guyana, Bharat Jagdeo, and the current Prime Minister of Trinidad and Tobago Mrs. Kamla Parsad Bissessar. Another Indian origin Mr. Basdeo Pandey had held that post from 1995 to 2001. Mr. Siddharth Ramphal was the Secretary General of the commonwealth twice.

The booker price winner Sir. V. S. Naipal and Samuel Selvon contributed much in the field of literature. Women writers such as Mahadai Das, Rambhai Erpinet and Niala Maharaj have played a vital role in this field.

In terms of sports, some good cricketers of West Indies are of Indian origin such as Ram iVaresh Sarwan, Sfu’ve iVarme Chancfrapau/, Dinesh Ramdin and Alvin Kalicharan. They made good contribution in their field.

Medicine is one of the important sector in which Indian doctors are playing crucial role all over the world especially a noted Cardiologist Dr. Anne Dipchand and Dr. Budhendra Doobey are prominent.

(c) Do you agree with the view that Israel is a ’natural ally’ of India?

Important Points for Answer:

India – Israel Relations

Natural Ally or Not

Answer:India and Israel established their diplomatic relations only in 1992. Earlier India had voted against creation of Israel in UNSCOP in 1947. India also voted against the admission of Israel into UN in May 1949.

But changed circumstances in forty years prompt India to establish diplomatic relations with Israel in 1992. Oslo Accord of 1993 helped more in changing India’s attitude towards Israel.

India and Israel have many common things to bring them closer. Both are neighboured by Islamic enemy-like countries. Both suffered by Islamic terrorism. Both are democracies.

India and Israel developed co-operation in science and technology. India turned towards Israel for procurement of arms and military equipments of sophesticated nature specially after collapse of USSR. In satellite technology also both co – operated. All these factors can make India and Israel good friends but not natural ally. Because India has its Non-Alignment Policy and being natural ally requires to abandon the same. Again there is no defence agreement between two countries.

(d) Bringout the FDI and employment implications of China being a manufacturing hub and India a services hub?

Important Points for Answer:

Chinese economy

Indian economy

Impact of FDI in employment

Answer:China and India are the fastest growing economies of the world. Even during the recession time, both countries poised an attractive growth rate. This attracted more FDI in both of them.

Due to reasons of vast resources and huge population in rural area, China has emerged as a manufacturing hub. Labour laws and human rights, salary structure and union activities are at minimal in China supporting manufacturing industries. In India, there is a large mass of educated middle class youth. This developed India as a service sector including BPOs, KPOs, LPOs, and all types of call centres apart from medical and financial services.

According to a hypothesis, per US$ 100 investment, manufacturing industry generates 8 jobs while service sector generates 43 jobs. High level of mechanisation has reduced jobs in manufacturing industries.

This scenario helps India generating more jobs being a service sector with per unit of FDI in comparison to manufacturing hub of China.

(e) Have the Uruguay Round negotiations and the resultant Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) agreement helped in resolving trade conflicts arising out of variations in different nations’ IPR regimes? Also list the steps taken by India to conform to TRIPS.

Important Points for Answer:


Uruguay Round


India’s measures

Answer:IPR Regime covers Intellectual Property Rights protection for original invention. They provide economical protection to original inventor. Different countries have their own laws for IPRs. Developing and poor countries have not developed a strong mechanism in IPR. IPR violations are maximum there.

Developed countries demanded a strong IPR regime to protect their interest. Big MNCs and corporate houses can register an invention and will get exclusive right of marketing.

During Uruguay Round of GATTS, negotiations were held on TRIPS. TRIPS protected Intellectual Property Rights and demanded strengthening of IPR laws in developing countries. During the negotiations developing countries were put under pressure to accept a very liberal definition of IPR resulting into their disadvantage.

India, a member of WTO has amended its IPR related laws so as to conform to TRIPS. India had “process patent” and now it started moving towards “product patent”. India is registering own patents on traditional knowledge and inventions.

(f) Examine the recent developments towards the solution of the Bangladesh – Myanmar maritime boundary dispute. What implications do these have for India?

Important Points for Answer:




Impact on India

Answer:Dispute between Bangladesh and Myanmar started in 2008 when Myanmar started lifting of mineral resources from a disputed block in Bay of Bengal. The block is disputed because there is no proper demarcation of maritime boundary between the two nations. Forces faced each other in Bay of Bengal but tension was solved by diplomatic efforts.

Both countries tried to demarcate border in 2008, after a gap of 22 years, but failed. Bangladesh raised the issue at Arbitration Tribunal of the UN in October 2009.

Now in 2010 both countries agreed to settle their maritime boundary according the principle of equidistance. The area is rich in minerals and so tension occurred. The dispute has obvious impact on Indian security and peace. The solution is a boost to India’s concern for energy security. Once both countries settle their differences and start exploring oil and gas, India can look forward for cheap oil and gas from in neighbours.

Q. 3 Answer any EIGHT of the following in not more than 50 words each:          5 × 8 = 40

(a) Compare and contrast the role of the IMF with that of the World Bank.

(b) What are the major capacity-building and reconstruction projects being undertaken by India in Afghanistan?

(c) Bring out the significance of GDI and GEM as components of the UN’s Human! Development Report (HDR). Comment on India’s relative rankings with regard to HDI and GDI.

(d) What is ‘Round Tripping’ in the context of FDI inflow, and why has it been in the! news recently in the case of India?

(e) Comment on the reason for the recent hike in visa processing fees for certain categories of US visas. What is the likely impact of this hike on India?

(f) In the context of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), distinguish between ‘Annex I’ and ‘Annex II’ countries.

(g) Highlight the role of the Indian peacekeeping contingent as part of MONUSCO.

(h) List the salient features of the Riyadh declaration and the bilateral agreements between India and Saudi Arabia signed earlier this year.

(i) Comment on the reasons for the recent economic crisis in the so-called ‘PIGS’ countries of Europe.

Answer: (a) IMF is a European based institution that is primarily engaged in regulating the International movement of currencies depending upon the exchange value of nation’s currency. It is also engaged in export and import facilitation among nations.

The US based World Bank (IBRD) is more developmental financial institution that is engaged in creating more infrastructures among the nations particularly the emerging and least developed nations. It gives more grants or money on easy terms and conditions for the developmental and reconstruction works.

(b) In Afghanistan, India is helping in rebuilding the air link, providing humanitarian assistance which includes sending doctors, medicine, and investing in health and education, setting up of child care hospital in capital Kabul.

It also provides foodgrains including 2,50,000 mts of wheat and other grains and constructing the Zaranj-Delaram highway which will help immensly in promoting the transport and economic activities. India constructed the Salma dam project and 220 KV transmission line from Pul-e-khumri to Kabul. Also India providing training to Afghan police and military in India. It gives training to Afghan civil servants also.

(c) The Human Development Report 1995 has introduced two new measures of human development that especially highlighted the status of women

   (i)        Gender related Development Index (GDI)

   (ii)       Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM)

The GDI measures achievement in the same basic capabilities as the HDI does but it considers the inequality in achievement between women and men.

The GEM is a measure of agency. It evaluates progress in advancing women’s standing in political and economic forums. It examines the equality of men and women in economic, political and decision making activities.

India’s ranking is 139 as compared to general HDI which is 134 for the year that ended. India is thus relatively more of political empowerment due to legislative provision that makes India farely well placed in GEM ranking.

(d) Round – tripping is a money laundering technique. It is also known as round-trip transactions or “Lazy susans”. The method, involves a company selling an unused asset to another company while at the same time agreeing to buy back the same or similar assets at about a same price. Simply we can say this as a money laundering technique.

Indian Government and RBI have introduced the PN (Participatory Note) mechanism of FII regime which has given a fillip to this practice of round tripping. In fact, Government and RBI support this PN and do not want to disclose the information about the investors. It results in such a way to this practice of round – tripping.

(e) India is the third largest immigration labour provider to US after Mexico and China is badly hit by these measures taken by the US including hike the H1B visa processing fees from 25% to 200%.

Since more than two-third of India’s GDP comes from service sector majority of which comes from the software companies and the employees remittances bulges the nations forex reserves, all these are adversly affected. Now the situation is returning to normal condition but it will take sometime to back on track.

(f) In the UNFCC, the world countries has been classified as:

   (i)        Industrialised countries and countries in transition as Annex 1 countries. (There are 40 countries in Annex I)

   (ii)       Developed countries, which pay for costs of developing countries as Annex II countries. (There are 23 countries in Annex II)

The UNFCCC’s prime object was to establish National greenhouse gas inventories of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and removals, which were used to create 1990 bench mark levels for accession of Annex I countries to the Kyoto Protocol and for the commitment of those countries to GHG reduction. The updated inventories must be submitted to Annex I countries regularly.

(g) In May 2010, the UNSC, adopting Resolution and announced that MONUC would renamed from July 1, 2010 to the United Nations Organisation Stabilisation Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUSCO).

India also has sent its troops as a part of the UN peace-keeping force in Congo (MONUSCO). Over 3,500 soldiers from various countries have been deployed in Congo to monitor the peace process of second Congo war, though much of its focus subsequently turned to the Ituri conflict, the Kivu conflict and the Dongo conflict.

(h) After Delhi Declaration in 2006, India and Saudi Arabia has moved to the next stage in their friendly relationship.

Our Prime Minister’s visit to Saudi Arabia has brought some fruitful results in the relationship with the oil rich nation in the Gulf.

The Riyadh Declaration—a new era of strategic partnership was signed by Prime Minister Manmohan Singh and Saudi Arabia’s king Abdulla Bin Abdul Aziz on March 1, 2010 in Riyadh.

We can summarise the declaration as follows:

   (i)        Both the countries reiterated their mutual desire to develop as knowledge – based economies based on advances in the areas of IT, space science and other technologies.

   (ii)       As per the New Declaration, the two leaders decided to raise their co-operation to a strategic partnership covering security, economic defence and political areas.

   (iii)      The two countries agreed to enhance cooperation in exchange of information relating to terrorist activities, money laundering, narcotics, arms and human trafficking and develop joint strategies to combat these threats.

(i) The crisis in Portugal, Italy, Greece and Spain collectively called PIGS threatened the Eurozone.

The root cause of this crisis was the sudden rise of the scale of deficit finance of each government triggered by increased government spending in order to settle down global financial crisis. Greece, one of the member of PIGS, was the economic centre of this crisis.

The ratio of deficit finance VGDP increased.

Increase in national debt over 11% versus GDP simultaneously this triggered the drastic surge of Credit Default Swap (CDS), which leads to sovereign risk.

Q. 4 Answer any TWO of the following in not more than 150 words each:           12 × 2 = 24

(a) Examine the opportunities for a lasting West Asia peace solution in the context of the ‘historic’ talks started in September 2010.

Important Points for Answer:

West Asia     


September talk

Answer: In September 2010, leaders from Israel and Palestine started direct talk in Washington, hosted by US. This was after a 20 months halt in dialogue. The talk aimed at resolving all final status issues between the parties.

US President Obama noted objective of the talk at Palestine and Israel living side by side in peace and security. This talk has surely increase chances of a durable peace in this region.

The talk involved issues of Palestinian refugees, guaranteeing Israel security, sharing of Jerusalem and adjusting the border.

However, there cannot be a long lasting peace in West Asia till some issues are solved successfully. One among them is solution of ongoing hostility between Israel and Palestine, which claims lives of hundreds of civilians frequently. Second issue is that Israel must extend the partial moratorium on construction of settlements in the occupied West Bank. Thirdly, Hamas should restraint from aggressive policies. Fourth important point is that Hamas should be involved in peace process.

(b) Has the February agreement between the Sudanese government and the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) been more successful in ending the strife in Darfur than the Abuja peace agreement of 2006? Evaluate.

Important Points for Answer:

Problems in Sudan

Abuja Peace Agreement

February Agreement


Answer:Sudan is facing problems of civil war, especially in Darfur region. War is between Government backed Janjaweeds and four tribal rebel groups. Main tribal group is Justice and Equality Movement (JEM).

Abuja Peace Agreement was signed on 5th May between Government of Sudan and Sudanese Liberation Movement. Two rebel groups refused to sign the agreement. It was agreed that UN Peacekeeping Forces would replace AU forces. It also required disarming of Janjaweeds.

However, this agreement is not followed. AU Forces continue in Sudan and UN Forces are yet not allowed. Neither Janjaweeds have been disarmed.

Recently, Doha agreement was signed in February, 2006. This agreement continues discussion. It involves power-sharing, prisoner amnesty and integration of rebel groups in the Sudanese army.

However, success depends on consensus among rebel groups. It has better chances to succeed as all rebel groups are involved.

(c) Comment on the present status of the Biological Weapons Convention (BWC). What important issues, do you think, need to be taken up at the seventh review conference of the BWC scheduled for 2011?

Important Points for Answer:


Important issues

Review Conference

Answer:Biological Weapon Convention was opened for signature on April 10, 1972 but it was entered into force on March 26, 1975. It is a Biological Weapon Disarmament Convention. It currently commits 163 states signatory and non-signatories that are partly to it, to prohibit the development, production and stock piling of Biological and toxin weapons.

It is fostering collaboration between bio security stake holders.

To strengthen this convention, subsequent review conferences have reaffirmed that general purpose of future collaboration, scientific and technological developments have been done.

To enhance the confidence and promote co-operation among states, not to use and store pathogenic organism and toxins.

Submitting annually confidence building measures to UN (2nd review conference).

To establish a group of government expert known as VEREX.

Allowing state parties to lodge a complaint with UN Security Council, if they suspect other member states are violating the convention. Although there are some violative countries as Russia, Iraq, Syria, China, North Korea.

Although absence of any formal verification regime to monitor compliance has limited, the effectiveness of convention and rejection of ad hoc group protocol by US concerning national security leads to some loosening of the convention.

Important issues to be taken up at Seventh Review Conference:

Co-operation on verification system.

Enhancing international responding capability investigating and mitigating the fact.

National mechanism to establish and maintain the security and oversight of pathogenic organism and toxins.

Co – operation on exchange information and data.

Member states should add measures to declare legislation, regulation and other measures.

Q. 5 Answer any FOUR of the following in not more than 150 words each:           12 × 4 = 48

(a) Bring out the applications of computer models in studying climate changes, with special reference to the Community Earth System Model (CESM).

Important Points for Answer:



Answer: (a) To study the dynamics of climate system CESM (Community Earth System Model) is a fully coupled, global climate model that provides state of the art computer simulations of earth’s past, present and future climate states. Its process is used by IPCC. It is made by National Centre for Atomic Research.

It represents the pinnacle of complexity in climate models and internalise as many process as possible with detailed regional predictions.

CESM will help to find with great precision to some specific questions like:

   1.       What impact warming temperatures have on the massive ice sheets of green land and Antarctica?

   2.       How might climate change influence the severity and frequency of tropical cyclones, including hurricanes?

   3.       Effects of aerosols on clouds and temperatures.

   4.       How might platform in the ocean and atmosphere affect regional climate in coming decades?

(b) What is phytoremediation? Discuss its applications.

Important Points for Answer:



Answer:Phytoremediation describes the treatment of environmental problems (bioremediation) through the use of plants that mitigate the environmental problem without the need to excavate the contaminant material and dispose it elsewhere.

Applications: Phytoremediation may be applied wherever the soil or static water environment has become polluted or is suffering ongoing chronic pollution. Examples where phytoremediation has been used successfully include the restoration of abandoned metal-mine workings, reducing the impact of sites where polychlorinated biphenyl have been dumped during manufacture and mitigation of on-going coal mine discharges.

Phytoremediation refers to the natural ability of certain plants called hyper accumulators to bioaccumulate, degrade,or render harmless contaminants in soils, water or air. Contaminants such as metals, pesticides, solvents, explosives, and crude oil and its derivatives, have been mitigated in phytoremediation projects worldwide.

Phytoremediation is considered a clean, cost-effective and non-environmentally disruptive technology, as opposed to mechanical cleanup methods such as soil excavation or pumping polluted groundwater. Over the past 20 years, this technology has become increasingly popular and has been employed at sites with soils contaminated with lead, uranium, and arsenic.

(c) Explain and differentiate among ‘Plasma’, ‘LCD’ and ‘LED’ television technologies.

Important Points for Answer:

Plasma TV



Answer: Plasma TV: These are called Plasma TV because pixels rely on plasma cells or fluorescence chambers. Plasma cells get activated when electricity is passed to TV.

Plasma TV’s display is bright. These have low luminance “dark room” black level compared to the light grey of the unluminised parts of LCD display.

Although power consumption varies with picture content with bright scenes drawing significant more power than darker one.

Plasma TV is having wider viewing angle.

Less susceptible to reflection glare in bright room with superior performance.

Plasma TVs are heavy in weight and big in size comparatively these are very susceptible to screen burn in.

LCD: It means Liquid Crystal Display. It produces a black and coloured image by selectively filtering white light.

Light is typically provided by a series of cold cathode flourescent lamps (CCFL) at back screen.

LCD are inefficient relatively in terms of power use per display size.

The accuracy and quality of the resulting colours depends on the back light sources.

LED: These are LED TVs that use LED BACKLIGHT rather than the CCFL.

LED BACKLIGHT leads to dramatic impact resulting in thinner panel, less power consumption and heat dissipation.

It is having bright display with better contrast level.

It is having wide colour capacity. It is less environmental pollutant on disposal.

(d) What is ‘cloud computing’? Bring out its essential features and list its advantages and limitations.

Important Points for Answer:

Cloud – computing – what is it?

Its applications



Answer:Cloud computing is Internet-based computing, whereby shared servers provide resources, software, and data to computers and other devices on demand, as with the electricity grid. Cloud computing is a natural evolution of the widespread adoption of virtualization, service-oriented architecture and utility computing. Details are abstracted from consumers, who no longer have need for expertise in, or control over, the technology infrastructure “in the cloud” that supports them.

Advantages: Reduced Cost—It is paid incrementally, saving organisation’s money.

Increased storage—can store more data on private computer.

Highly automated—No need to keep software updated manually.


Mobility – Information can be accessed anywhere.


Security—It uses the power of online connectivity to handle processing request. Data can be used by unwanted persons.

End-user connectivity – Strong internet connection is required, may not work with weak connection.

Infrastructure is again a challenge when a company opts for its own server.

(e) Discuss the applications of nanotechnology in the health care sector.

Important Points for Answer:

Nanotechnology in health sector

Answer:Nanotechnology has the potential to completely change the health care sector for next generation. As a matter of fact, nanotechnology may bring an ongoing revolution in health care.

Nanotechnology will help medical professionals in today’s most excruciating medical issues, such as repairation of damaged organs, diagnosis and treatment of cancer cells, removal of obstruction in brain and it can help in better drug delivery system.

Nanotechnology can be used for both in vivo and in vitro biomedical research and applications. Nano particles can be used in targeting tumour cells at initial stage. Particles like dentrine, quantandofs and fallevene.

Antimicrobial coating to stop microbial infection.

Use of “signature protein” to treat cancer.

Nanotechnology can help in design certain drugs that are difficult to make because of their structural constraints by controlled manufacturing system at the molecular level.

Q. 6 Comment on any THREE of the following in not more than 50 words each:  5 × 3 = 15

(a) Rotterdam Convention

(b) The Mavi Marmara incident

(c) Significance of the Kampala declaration of the International Criminal Court (ICC)

(d) Trial chamber of the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia (ECCC) and its recent verdict.

Answer: (a) Rotterdam Convention, is a multilateral treaty to promote shared responsibilities in relation to importation of hazardous chemicals.

The convention promotes open exchange of information and calls on exporters of hazardous chemicals to use proper labeling, include directions on safe handling, and inform purchasers of any known restrictions or bans.

Parties can decide whether to allow or ban the importation of chemicals listed in the treaty, and exporting countries are obliged to make sure that producers within their jurisdiction comply.

(b) On the MV Mavi Marmara, clashes broke out after activists violently resisted the Israeli forces. Nine activists were killed (Eight Turkish nationals and one Turkish – American), and dozens of activists and seven Israeli commandos were wounded. Widespread international condemnation followed, Israel-Turkey relations were strained, and Israel subsequently eased its blockade.

The Gaza flotilla raid was a military interception by Israel against six ships of the “Gaza Freedom Flotilla” on May 31, 2010.

(c) Significance of the Kampala declaration of the International Criminal Court (ICC): The Review Conference of ICC concluded its general debate on 1 June, 2010. The Conference adopted the Kampala Declaration which deals mainly with the reaffirmation of the commitment of States to the Rome Statute and its full implementation, as well as its universality and integrity. States also decided to henceforth celebrate 17 July, the day of the adoption of the Rome Statute in 1998, as the Day of International Criminal Justice.

(d) The Trial Chamber of the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia (ECCC) recently found KAING Guek Eav alias Duch guilty of crimes against humanity and grave breaches of the Geneva Conventions of 1949 and sentenced him to 35 (thirty-five) years of imprisonment.

The substantive part of the trial against KAING Guek Eav commenced on 30 March 2009. Closing arguments ended on 27 November 2009 after a total of 72 trial days, during which 24 witnesses, 22 Civil Parties and nine experts were heard.

Q. 7 Comment on any SIX of the following in not more than 50 words each:          5 × 6 = 30

Answer: (a)MRSA infection: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a bacterium responsible for several difficult-to-treat infections in humans. It may also be called multi drug- resistant Staphylococcus aureus or oxacillin – resistant Staphylococcus aureus (ORSA).

MRSA is, by definition, any strain of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria that has developed resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics which include thepenicillins (methicillin, dicloxacillin, nafcillin, oxacillin, etc.) and the cephalosporins.

(b)HRP-2M Choromet: HRP – 2M Choromet is a 35 cm tall, 1 pound humanoid robot which is, in a sense, the younger brother of HRP-2. It runs on ART – Linux which is a hard real time linux developed at the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology in Japan. Choromet’s CPU is an SH – 4 which runs at 240 MHz and has 32 MB of Random access memory and 32 MB of Flash ROM.

Choromet was developed in partnership between General Robotix, Inc. and Moving Eye, Inc., Pirkus Robotics and Dai Nippon Technical Research Institute.

(c)Maglev vehicles: Maglev (derived from magnetic levitation), is a system of transportation that suspends, guides and propels vehicles, predominantly trains, using magnetic levitation from a very large number of magnets for lift and propulsion. The highest recorded speed of a Maglev train is 581 kilometres per hour (361 mph), achieved in Japan in 2003, only 6 kilometres per hour (3.7 mph) faster than the conventional TGV wheel-rail speed record.

(d)Super absorbent polymers (SAP): Superabsorbent polymers (SAP) (also called slush powder) are polymers that can absorb and retain extremely large amounts of a liquid relative to their own mass.

A SAP’s ability to absorb water is a factor of the ionic concentration of the aqueous solution. In deionized and distilled water, a SAP may absorb 500 times its weight (from 30-60 times its own volume), but when put into a 0.9% saline solution, the absorbency drops to maybe 50 times its weight.

(e)Ginkgo biloba: Ginkgo (Ginkgo bilcba) in Chinese and Japanese) known as the Maidenhair Tree, is a unique species of tree with no close living relatives. The tree is widely cultivated and introduced, since an early period in human history, and has various uses as a food and traditional medicine.

(f) CARTOSAT-2B: CARTOSAT – 2B: CARTOSAT 2B is an Earth observation satellite in a sun-synchronous orbit. The satellite is the seventeenth satellite in the Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) satellite series to be built by the Indian Space Research Organisation.

The satellite carries a panchromatic (PAN) camera capable of taking black-and- white pictures in the visible region of electromagnetic spectrum.

(g) Various generations of mobile phone technology:

OG – Pre – cellular mobile telephony technology in 1970s.

OSG – Improved features of 0G.

1G – First Generation of Wireless Telephone Technology of 1980s.

2G – Provided SMS facilities.

3G – Includes broad band services and multi – media communication.

 4G – High speed communication including TV services.

Q. 8 Who / What are the following and why have they been in the news recently?

          (Your answers should be in a sentence or two only): 3 × 8 = 24

(a) Craig Venter

(b) Shahran Amiri

(c) Wolfram Alpha

(d) ‘Dreamliner’ aircraft

(e) Blue gene project

(f) ‘Predator’ drones

(g) ‘Deepwater Horizon’ incident

(h) ACTN 3 gene

Answer: (a) John Craig Venter is an American biologist and entrepreneur, most famous for his role in being one of the first to sequence the human genome and for his role in creating the first cell with a synthetic genome in 2010.

(b) Shahram Amiri is an Iranian nuclear scientist who disappeared during an apparent umrah pilgrimage to Mecca, Saudi Arabia in either May or June 2009. The Iranian government accused the US government of kidnapping him.

(c) Wolfram Alpha is an answer engine developed by Wolfram Research. It was released to the public on May 15, 2009. It was voted the greatest computer innovation of 2009 by Popular Science.

(d) The Boeing 787 Dreamliner is a long range, mid – sized, wide – body, twin – engine jet airliner developed by Boeing Commercial Airplanes. It seats 210 to 330 passengers.

(e) Blue Gene is a computer architecture project to produce several supercomputers, designed to reach operating speeds in the PFLOPS (peta FLOPS) range, and currently reaching sustained speeds of nearly 500 TFLOPS (tera FLOPS).

(f) The General Atomics MQ-1 Predator is an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) used primarily by the United States Air Force (USAF) and Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). It carries cameras and other sensors.

(g) The Deepwater Horizon oil spill is an oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico which flowed for three months in 2010. It is the largest accidental marine oil spill in the history of the petroleum industry.

(h) Alpha – actinin – 3, also known as alpha-actinin skeletal muscle isoform 3 or F-actin cross-linking protein, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ACTN3 gene. This gene expression is limited to skeletal muscle.