Time Allowed: Three Hours Maximum Marks: 300
Instructions: Candidates should attempt all questions strictly in accordance with the instructions given under each question. The number of marks carried by each question is indicated at the end of the question.
Important: Whenever a question is being attempted, all its parts/sub-parts must be attempted contiguously. This means that before moving on to the next question to be attempted, candidates must finish attempting all parts / sub-parts of the previous question attempted. This is to be strictly followed. Pages left blank in the answer-book are to be clearly struck out in ink. Any answers that follow pages left blank may not be given credit.
Q. 1 Answer any five of the following in about 250 words each: 25 × 5 = 125
(a) What do you understand by the term “Innovation” ? Discuss the need for launching a national innovation policy in India.
Answer: Innovation is the development of new values through solutions that meet new requirements, inarticulate needs, or old customer and market needs in value adding new ways.. This is accomplished through more effective products, processes, services, technologies, or ideas that are readily available to markets, governments, and society.
India has a long tradition of innovation and a significant pool of qualified people, both within country as well as the diaspora, presently engaged in innovative activities. This talent pool has to be leveraged to drive the innovation agenda. Further, there is also a need to capture the multiple innovations happening in various domains such as government, R&D labs, universities, and across sectors, to give an impetus to the innovation process in the country. NIC (National Innovation Council) will act as a platform to facilitate this engagement and collaboration with domain experts, stakeholders and key participants to create an innovation movement in India. The aim is to herald a mindset change and create a push at the grassroots level so that more and more people in education, business, government, NGOs, urban and rural development engaged in innovative activities are co-opted and are part of shaping the national level innovation strategy.
Realising that innovation is the engine for the growth of prosperity and national competitiveness in the 21st century, the President of India has declared 2010 as the ‘Decade of Innovation’.
Towards this end, the Prime Minister has approved the setting up of a National Innovation Council (NInC) under the Chairmanship of Mr. Sam Pitroda, Adviser to the PM on PIII to discuss analyse and help implement strategies for inclusive innovation in India and prepare a Roadmap for Innovation 2010-2020. NIC would be the first step in creating a crosscutting system which will provide mutually reinforcing policies, recommendations and methodologies to implement and boost innovation performance in the country.
(b) Keeping in view the informal sector’s share in the total workforce of the country, critically examine the relevant inclusive measures initiated by the Government of India and their effectiveness.
Important Points for Answer:
Informal sector in India
Answer: Informal sector in India consist of unorganised labour workers in rural and urban area. They constitute nearly 85% of total work force and contribute to more than 50% of total production. For their welfare, the Government has, from time to time, implemented various inclusive measures.
Some of them are:
Aam Admi Bima Yojana, a Social Security Scheme for rural landless household was launched on 2nd October, 2007. The head of the family or one earning member in the family of such a household is covered under the scheme. The premium of Rs.200/- per person per annum is shared equally by the Central Government and the State Government. The member to be covered should be aged between 18 and 59 years.
The Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act aims at enhancing the livelihood security of people in rural areas by guaranteeing hundred days of wage-employment in a financial year to a rural household whose adult members volunteer to do unskilled manual work.
Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana (RSBY) has been launched by Ministry of Labour and Employment, Government of India to provide health insurance coverage for Below Poverty Line (BPL) families. The objective of RSBY is to provide protection to BPL households from financial liabilities arising out of health shocks that involve hospitalization. Beneficiaries under RSBY are entitled to hospitalization coverage up to Rs. 30,000/- for most of the diseases that require hospitalization
These welfare schemes have certainly uplifted living standard of unorgani labour and unskilled workers.
(c) Examine the causes and the extent of ‘desertification’ in India and suggest remedial measures.
Important Points for Answer:
What is Desertification ?
Answer: Desertification is the degradation of land in any dry-land. It is caused by a variety factors, such as climate change and human activities. Desertification is a significant global ecological and environmental problem.
Nearly 25% of the country’s geographical area is affected by desertification. The Space Application Centre in 2007 brought out the Desertification and Land Degradation Atlas which shows 81.45 million hectare land in the country has turned into arid, semi-arid or dry sub humid region.
Desertification is caused by a number of factors including climatic variations and human activities.
Some of the human activities that can cause desertification are:
Expansion of agriculture- over-cultivation of soils, or exposure to erosion by wind or water;
Reduction in the fallow period of soil, and lack of organic or mineral fertilizers;
Overgrazing – often selectively – of shrubs, herbs and grasses;
Over-exploitation of forest resources; deforestation;
Uncontrolled use of fire for regenerating pasture, for hunting, agricultural clearing, or for settling;
Poor irrigation practices-irrigation of soils prone to salinisation, alkalinisation or even water logging.
Policy and legislative frameworks that contribute to combating desertification in India:
– National Water Policy, 1987;
– National Forest Policy, 1988;
– National Agricultural Policy, 2000;
– Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980;
– Environment (Protection) Act, 1986;
– National Environmental Policy, 2006;
– National Policy for Farmers, 2007;
– National Rain-fed Area Authority (NRAA)- 2007 .
Some major schemes/programmes that have contributed to desertification control are:
Drought Prone Areas Programme (DPAP), 1973-74;
Watershed Development Project in Shifting Cultivation Areas (WDPSCA), 1974-75;
Desert Development Programme (DDP), 1977-78;
Reclamation & Development of Alkali Soil (RAS), 1985-86;
Watershed Development Fund (WDF), Integrated Wasteland Development Programme (IWDP), 1989;
National Watershed Development Project for Rain fed Areas (NWDPRA) – 1990-91;
Soil Conservation in the Catchment of River Valley Projects (RVP) 1992;
Sustainable Land and Ecosystem Management (SLEM Programmatic Approach) 2007;
Common Guidelines for Watershed Development Programme, 2008;
Integrated Watershed Management Programme (IWMP);
Guidelines for Convergence between NREGA and NAP 2009.
National Afforestation Programme (NAP) 2002-03 is also one of the major programmes in which Association of Scheduled Tribes and Rural Poor in Regeneration of Degraded Forests (ASTRP), launched in 1992-93 and Integrated Afforestation and Eco-Development Projects Scheme (LAEPS) 1989-90 were merged into the National Afforestation Programme.
(d) In the context of the growing demands for the ban of Endosulfan in the country, critically examine the issues involved. What, in your view, should be done in the matter ?
Important Points for Answer:
What is Endosulfan?
Banning of Endosulfan
Answer: Endosulfan is an off-patent organochlorine insecticide and acaricide that is being phased out globally. The two isomers, endo and exo, are known popularly as I and II.
Endosulfan became a highly controversial agrichemical due to its acute toxicity, potential for bioaccumulation, and role as an endocrine disruptor. Because of its threats to human health and the environment, a global ban on the manufacture and use of endosulfan was negotiated under the Stockholm Convention in April 2011. The ban was to take effect in mid-2012, with certain uses exempted for five additional years.
The Supreme Court banned the production and sale of endosulfan in the country. In April 2012, it asked the Centre to ascertain the quantity of raw material lying with three companies (producers of the banned pesticide endosulfan) and the manner in which the raw material could be disposed of.
The international conventions and global practices also suggest phasing out. The FAO also recommends disposal of live stock of pesticides through phasing out by its judicious use as per good agricultural practices for crop protection purposes.
Of the 19 States which participated in the meeting convened by the expert committee, except Kerala and Karnataka, other States were in favour of the continued use of endosulfan for the reasons being broad spectrum, cheaper, most popular among farmers, safe to pollinations, no reports of resistance/resurgence or ill effects on human beings, animals and environment. Thus, States other than Kerala and Karnataka are ready to use endosulfan for agricultural pest control.
(e) “The Indian independence movement was a mass – based movement that encompassed various sections of society. It also underwent the process of constant ideological evolution.” Critically examine.
Answer: Indian independence movement started from the 1857 uprising of sepoys. The uprising led to nationwide protest against British. Everywhere local people joined with the rebels and rose up against British. This is the first indication that Indian freedom movement was a mass-based movement.
Many peasants uprisings and revolts occur till the independence in 1947. Establishment of Indian National Congress and its political movement, Home Rule League and its support by people, Gandhi’s Satyagrahas and Civil Disobedience Movement encompassed almost all sections of the society. Muslim League also enjoyed a mass support of muslims which acted to overthrow British. People of all religion, status and creed joined against the British rule.
In 1857 it was predominantly a revolt against foreign rule, to establish local rulers. Peasant uprisings were to overthrow insensitive rulers. INC movement was to gain political advantage and establish a political order, initially dominion status and later complete independence. Gandhi’s movement also underwent ideological changes ranging from support to British rule with demand of more freedom and political right to complete independence.
The independence movement passed through small uprisings, organised political struggle under congress, mass movement under congress, Gandhi’s non-violent movement along with revolutionary struggle.
Thus, the independence movement encompassed various sections of society and underwent different ideological phases.
(f) The issue of tourism in core areas of tiger reserve forests in the country is a subject matter of debate. Critically examine various aspects of this issue, keeping in view relevant recent judicial pronouncements.
Answer: The Supreme Court lifted the ban on tourist activities in core areas of tiger reserve forests.
After the ban, several States and other stake holders urged the Centre to revisit the guidelines and sought the lifting of the ban. Accordingly, the Centre filed an application seeking modification of the order. Subsequently, the court asked the Centre to hold consultations with the States and others and come out with fresh guidelines. Accordingly, the NTCA formulated fresh guidelines.
The Comprehensive Guidelines on Strategy, Tiger Conservation and Tourism in and around Tiger Reserves envisaged that 20 per cent of the core reserve area should be permitted for tourism. Shifting the focus from wildlife tourism to eco-tourism, the NTCA had recommended that a maximum of 20 per cent of the core/critical tiger habitat usage (not exceeding the present usage) for regulated, low-impact tourist visitation might be permitted by the court. It said, “In case the current usage exceeds 20 per cent, the Local Area Committee may decide on a time frame for bringing down the usage to 20 per cent. Such area may be demarcated as tourism zone and there should be strict adherence to site-specific carrying capacity.”
Some suggestions in this regard are:
The States should enact law to regulate tiger tourism—tourist facilities; tour operators should not cause disturbance to animals; tourism infrastructure must be environment-friendly like usage of solar energy, waste recycling and rainwater harvesting, etc; permanent tourist facilities located inside the core areas should be phased out in a time frame and 10 per cent of the revenue generated from pilgrim centres located in tiger reserves must be used for development of local communities.
Q. 2 Answer any seven of the following in about 150 words each: 15 × 7 = 105
(a) “There is an urgent need for the Planning Commission to revise the chapter on health in the 12th Plan document.” Comment.
Answer: The 12th Plan document recommends, in its chapter on Health, increase in public expenditure on health from the present 1 per cent to 1.58 per cent of GDP, in sharp contrast to the High Level Expert Group recommendation of raising this expenditure to at least 2.5 per cent of GDP.
This will ensure that India remains among the bottom 10 nations in terms of public spending on health. Health activists feel the focus of the document has shifted to a ‘managed care’ approach, paving the way for greater private role in public healthcare. It is feared that this would lead to the Government abandoning its role in providing healthcare and becoming just a ‘manager’ of a largely corporatised system. This would also decisively halt and eventually reverse the moderate achievements of the National Rural Health Mission, in expanding public health infrastructure and services in parts of the country.
Union Health Minister Ghulam Nabi Azad has written a letter to the Planning Commission and added that the Minister was personally looking into the matter. The Minister’s letter hits out at the Plan panel’s suggested pilot models that “heavily promote corporatisation of health”, and reiterates that the Ministry’s stance of developing a strong public health system be supplemented by private sector participation, not vice-versa.
(b) The Union Cabinet recently cleared the proposal to rename and amend the Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act, 1986. What are the salient features of the proposed amendments?
Answer: The amendments included renaming of Child Labour (Prohibition & Regulation) Act as Child and Adolescent Labour (Prohibition) Act and provided that there will be no bar on children helping their families after school hours and in vacations, in fields, home-based work (except commercial purpose).
The proposal is also for prohibiting employment of persons below 18 years (instead of present age 14 years) in hazardous occupations and processes in line with an International Labour Organisation Convention.
Their conditions of work are regulated in non-hazardous occupations and processes under the Act.
The amendments would ensure that all children would be compulsorily admitted in schools as per Right to Education Act, 2009 instead of working in workplaces.
Parents and guardians of children would be punishable under this Act only when they permit engagement of their children for commercial purposes in contravention to this Act.
The punishment to the offender under the Act would be stricter and the offences would be cognizable. The maximum punishment under the Act has been increased from one year of imprisonment )co two years, and fine from Rs 20,000 Rs 50,000 or both. For repeated offences, it ha s been raised to three years of imprisonment.
The overall responsibility for implementation of the Act will be vested with the district magistrate/deputy commissioner and monitoring and inspection will be done by the labour department.
(c) “Domestic resource mobilization, though central to the process of Indian economic growth, is characterized by several constraints.” Explain.
Answer: Domestic Resource Mobilization (DRM) refers to the savings and investments generated by households, domestic firms, and governments.
A greater emphasis on DRM can help developing countries to enhance their growth and economic performance, contribute toward increasing their policy space and ownership of development strategies, and reduce aid dependence. Although ultimately the private sector plays the more significant role in the process of mobilizing and investing domestic resources, the key policy and institutional drivers are in the hands of governments, particularly in low-income countries.
What national strategies are currently in place with regards DRM?
What are the main reasons behind lack of implementation?
What is (or should be) the role of the state and its development partners in financial market infrastructure development?
What role could private sector participants (in particular, foreign banks and nonbanking financial institutions) play in financial sector infrastructure development?
Given the constraints of financial markets, what are the kinds of investment instruments that would be relevant, both in terms of mobilizing and pooling savings, and risk diversification?
What is the realistic potential of alternatives and innovations, such as micro credit in consolidating the otherwise highly fragmented financial markets in the region?
Are there structural limits to what can be achieved (e.g. market density, income levels, financial education levels, urbanization levels, real returns and risk perceptions)? How can these be overcome ?
(d) The ‘flute – playing Krishna’ theme is very popular in Indian art. Discuss.
Answer: In Indian art, Krishna is often described and portrayed as an infant or young boy playing a flute as in the Bhagavata Purana, or as a youthful prince giving direction and guidance as in the Bhagavad Gita.
Common depictions show him as a little boy, or as a young man in a characteristic relaxed pose, playing the flute. In this form, he usually stands with one leg bent in front of the other and raises a flute to his lips, known as Tribhangi Mudra, accompanied by cows, emphasizing his position as the divine herdsman, Govinda, or with the gopis (milkmaids) i.e. Gopikrishna, stealing butter from neighbouring houses i.e. Navneet Chora or Gokulakrishna, defeating the vicious serpent i.e. Kaliya Damana Krishna, lifting the hill i.e. Giridhara Krishna ..so on and so forth from his childhood / youth events.
Krishna is also called Murli Dhar. The flute of Krishna means the flute of revelation and not the physical flute. Krishna lived like humans and he was a prophet.
Depiction of Krishna playing flute in the temple constructed in AD 752 on the order of Emperor Shomu; Todai-ji Temple, Great Buddha Hall in Nara, Japan is also noteworthy.
(e) What are the salient features of the Consumer Protection (Amendment) Bill, 2011 introduced in the Lok Sabha in December 2011 ?
Important Points for Answer:
Consumer Protection (Amendment) Bill
Various Key features
Answer: The Consumer Protection (Amendment) Bill, 2011 was introduced in the Lok Sabha on December 16, 2011 by Mr. K.V. Thomas. It has been referred to the Standing Committee on Food, Consumer Affairs and Public Distribution.
The Bill defines unfair contract to include a contract which has one or more of the following clauses (a) excessive security deposit; (b) imposition of disproportionate penalty; (c) refusal to accept early repayment of debt and; (d) termination of contract without reasonable cause.
Under the Bill unfair trade practice includes a (i) a failure to take back the goods or withdraw the services within a period of 30 days after the receipt of the goods by the consumer; and (ii) disclosure of confidential personal information.
Under the Act, a maximum of two members are to be appointed to the District Forum. The Bill proposes that a minimum of two members should be appointed and the maximum number of members should be prescribed by the state government.
Under the Act, the state government appoints the members of the District Forum on the recommendation of the Selection Committee. The Bill proposes that the state government may refer back the recommendation to the Selection Committee if in its opinion the nominee is not fit to be appointed.
The Bill permits online filing of complaints. Under the Act, the admissibility of a complaint has to be decided within 21 days from date on which the complaint was received. The Bill proposes to increase it to 28 days.
(f) What do you understand by the term “Multi – Drug Resistant Tuberculosis” (MDR- TB) ? What measures would you advocate for its containment and what are the implications of its spread in the community ?
Important Points for Answer:
Definition of MDR-TB
Measures adopted for its containment
Answer: Multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is defined as tuberculosis that is resistant to at least isoniazid (INH) and rifampicin (RMP), the two most powerful first-line treatment anti-TB drugs. Isolates that are multiply resistant to any other combination of anti-TB drugs but not to INH and RMP are not classed as MDR-TB.
MDR-TB develops during treatment of fully sensitive TB when the course of antibiotics is interrupted and the levels of drug in the body are insufficient to kill 100% of bacteria.
In addition to the obvious risks (i.e., known exposure to a patient with MDR-TB), risk factors for MDR-TB include HIV infection, previous incarceration, failed TB treatment, failure to respond to standard TB treatment, and relapse following standard TB treatment.
Patients with MDR-TB should be isolated in negative-pressure rooms, if possible. Patients with MDR-TB should not be accommodated on the same ward as immune-suppressed patients (HIV-infected patients, or patients on immunosuppressive drugs). Careful monitoring of compliance with treatment is crucial to the management of MDR-TB (and some physicians insist on hospitalisation if only for this reason).
(g) Given the accelerated pace of development and demand for energy, would you consider renewable energy as a viable option for India’s future ?
Answer: The energy policy of India is largely defined by the country’s burgeoning energy deficit and increased focus on developing alternative sources of energy, particularly nuclear, solar and wind energy.
About 70% of India’s energy generation capacity is from fossil fuels, with coal accounting for 40% of India’s total energy consumption followed by crude oil and natural gas at 24% and 6% respectively.
Due to rapid economic expansion, India has one of the world’s fastest growing energy markets and is expected to be the second-largest contributor to the increase in global energy demand by 2035, accounting for 18% of the rise in global energy consumption. Given India’s growing energy demands and limited domestic fossil fuel reserves, the country has ambitious plans to expand its renewable and nuclear power industries. India has the world’s fifth largest wind power market and plans to add about 20GW of solar power capacity by 2022. India also envisages to increase the contribution of nuclear power to overall electricity generation capacity from 4.2% to 9% within 25 years. The country has five nuclear reactors under construction (third highest in the world) and plans to construct 18 additional nuclear reactors (second highest in the world) by 2025.
Given the situation, it is recommended that renewable energy should supplement other sources of energy, to maintain pace of development and fulfill the demand for energy.
(h) Many food items contain “trans fats”. What do you understand by this term ? Which Indian food items contain trans fats ? What are the implications of trans fats on human health?
Answer: Trans fat is the common name for unsaturated fat with trans-isomer (E-isomer) fatty acid(s). Because the term refers to the configuration of a double carbon-carbon bond, trans fats are sometimes monounsaturated or polyunsaturated, but never saturated.
Trans fats do exist in nature but also occur during the processing of polyunsaturated fatty acids in food production.
The consumption of trans fats increases the risk of coronary heart disease by raising levels of LDL cholesterol and lowering levels of “good” HDL cholesterol.
A type of trans fat occurs naturally in the milk and body fat of ruminants (such as cattle and sheep) at a level of 2-5% of total fat. Natural trans fats, which include conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and vaccenic acid, originate in the rumen of these animals. CLA has two double bonds, one in the configuration and one in trans, which makes it simultaneously a cis- and a trans-fatty acid.
Animal-based fats were once the only trans fats consumed, but by far the largest amount of trans fat consumed today is created by the processed food industry as a side effect of partially hydrogenating unsaturated plant fats (generally vegetable oils).
Q. 3 Answer the following in about 50 words each: 5 × 11 = 55
(a) What is the ‘Parivarik Mahila Lok Adalat’ ?
Answer: The National Commission for Women has evolved an innovative concept of PMLA for redressal and speedy disposal of cases under Legal Service Authority Act, 1987, which has its roots in the traditional Nyaya Panchayats. The essential features of PMLA are amicable mutual settlement and flexibility in functioning. The NGOs in association with District Legal Aid and Advisory Board, activists, advocates and others, organise Parivarik Mahila Lok Adalats with the Commission’s financial assistance.
(b) List the main objectives of the National Manufacturing Policy (NMP), 2011.
Answer: The major objectives of the National Manufacturing Policy, 2011 are to increase the sectoral share of manufacturing in GOP to at least 25% by 2022; to increase the rate of job creation so as to create 100 million additional jobs by 2022; and to enhance global competitiveness, domestic value addition, technological depth and environmental sustainability of growth.
(c) Comment on the significance of Rasamava in studying the history of Indian Chemistry.
Answer: Rasamava was written in Sanskrit in the period of 12th century AD by an unknown author. It is a “Treatise on Metallic Preparations”, and describes Trantric, Mecial and Chemical practice of the time. It deals with Rasas – i.e. Mercury and other important minerals, Uparasas and metals.
(d) What are the Rights within the ambit of Article 21 of the Indian Constitution ?
Answer: Article 21 provides for Protection of life and personal liberty. It says, “No person shall be deprived of his life or personal liberty except according to procedure established by law.” The Supreme Court has by various judgements included right to pollution free environment, right to shelter, right to food, right of locomotion and travel abroad, right to speedy and fair trial etc. under the ambit of Article 21.
(e) Comment on the significance of the Preamble contained in the Right to Information Act.
Answer: As per Preamble to RTI Act, it is to provide for setting out the practical regime of right to information for citizens to secure access to information under the control of public authorities, in order to promote transparency and accountability in the working of every public authority, the constitution of a Central Information Commission and State Information Commissions and other matters connected with them.
(f) To implement one key recommendation of the Mohini Giri Committee, the Government has recently announced the constitution of a National Council. Highlight the composition and the mandate of this National Council.
Answer: Composition of the National Council:
Chairman: Minister of Social Justice & Empowerment; Minister of State, Social Justice & Empowerment; Oldest Members of Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha; Representatives of 5 State Governments + 1 Union Territory (by rotation.); 5 representatives each from Senior Citizens’ Associations, Pensioners’ Association, NGOs working for Senior Citizens and Experts.
Mandate of the National Council:
This council will advise the Central and State Governments on issues related to:
¦ policies, programmes and legislative measures for the welfare of senior citizens.
¦ promotion of physical and financial security, health and independent and productive living
¦ awareness generation and community mobilization.
(g) Comment on the recent launching of the National Mission on Libraries (NML).
Answer: The National Knowledge Commission (NKC) in its Report to the Nation (2006-2009) made ten major recommendations on libraries. In pursuance of this, a High Level Committee to be called as National Mission on Libraries (NML) has been set up by the Government of India. Raja Rammohun Roy Library Foundation (RRRLF), an autonomous body under the Ministry of Culture will be the nodal agency for the National Mission on Libraries for administrative, logistics, planning and budgeting purposes.
(h) What are the groups into which musical instruments in India have traditionally been classified?
Answer: Indian musical instruments can be broadly classified into four categories:
Chordophobut (String Instruments):
Flutes Single reed
Double reed Bagpipes
Free reed Free reed and bellow
Brass Other wind instruments
Hand drums • Hand frame drums
Stick and hand drums • Stick drums
(i) Comment on the significance of fire in Zoroastrianism.
Answer: Fire is a symbol of Ahura Mazda (The Aryans, who originated in the area near Persia, used fire in their ritual activities. For them fire – [“ignite”] – was a god). The most important sacred places for Zoroastrians are the Fire Temples where priests chant prayers, hymns and blessings around the clock.
(j) Why is Laurie Baker called ‘the conscience keeper of Indian architecture’ ?
Answer: Laurie Baker is known for building affordable, elegant and energy efficient homes in Kerala. People called his designs ‘Baker-model houses’. Received Padam Sri for his works. In Thiruvananthapuram he designed and built Centre for Development Studies (CDS) which continues to be a pilgrim centre for budding architects from across the country.
(k) You are stationed in a small district town in the plains of Northern India. The summer has been severe. Suddenly, a colleague, who had been out since morning, returns to the office complaining of headache, restlessness and confusion. Shortly, he becomes unconscious. His body temperature is 40°C. What first aid steps would you take to revive him ?
Answer: These are the symptoms of “heatstroke”. Hence the Treatment should be:
Move the victim to a cooler environment immediately. Cover him with a towel/blanket soaked with water to cool the victim’s body. Loosen clothing and ensure that the person gets plenty of ventilation. When he gains consciousness, immediately give him water containing salt or lemon juice.
Q. 4 Comment on each of the following in about 20 words each: 2 × 5 = 10
(a) The significance of Patharughat in the Indian freedom struggle
Answer: Patharughat, is a place in Assam, known as Assam’s Jallianwala Bagh, famous for 1894 Patharughat Ran, where on January 28, 1894 some 140 persons were killed in an unprovoked police firing while protesting against enhanced revenue.
(b) Bagurumba folk dance
Answer: Bagurumba, also called “butterfly dance”, is a folk dance of Assam, performed by the Bodos during Bwisagu, a festival of the Bodos in the Bishuba Sankranti or Mid-April.
(c) Determining the ‘value’ assigned to the vote of a Member of a State Legislative Assembly and of a Member of Parliament in the Indian Presidential elections.
Answer: Article 55 (2) (a) says: every elected member of the Legislative Assembly of a State shall have as many votes as there are multiples of one thousand in the quotient obtained by dividing the population of the State by the total number of the elected members of the Assembly.
(d) Significance of the SPOT – 6 rocket launch for ISRO
Answer: The 100th Indian space mission of ISRO has launched a PSLV, carrying the French SPOT- 6 Earth observation satellite with a mass of 712 kilograms.
(e) Issues highlighted through the work of Palagummi Sainath
Answer: Palagummi Sainath, a ‘rural reporter’, is an Indian journalist and photojournalist focusing on social problems, rural affairs, poverty and the aftermaths of globalisation in India. He is the Rural Affairs Editor for The Hindu.
Q. 5 Why have the following been in the news recently ? (Answer to be in one sentence only). 1 × 5 = 5
(a) P.V. Sindhu
Answer: P.V. Sindhu, the 17-year-old Indian female badminton player, who beat London Olympics gold medalist Li Xuerui in the quarterfinals of the China Masters, achieved the 20th place in the BWF ranking.
(b) Aditya Kumar Mandi
Answer: Aditya Kumar Mandi, who is a constable in CISF, won the Sahitya Akadami Prize for his poetry in Santhali language.
(c) Cyrus Mistry
Answer: Cyrus Mistry, a leading businessman, is going to take over as Chairman of Tata Group, from Ratan Tata, from December 2012.
(d) Ashoke Sen
Answer: Ashoke Sen is an Indian theoretical physicist who won the Fundamental Physics Prize, 2012, for his work on string theory.
(e) Mario de Miranda
Answer: Mario Miranda was an Indian cartoonist of Goa who died in 2011 and was awarded a posthumous Padma Vibhushan in 2012.