Time Allowed:ThreeHours          Maximum Marks : 250

Instructions : There are TWENTY FIVE questions printed both in English and Hindi. All questions are compulsory. The number of marks carried by a question/part is indicated against it. Answers must be written in the medium authorised in the Admission Certificate which must be stated clearly on the cover of this Question-cum-Answer (QCA) Booklet in the space provided. No marks will be given for answers written in medium other than the authorised one.

Word limit in questions, if specified, should be adhered to.

Any page or portion of the page left blank in the Question-cum-Answer Booklet must be clearly struck off.

Answer questions in NOT MORE THAN the word limit specified for each in the parenthesis. Content of the answer is more important than length.

Q. 1. To what extent has the urban planning and culture of the Indus Valley Civilization provided inputs to the present day urbanization? Discuss.           10

Important Points for Answer:

•       Towns of Indus Valley

•       Features of Towns

Answer: The people of Indus Valley were primarily urban people. The Indus cities like Harappa, Mahenjo-daro, Kalibangan, Lothal and Sarkotada show Town planning of the time. The cities were built on a uniform plan.They had the following features which can be useful for modern town planners:

Fine drainage system, well arranged water supply system were carefully adopted.

The street lights system, watch and ward arrangement at night, specific places to throw waste materials, public wells in every street, well in every house etc. revealengineering and town planning of the people.

The streets intersected in right angles.

Drains were made of gypsum, lime and cement, covered with portable stabs. House drains connected in the main drains running under the main streets and below many lanes.

Double storied dwelling houses were widely prevalent.

Almost every house had a bathroom at the ground floor and some even on the first floor.

All these aspects of Indus Valley towns are useful and inspiring for present town planning system. (Total 166 words)

Q. 2. Gandhara Sculpture owed as much to the Romans as to the Greeks. Explain.       10

Important Points for Answer:

•       Gandhara Sculpture

•       Roman Sculpture

•       Greek Sculpture

•       Relations

Answer: Gandhara style of Buddhist art has developed from merger of Greek, Syrian, Persian, and Indian artistic influence which began mainly during the Parthian Period but the Gandhara style flourished and achieved its pinnacle during the Kushan period, from the 1st to the 5th centuries.

Gandhararegion was crossroads for cultural influence and therefore this school of art had maintained contacts with Rome and Greece. Motifs and techniques from classical Roman art were incorporated in Gandhara School which included vine scrolls, cherubs bearing garlands, tritons and centaurs.

The materials used for Gandhara sculpture were green phyllite and gray-blue mica schist and stucco. The sculptures were originally painted and gilded.

Gandhara School started representing Buddha with a youthful Apollo like face, dressed in garments resembling to Roman imperial statues.

The Gandhara school incorporated many motifs and techniques from Classical Roman art, including vine scrolls, cherubs bearing garlands, tritons, and centaurs. The basic iconography, however, remained Indian.

Both Roman and Greek traditions were used to enrich Gandhara art. (Total 166 words)

Q. 3. Taxila University was one of the oldest universities of the world with which were associated a number of renowned learned personalities of different disciplines. Its strategic location caused its fame to flourish, but unlike Nalanda, it is not considered as a university in modern sense. Discuss.          10

Important Points for Answer:

•       Taxila University – its importance

•       Nalanda University – its importance

•       Taxila not a University

Answer: Taxila, also known as Taxshila university is considered one of the oldest universities in the world. Located in modern day northwest Pakistan was situated at the pivotal junction of South Asia and Central Asia. It taught ancient scriptures, arts of eighteen types including skills like archery, elephant lore, hunting, law, medicine, military science etc. Chanakya, Chandragupta Maurya, Charaka, Panini, Jivaka, Prasenajit are some of the famous personalities associated with Taxila university.

Nalanda, located in the ancient kingdom of Magadha was a centre for learning from 5th to 12th century which flourished under the patronage of Gupta empire and Hardhavardhana of Kanauj. It attracted students from various Janapadas of India, and also Tibet, China, Korea and Central Asia. Buddha, Mahavira, Aryabhatta, Aryadeva, Atisha, Dharmakirti, Dharmapala, Nagarjuna Yijing and Naropa studied in Nalanda. The university taught Buddhism, Vedas, logic, grammar, philosophy, medicine, magic, law, astronomy and city planning.

Taxila had no lecture halls and residences, but Nalanda had all these facilities to consider it a modern university.    (Total 165 words)

Q. 4. The third battle of Panipat was fought in 1761. Why were so many empire–shaking battles fought at Panipat?10

Important Points for Answer:

•       Battles of Panipat

•       Location of Panipat

•       Reasons for Panipat wars

Answer: The third battle of Panipat fought in 1761 between Afghans and the Marathas resulted in defeat and subsequent decline of Marathas. The first battle of Panipat was between Babur and Ibrahim Lodi, resulting into Babur establishing Mughal dynasty in India. The second battle was between Akbar and Hemu for supremacy in India.

Because of Panipat’s vicinity to Delhi which has remained the capital of India since medieval times. Therefore capturing Delhi used to give control over India. 

Additionally, Panipat was located in the middle of two of the most agriculturally productive regions i.e. the plains of the Indus and the plains of Ganges.

All forces took route of Kandhar and Panipat fell on the G.T. Road as a battleground for such invaders and the Indian rulers because Indian rulers wanted to fight outside Delhi to no disturb the life of people.

Panipat terrain consisted of large plains making it suitable for battles tactics.

Therefore, so many empire-shaking wars were fought in Panipat.      (Total 165 words)

Q. 5. Sufis and medieval mystic saints failed to modify either the religious ideas and practices or the outward structure of Hindu/Muslim societies to any appreciable extent. Comment. 10

Important Points for Answer:

•       Sufi & Mystic Saints

•       Impact on Hindu/Muslim Society

•       Assessment

Answer: During the Medieval period, two most influential movements, Sufism and Bhakti Movement started in India. Both were either to increase Islamic influence or to save Hindu traditions.

Khwaja Muinuddin Chisti, Farid-ud-din Ganj-i-Shakar, Nizam-ud-din Auliya, etc were main sufi saints of the period. Medieval saints opposed the orthodoxy and superstition in the Hindu religion, and condemned the prevailing social order.

The Sufi movement was the result of the Hindu influence on Islam.

The chief exponents of Bhakti movement were Ramanuja, Nimbarka, Ramananda, Vallabhacharya, Kabir, Nanak and Sri Chaityana. They preached to local people at village gatherings. They moved from one place to another place to propagate and such nomadic nature of saints did not leave long lasting impact. No institutional structure was created and so the message was forgotten by audience.

They could not modify either religious ideas and practices or the outward structure of Hindu/Muslim societies as their influence remained confined to small pockets and ideas remained mostly abstract. (Total 166 words)

Q. 6. Examine critically the various facets of economic policies of the British in India from mid-eighteenth century till independence.   10

Important Points for Answer:

•       Economic Policies of British

•       From 1750s to 1947

•       Analysis

Answer: Mid eighteenth century is marked by an important even in British India. The Battle of Plassey (1757) and Battle of Buxar (1764) opened way for the East India Company to assume the Diwani rights of large part of East India.

Britishers implemented various reforms in the Indian land revenue system like- Zamindari (Permanent Settlement), Ryotwari and Mahalwari systems  during the second half of the 18th century. Discouraging industrialisation in India, British made it a supplier of raw material and market for their finished products. English transformed Indian exports to cheap Indio, Tobacco and opium.

During the British period, irrigation systems were built to provide  impetus for growing cash crops for export and raw materials for industry, especially jute, cotton, sugarcane, coffee and tea.

The British also built a modern railway, postal services, telegraph system in late 19h century. British dictated the terms of international trade for India and often restricted the Indian traders to transact with nations, that were hostile to Britain. (Total 162 words)

Q. 7. In what ways did the naval mutiny prove to be the last nail in the coffin of British colonial aspirations in India?         10

Important Points for Answer:

•       Naval Mutiny

•       Reasons

•       Result

Answer: Royal Indian Navy (RIN) revolt started as a strike by ratings in one of the battleships at Bombay in February, 1946. It was a protest against conditions of service, discrimination, etc. The revolt spread and found support throughout India.

It found immense support among the Indian population which supported the soldiers by demonstration which included a one-day general strike in Bombay. The strike also spread to other cities and was joined by Royal Indian Air Force and local police forces. Widespread rioting took place across the nation.

The point that Sardar Patel could pacify soldiers and not the Britishers made them understand that the control of the Indian politics had finally shifted from the English to the Indian hands.

At the same time, Britishers were weakened in the World War-II which resulted in emergence of US and USSR as super-powers who were against imperialism and colonialism. This Naval mutiny and its repercussions shattered the argument of moral authority of British to rule India. (Total 166 words)

Q.8. What were the major political, economic and social developments in the world which motivated the anti-colonialstruggleinIndia?  10

Important Points for Answer:

•       Political Developments

•       Economic Developments

•       Social Developments

•       Impact on Indian freedom struggle

Answer: The Anti-Colonial struggle in India was inspired by various events and ideologies. Some major International events also played catalyst role in India’s freedom struggle.

Politically the unification of Germany and successful Irish struggle against British inspired the minds of millions of Indian people to unite as a nation.

World War I was the reason for first mass movement of Non-Cooperation Movement and Khilafat Movement. It also sowed seeds of Ghadar movements.

World War-II resulted in the weakening of British as the colonial power and gave rise to US and USSR as new super-powers who were against Colonialism and Imperialism which inspired the process of Decolonisation.

The establishment of United Nations was a moral pressure against colonial powers like Britain.

Economically, Great Economic Recession exposed the vulnerable nature of the colonial powers.

French revolution, Communist movements, Home-Rule Movement of Ireland, etc. were also responsible for creating national movement in India. (Total 154 words)

Q. 9. What were the events that led to Suez Crisis in 1956? How did it deal a final blow to Britain’s self-image as a world power?        10

Important Points for Answer:

•       Suez Canal Crisis

•       Reasons

•       Reactions

•       Result

Answer: The Suez Canal opened in 1869, connecting the Mediterranean and Red Seas, initially as a private corporation owned by French investors and the Egyptian government. But Egypt sold its shares to Britain in 1875. Suez Canal was primarily a commercial venture. Britain had secured permission from Egypt to maintain a military presence in the Canal Zone to reinforce its status as the world’s supreme naval power.

In 1956, Egyptian President Gamal Nasser seized the Suez Canal from its French and British owners, leading to an invasion by those Western nations and their ally, Israel.

Britain and France invaded Egypt to regain control of the Suez Canal and to remove Egyptian President Nasser from power. There was also an invasion of Egypt’s Sinai Peninsula by Israel which was later joined by UK and France. This unilateral action of Britain and France was condemned internationally as a result of which they were forced to withdraw. It was considered undiplomatic and lowered Britain’s esteem as a super power in the world. (Total 168 words)

Q. 10. The New Economic Policy-1921 of Lenin had influenced the policies adopted by India soon after Independence. Evaluate.         10

Important Points for Answer:

•       New Economic Policy 1921

•       Indian Policy

•       Planning

•       PSUs

Answer: The New Economic Policy of 1922 was described by Lenin as an economic system that would include “a free market and capitalism, both subject to state control” while socialised state enterprises were to operate on “a profit basis”. A system of mixed economy was introduced which allowed private individuals to own small enterpriseswhile the state continued to control banks, foreign trade, and large industries. It was also called “State Capitalism”.

Indian economic policy after independence was strongly influenced by success of planned Soviet economy. Nehru and Mahalanobis formulated the economic policy that focused on development of heavy industry by public sector which will percolate to small industries in private sector. Public Sector Undertakings led the economic growth for many years.India also adopted protectionist policy with characteristics like public sector enterprises run by government, central planning, restriction on foreign trade, import substitution and licensing regime for various industries. May industries like telecommunication, steel, mining, machinery, insurance, etc.were under state control.                     (Total 162 words)

Q.11. How does patriarchy impact the position of a middle class working woman in India?10

Answer: Patriarchy is male centred social system. Male members play dominating role in politics, society and other spheres. Fathers or father-figures hold authority over women.

The patriarchal set up of the Indian society affect middle class working women in following ways:

   1.       Contribution of women is under-valued and under-paid therefore they are given only low paying jobs.

   2.       Women perform dual responsibility of work as well as home. The middle class women are allowed to work professionally, but they are expected to manage household tasks as well. It creates an additional burden on working women. They are not able to pursue professional career.

   3.       The concept of women as the bread-winner is not accepted. Whatever she earns is counted as additional income.

   4.       Woman is required to sacrifice her career for child birth and devote herself to the family.

   5.       They are vulnerable to eve teasing and other crimes.

   6.       There are also instances of sexual harassment by superiors. (Total 162 words)

Q. 12. Why do some of the most prosperous regions of India havean adverse sex ratio for women? Give your arguments.10

Important Points for Answer:

•       Sex Ratio in India

•       Situation in Prosperous regions

•       Reasons

Answer: In the Population Census of 2011 it was revealed that the population ratio of India 2011 is 943 females per 1000 of males.

Pondicherry (1037) and Kerala (1084) houses the maximum number of female while the regions of Daman and Diu (618) and Haryana (879) have the lowest density of female population. Even Delhi (868), Chandigarh (818), Dadra and Nagar Haveli (774), Jammu and Kashmir (890), Sikkim (890) and Punjab (895), Gujarat (918), Rajasthan (928), Maharashtra (929) are rich and well doing regions of India but their sex ratio is lower than national average.

Decline of the sex ration in India is due to the biased attitude which is meted out to the women. The main cause of this gender bias is inadequate education. The deep-rooted bias against women and economic growth not translating into gender parity are also reasons why female face social and cultural discrimination. Demographic reasons, like migration by working male in the economically prosperous regions is also responsible for adverse sex ratio.    (Total 167 words)

Q. 13. The life cycle of a joint family depends on economic factors rather than social values. Discuss.      10

Important Points for Answer:

•       Joint family tradition

•       Economic Reasons

•       Nuclear family trend

•       Economic Reasons

Answer: India has social tradition of joint and large families. It was mainly due to economic factors. Majority of population in India were living in villages and were dependent on agriculture and related activities which required physical labour. More family members were involved in the activities of earning, so the family can sustain in poverty. Labourer and tenants were dependent on cumulative income and efforts to run family.

However, in modern time, situation has changed. After industrialisation, companies and urban areas have become attractive source of employment. Individual has to migrate to cities to earn better income and provide better education to children. Attractiveness of service over agriculture has also led to migration. It has resulted into split, nuclear family. A male member of family, along with wife and children, would shift to urban areas for employment purpose.

Such economic factors  were reasons for the traditional joint family system and now new economic situations have created a social trend of nuclear families. (Total 161 words)

Q.14. Discuss the various economic and socio – cultural forces that are driving increasing feminization of agriculture in India.       10

Important Points for Answer:

•       Feminization of agriculture

•       Economic reasons

•       Socio-cultural reasons

Answer: Feminization of agriculture means increase of women’s participation in agricultural activities.

Economic Reasons:

   1.       Most of the agricultural fields have low productivity, serving only as subsistence agriculture. Women work on field while male look for other jobs.

   2.       Male members of family committed suicide due to debts. Responsibilities of earning livelihood for the family remain on female.

   3.       Less educated and untrained for skilled work women have less opportunities for work. It resulted into lack of option for women so they are forced to work in unskilled jobs, like agriculture and manual labour.

Socio-cultural Reasons:

   1.       Loosening of patriarchal attitude has led to greater participation of female on farm fields.

   2.       State-sponsored welfare programmes have prompted male members to enroll for state-aided activities. So the task of farming fell upon the female members of the family.

   3.       The high rate of migration of male from rural to urban areas for better jobs has resulted in women coming to the front and taking charge of family as well as farm. (Total 166 words)

Q.15. How do the Indian debates on Secularism differ from the debates in the west?           10

Important Points for Answer:

•       Secularism

•       Westen Secularism

•       Reasons

•       Indian Secularism

Answer: Secularism means non partiality based on religion. In political and social aspects, no one should be deprived of any opportunity due to his religious faith. It is a negative and prohibitive concept.

In the West, secularism has been considered as a wall between politics and religion. There is complete absence of religious influence in western concept of secularism. No religious influence in governance is permitted.

This has happened due to historical influence of Church affecting politics and lives of people in western countries in the middle ages. Later, it was decided to keep Church at a hand’s distance from politics.

However, in India, secularism has a positive concept. Politics is not allowed to discriminate anyone on the basis of religious affiliation. India, rather believes in promoting all religions equally. Therefore, in India, we have personal laws based on religious beliefs. This is an example of positive and protective secularism. This has happened due to historical reasons where since ancient time, we have concept of Sarva Dharma Samabhava. (Total 167 words)

Q.16. Most of the unusual climatic happenings are explained as an outcome of the El-Nino effect. Do you agree?     10

Important Points for Answer:

•       El Nino

•       Effects

•       Disagreement

Answer: El Niño is the warm phase of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation cycle. El Niño is a naturally occurring phenomenon that is linked to a periodic warming in sea surface temperatures across the central and east-central Equatorial Pacific. El Niño occurs every 2-7 years, and can last anywhere between nine months and two years.

Main effects of El Niño include, a drastic increase in the risk of flooding on the western coast of South America. In eastern countries, like India and Indonesia, there is an increase in droughts.El Niño causes vast amounts of rainfall in the eastern parts of the Pacific and very dry weather on the western parts (India, Indonesia).With all the extra heat at the surface of the Pacific Ocean, energy is released into the atmosphere, causing an overall warming of the global climate temporarily.

However, it has limited effects that arises out warm ocean currents therefore it cannot be attributed with other geographical or climatic effects. (Total 163 words)

Q.17. Why are the world’s fold mountain systems located along the margins of continents? Bring out the association between the global distribution of fold mountains and the earthquakes and volcanoes. 10

Important Points for Answer:

•       FoldMountains

•       Formation

•       Reasons for earthquake and volcanoes

•       Examples

Answer: Fold mountains form when two tectonic plates move towards each other at a convergent plate boundary. Fold mountains are associated with continental crust. Convergent plate boundaries are sites of collisions, where tectonic plates crash into each other.

At a compression zone, tectonic activity forces crustal compression at the leading edge of the crust formation. For this reason, most fold mountains are found on the edge or former edge of continental plate boundaries.

Rocks on the edge of continental crust are often weaker and less stable than rocks found in the continental interior. This makes them more susceptible to folding and warping. It results into volcanic activities and earthquakes. Therefore, in the regions of folded mountains like the Jura Mountains in the Alps, the ‘Simply Folded Belt’ of the Zagros Mountains, The Himalayas, The Akwapim-Togo ranges in Ghana as well as the Ridge-and-Valley Appalachians in the eastern part of United States, such activities are frequent. (Total 157 words)

Q.18. Explain the formation of thousands of islands in Indonesian and Philippines archipelagos.  10

Important Points for Answer:

•       Archipelago

•       Indonesia & Philippines Archipelagos

•       Formation of Islands

Answer: Archipelago, a cluster of islands, is the result of an underwater volcanic activity in the ocean. Countries such as Indonesia, New Zealand, Philippines, United Kingdom and Japan are archipelagos.

Indonesian and Philippines Archipelagos fall between the Pacific and the Indian Ocean which were originally part of the Asian landmass.

Indonesian Archipelago is made up of approximately 17,500 islands out of which more than 6,000 are populated. Out of 400, about 150 are active volcanoes. Not all Indonesian Islands are volcanic. When the glaciers melted, these islands emerged. The Philippine archipelago has 7100 islands.

Beneath the earth’s surface is a ‘hot spot’ that releases magma or semi molten rock. This forms rock-like structures underwater. As magma continues to flow, over a period of time these structures rise up out of water. This forms an island. While the single hot spot remains, the persistent plate movements on the earth’s surface shift the magma, and a series of islands is formed in one area.        (Total 162 words)

Q.19. Tropical cyclones are largely confined to South China Sea, Bay of Bengal and Gulf of Mexico. Why? 10

Important Points for Answer:

•       Tropical Cyclones

•       Formation

•       Reasons for location

Answer: Tropical cyclone is an intense circular storm that originates over warm tropical oceans and is characterised by low atmospheric pressure, high winds, and heavy rain.  They are also known as typhoon or hurricane.

Every year during the late summer months (July–September in the Northern Hemisphere and January–March in the Southern Hemisphere), cyclones strike regions as far apart as the Gulf Coast of North America, northwestern Australia, and eastern India and Bangladesh.

Almost 90 percent of these storms form within 20° north or south of the Equator. Poleward of those latitudes, sea surface temperatures are too cool to allow tropical cyclones to form.

The Pacific Ocean generates the greatest number of tropical storms and cyclones. The most powerful storms, sometimes called super typhoons, occur in the western Pacific. The Indian Ocean is second in the total number of storms. The Atlantic Ocean ranks third.

Therefore, tropical cyclones are largely confined to South China Sea, Bay of Bengal and Gulf of Mexico. (Total 162 words)

Q.20. Bring out the relationship between the shrinking Himalayan glaciers and the symptoms of climate change in the Indian sub-continent.         10

Important Points for Answer:

•       Shrinking Himalayan Glacier

•       Symptoms of Climate Change

•       Relations

Answer: Himalayan glaciers are shrinking at an alarming rate due to climate change. It is leading to significant impact on the water resources of population living in downstream basins.

Climate change decreases snowfall which means less snow in glaciers.

The shorter duration of snowfall prevents the snow from turning into hard ice-crystals which will melt when the summer comes.

Climate change brings rain, rather than snow, thus melting glacier faster. Heavy rainfall in high altitudes cause flash floods and washes away homes and fields, trees and livestock.

Widespread flooding of the melting glacier is initial phenomena but as the snow disappears, there will be drought in the summer season.

The biodiversity in Himalayan drainage and Himalayan region has become vulnerable.

Because of the melting ice, the sea level is rising at an average of 3.5 mm per year.

Tropical cyclones are expected to increase in future as a result of ice-melting.          (Total 152 words)

Q.21. Whereas the British planters had developed tea gardens all along the Shivaliks and Lesser Himalayas from Assam to Himachal Pradesh, in effect they did not succeed beyond the Darjeeling area. Explain.           10

Important Points for Answer:

•       British Planters

•       Tea Gardens in N-E India

•       Why not beyond Darjeeling?

Answer: India is one of the largest tea producers in the world. Britishers introduced Tea in India. They brought it from China and offered perks for developing Tea gardens in India. Due to climatic conditions, it was started in the North Eastern parts of India including Assam. Tea shrubs require fertile mountain soil mixed with lime and iron.

Tea grows best in regions with a warm, humid climate and a rainfall measuring at least 100 centimetres a year. Ideally, it likes deep, light, acidic and well-drained soil. Given these conditions, tea grows in areas away from sea level up to altitudes as high as 2,100 metres above sea level. Therefore, Assam region was very favourable to tea plantation. Presence of cheap labour from the adjoining regions of Bihar and Bengal also made Darjeeling more suitable for tea cultivation.

But due to cold climate and low gradient in Shivaliks and lesser Himalayas, absence of deep clay soil, steep slops in Shivaliks, year round rains, etc., doesn’t allow the tea plantation to succeed in these areas. These factors were not favourable to tea gardens to succeed.

Thus, the location inhibited the growth of tea cultivation as dominant agricultural practices in these areas. (Total 200 words)

Q.22. Why did the Green Revolution in India virtually bypass the eastern region despite fertile soil and good availability of water? 10

Important Points for Answer:

•       Green Revolution

•       Factors required

•       Eastern India bypassed

Answer: The Green Revolution was implemented only in areas which had assured supplies of water and the means to control it, large inputs of fertilisers, and adequate farm credit. Introduction of high-yielding varieties of seeds after1965 and the increased use of fertilisers and irrigation are known collectively as the Green Revolution.

These inputs were easily available in at least parts of the states of Punjab, Haryana, and western Uttar Pradesh. But in other states, such as Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu, in areas where these inputs were not assured, the results were limited or negligible, leading to considerable variation in crop yields within these states.

Large land holdings were required, which was available in Western India. East India has fragmented land holdings due to population pressure. Supporting infrastructure like cold storage, availability of electricity and transport was relatively poor in Eastern India. Irrigation facilities, mechanisation and investment facilities were also other hurdles. Due to this, the eastern India was not involved in the Green Revolution. (Total 166 words)

Q.23. Account for the change in the spatial pattern of the Iron and Steel industry in the world.  10

Important Points for Answer:

•       Steel Industry

•       Factors

•       Shift

•       Reasons

Answer: With Industrial Revolution, the growth and development of iron and steel industry started. The spatial pattern of the this industry depends upon various factors such as availability of raw materials like iron ore, coking coal, limestone and water as well as availability of power resources. Demand of steel, transportation cost, etc.,  also play a role.

Traditionally this industry was located in Western Europe, North America, Japan and USSR.However there has been change in spatial pattern of the industry.

Now they are shifting towards coastal areas so that the produced steel can be exported and the raw materials can be imported easily.The industry is shifting to countries like China, India and South Korea.The traditional industrial regions are either abandoned, like Michigan region in USA, or have been transformed into developing cutting edge technology.The industry is shifting towards industrial hub so that the finished products can be consumed by automobile, heavy engineering and other industries which will reduced the cost of transportation. (Total 164 words)

Q.24. Critically evaluate the various resources of the oceans which can be harnessed to meet the resource crisis in the world.10

Important Points for Answer:

•       Resources of Ocean

•       Usefulness

Answer: The ocean is one of Earth’s most valuable natural resources. It provides food in the form of fish and shellfish—about 200 billion pounds are caught each year. It’s used for transportation—both travel and shipping. It provides a treasured source of recreation for humans. It is mined for minerals (salt, sand, gravel, and some manganese, copper, nickel, iron, and cobalt can be found in the deep sea) and drilled for crude oil. Production of energy through ocean waves is also a viable option.

The ocean plays a critical role in removing carbon from the atmosphere and providing oxygen. The ocean is an increasingly important source of biomedical organisms with enormous potential for fighting disease. These are just a few examples of the importance of the ocean to life on land. Explore them in greater detail to understand why we must keep the ocean healthy for future generations.

These all resources of ocean can be very useful to meet recourse crunch in the world. (Total 164 words)

Q.25. How does India see its place in the economic space of rising natural resource rich Africa? 10

Important Points for Answer:

•       India-Africa Relations

•       Economic Cooperation

Answer: Africa–India relations are deep in the historical, political, economic, military and cultural spheres.

Indian firms are conducting numerous takeovers abroad and are venturing into Africa. Indo-African trade volume reached US$ 53.3 billion in 2010-11 & US$ 62 billion in 2011-12.

Indian companies have already invested more than US$ 34 billion in the resource-rich continent as of 2011 & further investments worth US$ 59.7 billion are in the pipeline.

The Indian government has promised to extend loans worth US$ 5.4 billion (during 2011-14) to several African nations in order to nurture growth in those nations.

The India–Africa Forum Summit (IAFS) is the official platform for African-Indian relations. The IAFS is held once in every three years. It was first held from April 2008 in New Delhi. The Prime Minister also announced $5 billion in lines of credit for African nations. India made further commitments to Africa at the third India-Africa Forum Summit in 2014.     (Total 160 words)