UPSC General Studies 2001 Solved Paper 1

2001 SOLVED PAPER I

Time Allowed: Three Hours Maximum Marks: 300

Candidates should attempt all questions strictly in accordance with the instruction given under each question.

Q. 1 Answer any one of the following (about 250 words): 30

(a) Discuss the main objectives of the Indian national movement up to 1905.

What were its basic weaknesses during this period?

Important Points for Answer:

Indian national movement up to 1905

Main objectives

Basic weaknesses

Answer: Indian National Movement up to 1905 was mainly dominated mainly by the moderate leaders like Dadabhai Naoroji, Wyomesh Chander Bannerjee, Firoz Shah Mehta, Dinesh E. Wacha, S.N. Bannerjee, etc.

During this period, main objectives of the Indian National Movement were:

To develop political agitations within the limits of law and by constitutional methods.

To make the British Government aware of the Indian condition because they believe that the Britishers were and wanted to be just to the Indians.

To build up public opinion in the country amongst people.

To present public demand to the Government through resolutions, petitions, meetings, etc. and arouse consciousness and national spirit.

To persuade the British Government and build up Britain’s public opinion in favour of India.

They believed that time was not ripe to directly challenge the British rule so they attempted to educate and unite people. They established a British Committee of the Indian National Congress in London and also started a journal titled ‘India’.

Basic Weaknesses:

The moderate leaders had no faith in the mass-movement and they could not popularise the ideas to the grassroots level.

The movement was confined only to the educated class and illiterate Indians, who formed a majority, were not able to participate in it.

It was thought that the British rule was in India’s interest at that time.

It was wrongly believed that the British Government wanted to be just to Indians and would consider their demands gradually.

The aim was to transform the colonial rule to a national rule. (Total 254 words)

(b) What administrative changes were introduced in India after 1858? What were the objectives of these changes?

Important Points for Answer:

Administrative Changes after–1858

Objectives, the effects of those changes

Conclusion

Answer: After the revolt of 1857, The Government of India Act of 1858 transferred the control of India from the East India Company to the Crown.

Now the power to govern India was vested in the Crown through the Secretary of State who was responsible to the British Parliament. Thus, India came under the direct rule of the British Parliament as a colony.

Later, a provision was made in the Indian Councils Act 1861 for a Legislative Council but it was merely an advisory body.

Gradually, the administration was decentralised and powers were given to local bodies, like municipalities and district boards, to overcome financial difficulties faced by the Government due to over-centralisation.

To put counterpoise in the Indian army, the proportion of European soldiers to the Indian soldiers was increased.

Not to give any key and strategic post to Indians, an old policy, was followed strictly after 1857. Indians were not promoted or recruited to higher posts in the army.

Indians were intentionally restricted from civil services by making their entry very tough. The maximum age limit was further reduced to 19 years in 1878, under Lytton from the earlier 23 years in 1858.

The Princely States were given right to adopt heir, a policy of annexation was abandoned but in 1876, the Queen adopted the title ‘Empress of India’ or ‘Kaisar-i-Hind’ and later on Lord Curzon made it clear to the Princes that they were only agents of the Crown.

Thus, after 1858 systematic administrative changes were made to control India more effectively by introducing a new stage of colonialism in India. (Total 261 Words)

Q. 2 Answer any two of the following (About 150 words each): 2 × 15 = 30

(a) How did the movement for the liberation of women receive a great stimulus from the rise and growth of the nationalist movement in India

Important Points for Answer:

Condition of women

Movement for Liberation of women

National movement and its impact

Answer: In the beginning, the nationalist movement was mainly in the form of upliftment of society through socio-religious reforms. During this phase of socio-religious movements, Raja Ram Mohan Roy, Ishwar Chandra Vidhyasagar, D. K. Karve etc. propagated widow-remarriage, female education, right to inheritance of women in paternal property, the abolition of child marriage system and polygamy. In Muslim society, Sir Syed Ahmed Khan led reforms to remove ‘burkha’ system and polygamy besides preaching female education.

During the later phase of the political agenda in the nationalist movement, leaders actively opposed British rule. Under Gandhi, Indian women had active participation in non-cooperation and disobedience movements. Women also started picketing shops and campaigning for swadeshi, thus widened their field of activities to the Indian political freedom movements. As the national movement became stronger, women like Sarojini Naidu acquired an active leadership role.

The national movement, thus, played an important role in women liberation. (Total 151 words)

(b) Discuss the aims and objects of the Khilafat Movement. To what extent was it successful?

Important Points for Answer:

Khilafat movement—Aims and Objects

Assessment

Answer: Khilafat Movement (1919-1924) originated in India to support the Caliphate of the Ottoman Empire in Turkey against the insulting treatment by the Britishers after the First World War. Sultan of Turkey was considered as Khalifa of Islam by Indian Muslims.

For an organised protest on the issue, Shaukat Ali and Muhammed Ali (Ali Brothers), Maulana Azad, Ajmal Khan and Hasrat Mohani formed a Khilafat Committee to change British attitude towards Turkey.

They demanded:

Khalifa’s control over Muslim sacred places.

Sufficient territory for the Khalifa

Initially, the movement became successful as it also gained the support of the Congress. Due to the imprisonment of important leaders and withdrawal of Non-Cooperation Movement by Gandhi after the Chauri-Chaura incident, its force faded away. The movement became irrelevant as Turkey itself moved towards secularism and abolished the Caliphate in 1924. The Khilafat Movement contributed to Indian National Movement by bringing Hindu-Muslim unity in the freedom struggle.

(Total 152 Words)

(c) Why did Gandhi launch the Salt Satyagraha in 1930 and with what results?

Important Points for Answer:

Salt Satyagraha 1930

Reasons for launching

Consequences

Result

Answer: After the withdrawal of the non-cooperation movement by Gandhi after the Chauri-Chaura incident in 1922, there was no large-scale mass movement.

After the Lahore Session of Congress 1929, Gandhi presented his eleven points demand which did not receive a positive response. The Congress Working Committee gave him full powers to launch this Civil Disobedience Movement at the time and place of his choice. Considering Salt Tax as the most inhuman tax, Gandhi identified it with mass suffering which created discontent all over the country. So, Gandhi decided to launch the Salt Satyagraha in 1930. Therefore, on 12 March 1930 Gandhi, with his chosen 78 Satyagrahis, marched to Dandi and violated the salt law, thus creating a nationwide movement.

After Dandi, Salt Law was violated at other places also. Other activities like a boycott of schools, colleges and government offices, burning of foreign clothes, no-tax movement and shop picketing also started as a consequence. People joined the Civil Disobedience Movement enthusiastically. (Total 158 words)

Q. 3 Write about the following (About 20 words each): 15 × 2 = 30

(i) Aryabhatta

Answer: Aryabhatta (476-550CE) was a famous Astronomer and Mathematician of Gupta period who wrote ‘Aryabhattiya’ and ‘Arya-Siddhanta’ and explained earth rotation on-axis.

(ii) D. K. Karve

Answer: Dhondo Kesav Karve (1858-1962) was a social reformer, women welfare activist, established Indian Women University in 1916 in Bombay, received Bharat Ratna on his 100th Birthday.

(iii) J. Krishnamurthy

Answer: Jiddu Krishnamurthy (1895-1986) an Indian philosopher, speaker and writer. Earlier attached with the Theosophical Society, later declared no allegiance to any nationality, caste, religion or philosophy.

(iv) Prarthana Samaj

Answer: Established by Dr Atmaram Pandurang in Bombay in 1967 with the help of Keshav Chandra Sen, aimed at the abolition of casteism, women upliftment and raising the age of marriage.

(v) Ghadar Party

Answer: Established in San Francisco in 1913, based on the journal ‘The Ghadar’, it was a revolutionary organisation for Indian liberation. Main leader of Ghadar party was Lala Hardayal.

(vi) Satyashodhak Samaj

Answer: Established by Jyotiba Phule in 1873. Main objectives were to oppose casteism, advocate equality and strongly protest against Brahmin dominance in the society.

(vii) Jamnalal Bajaj

Answer: Jamnalal Bajaj (1889-1942), was Congress Treasurer, returned the title of ‘Rai Bahadur’ in 1921, established Satyagraha Ashram, Gandhi Seva Sangh, Sasta Sahitya Prakashan.

(viii) Banabhatta

Answer: The 7th Century poet and prose writer of Sanskrit, was the Asthana Kavi in the court of Harshavardhan, wrote ‘Harshacharita’ and ‘Kadambari’.

(ix) Gopi Kishna

Answer: Gopi Kishna (1935-1994), awarded Padma Shri, choreographer in Bollywood, acted in Jhanak Jhanak Payal Baaje, set a world record for longest continuous Kathak dance at 9 hr 20 min.

(x) Pupul Jaykar

Answer: Pupul Jaykar (1915-1997) was appointed Chairperson of Indian Council for Cultural Relations in 1982, wrote Biography of Indira Gandhi, was a cultural advisor to Prime Minister. She popularised the Bharat Mahotsava.

(xi) Mohammad Iqbal

Answer: Sir Mohammad Iqbal (1877-1938) was the poet of “Sare Jahan Se acha…..”, known as the ‘Spiritual Father of Pakistan’, was an earlier supporter of Hindu-Muslim unity.

(xii) Jaydeva

Answer: Jayadeva (1170-1245), a Sanskrit-Apabhransha language poet during the period of Bengal ruler Lakshaman Sen who is famous for “Gita Govindam”.

(xiii) T. Prakasam

Answer: Tanguturi Prakasam (1872-1957), freedom fighter, Chief Minister of Madras Presidency, first Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh, published the daily ‘Swarajya’, was known as ‘Andhra Kesari’.

(xiv) Champaran Satyagraha

Answer: The first Satyagraha of Gandhi in India in 1917 in Bihar, was against exploitation of indigo farmers by Tin Kathiya system, led to the first victory of Disobedience movement.

(xv) Ali Brothers

Answer: Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali, freedom fighters, active role in Khilafat Movement, joined non-cooperation movement, active in Congress, later founders of Muslim League.

Q. 4 Answer any two of the following (About 125 words each): 2 × 10 = 20

(a) What are mangroves and in what way are they useful to us?

Important Points for Answer:

Mangroves—vegetation, climatic condition

Importance and benefits

Mangroves in India

Answer: Mangroves are the tropical forests, consisting of salt-resistant vegetation, found mainly in tidal regions. They are mainly found on coastline, estuaries, tidal creeks, backwaters and salt marshes.

Benefits of Mangroves:

They protect vulnerable coastlines from wave action because they hold the soil together and prevent coastal erosion.

Mangroves shield inland areas during storms and minimise damage.

They provide homes for several species of plants and animals.

They support biodiversity.

By supporting huge variety of flora and fauna, these wetland vegetation have gained immense importance in our ecosystem.

In India, they are found on sea coast areas, in the deltas of rivers and Islands. In West-Bengal, they are known as Sunderbans due to Sundari trees. India is home of one-tenth of total mangroves of the world but due to deforestation, they have become a threatened ecosystem. (Total 138 words)

(b) Explain the causes of the Indian Monsoon.

Important Points for Answer:

Monsoon—meaning

Indian climate

Origin & spread of Monsoon

Answer: Monsoon means a seasonal reversal of winds which brings rainfall due to moisturised winds passing over water bodies.

Indian Monsoon is the seasonal phenomenon caused by the differences in temperature and pressure over water bodies and landmass.

In summer, the movement of the sun towards the Tropic of Cancer increases the temperature of Indian subcontinental landmass, in comparison to the sea. Pressure over the landmass decreases and heavy pressured moisturised winds from the South-West sea rush towards Indian landmass, causing rainfall. It is known as the Summer Monsoon.

The winter monsoon, which gives less rain than the summer monsoon, comes from North-West direction blowing towards North-East.

Other factors like EL Nino, ITCZ movement, upper atmosphere conditions, local specific conditions, tropical depression, etc. also play a role in the Indian Monsoon. (Total 133 words)

(c) Had there been no Himalayas, what would have been the winter climate in north India?

Important Points for Answer:

Himalayas – location

Climatic condition

Effects of Himalayas

Answer: The Himalayas run across 2500 km in East-West direction, creating a natural wall between Central Asia and Indian subcontinent. In winter, it blocks the cold polar air blowing southwards from Central Asia from entering India, thus keeping India 3° to 8°C warmer than the regions of similar cold latitudes in Asia. Had there been no Himalayas, extremely cold and dry winds would have entered India.

Westerly Jet streams blow roughly parallel to the Tibetan highlands during winter. The Himalayas bifurcate these streams into two branches, of which Southern branch enters North India and gives much-needed winter rainfall over the North-West region. Had there been no Himalayas, this Westerly Jet streams would not have entered Indian plains.

Thus, Himalayas play an important role in keeping India warmer and bringing rainfall in winter. (Total 135 words)

Q. 5 Write short notes on the following (About 20 words each): 5 × 2 = 10

(i) El Nino

Answer: It is occasionally developing a warm ocean current along the coast of Peru, causing changes in the monsoon pattern by leading to a rise in surface temperature.

(ii) Hirakund Project

Answer: This 55 km long mainstream dam is largest in the world, across the River Mahanadi in Orissa, stretching. It is multipurpose irrigation and hydro-electric project.

(iii) Glacier

Answer: It is a persistent body of ice. Under the influence of gravity, it moves slowly down the slope. It is generally formed by recrystallisation of neve and firn.

(iv) Two prominent left bank tributaries of river Ganges

Answer: Gandak and Kosi are the two prominent left bank tributaries of river Ganges, others being Gomti, Ghaghra, Ramganga and Mahananda.

(v) Equinox

Answer: Equinox indicates the equal duration of day and night. March 21 and September 23, when the Sun shines vertically over the equator, are called vernal and autumn equinoxes respectively.

Q. 6 Answer any one of the following (About 250 words): 30

(a) Discuss the administrative relations between the centre and the states in the light of recent controversies.

Important Points for Answer:

Recent Controversies

Centre-State Relations – Provisions

Solution

Answer: Recently controversies regarding the autonomy of states have been in debate. The chapter of Tamil Nadu, where two Union Ministers were arrested, the resignation of the Governor Mrs. Fatima Bibi, etc, have raised the questions regarding relations between the Centre and the States. These issues raise the question about the supremacy of power. However, it is obvious that in India, the Centre is stronger than the States. Therefore, States are demanding more autonomy.

At present, the Constitutional provisions regarding the Centre–States Administrative relations are narrated in Chapter II of part IX.

Article-256 obliges States to comply with the laws of Parliament while exercising their executive powers. The centre may direct the States in this regard, if necessary.

Article – 257 equips the Centre with some control over the States. State Executives cannot prejudice the executive powers of the Union. The centre can direct the State to construct and maintain means of communication, which are declared to be of national or military importance. This provision extends to railways also.

In an emergency, the power of the Union extends to make laws and to give directions to the states (Article 356)

The Head Officers in all States are appointed by the Centre under the All India Services.

The Judges of the High Courts (Article 217), the Governor (Article 156) etc. are appointed and removed by the President.

All these provisions clearly establish that the Centre has strong hand in the Centre-State relations.

Implementation of Sarkaria Commission (1984) recommendations may make the relations harmonious as is required in the Federal System of Polity. (Total 259 words)

(b) Bring out the aberrations of the parliamentary system of government in India.

Important Points for Answer:

Parliamentary Systems of India–how it runs?

Aberrations–deviations from normal standard

Answer: Indian Constitutional Assembly chose the Parliamentary System of government for India, based on the British parliamentary system.

Alliances and minority Governments, unstable Governments have raised the burden of frequent elections and which have resulted in huge expenses and instability. So many aberrations of our parliamentary system are responsible for them.

Our Parliament has lost its prestige due to undisciplined behaviours of Parliamentarians during the sessions and outside the Houses.

The criminalisation of politics is self-evident and elections are won at the tip of guns, money and muscle powers.

Corruption has taken the place of ethics, morality and ideology.

Changing of parties are so common among politicians that it hampers ideological or merit-based discussion of issues in Parliament.

Regionalism, linguistic differences, caste politics etc have taken strong root in the minds of politicians and so national interest is always at the stake against their selfish political motives.

Mushrooming of regional and small political parties and independent candidates have not served the desired purpose.

Defection, changing parties and selling tickets are rampant in practice.

Strong two-party system has never become possible in India due to the presence of regional parties. Many parties with differences among them in many matters, do not allow to work Parliament efficiently.

The principle of collective responsibility has been ignored.

All these aberrations of our Parliamentary system have made academicians and constitutionalists suggest the Presidential democracy as an option. However, it is admitted that if Parliamentarians undertake their responsibility honestly and perform them, the Parliamentary form of Democracy can work very efficiently in India. (Total 256 words)

Q. 7 Answer any one of the following (About 250 words): 30

(a) What is the constitutional position of Directive Principles of State Policy? How has it been interpreted by the judiciary after the emergency in 1975-77?

Important Points for Answer:

DPSP–Constitutional provisions

Judicial interpretation

Present position

Answer: The Directive Principles of State Policy are mentioned in Part-IV of the Constitution, from Article 36 to 51. These are Directives to the state to be followed in the formation of policy. They are, however, made non-justiciable in the court of law, but yet, they are important and fundamental in the governance of the country. They are aims and ideals to be achieved by the state which would lead the country towards creating a welfare state.

Various provisions of the Directives have achieved the status of the Fundamental Rights. The Directives contained in Article – 39(b) and (c) have been given supremacy over the Fundamental Rights contained in Article 14 and 19.

The trend of the judicial interpretation regarding the Directive Principles has completely changed after the emergency in 1975-77. The Supreme Court, in the case of Minerva Mills Ltd. 1980 gave the doctrine of harmonious construction between the fundamental rights and the directives which has effectively directed the states to protect the rights provided under part IV. It interpreted and gave status to many of the Directive Principles as the Fundamental Rights. For example, Equal Pay for Equal Work, Right to Education, Free Legal Aid, Speedy Trial, Protection of Children from Exploitation, Abolition of Child Labour, Protection of Working Women from Sexual Harassment, Right to Work and Medical assistance to workers, Protection of Ecology and Environmental pollution etc. have been raised to the status of the fundamental rights.

Thus, a constructive trend has been taken by the Supreme Court after the emergency in 1975-77. (Total 257 words)

(b) What are the main differences between the passage of a Constitution Amendment Bill and other Legislative Bills?

Important Points for Answer:

Procedures for both

Differences to be highlighted

Answer: The main differences between the passage of a Constitution Amendment Bill and other Legislative Bills are:

A Legislative Bill can be passed by a simple majority in both the Houses, while for the purpose of Amendment, provisions of the Constitution are divided into three parts:

(i) Amendment by a simple majority of both the Houses.

(ii) Amendment by a two-thirds majority of both the Houses.

(iii) Amendment by a two-thirds majority of both the Houses plus ratification of not less than one-half of the states.

Only Parliament and not a State Legislature is competent to amend the Constitution.

In case of deadlock, the President can summon a joint sitting of both Houses to pass a Legislative Bill, except a money bill. But for a Constitutional Amendment Bill, such a joint sitting cannot be summoned.

– In the case of Legislative Bill, the President can withhold his assent or return it to Parliament to reconsider it, but it is not possible in case of a Constitutional Amendment Bill.

Other procedures regarding both of them are the same. The rules regarding procedure to be followed in both Houses are decided by Parliament by law. Any bill, except a money bill, can be passed in any House of Parliament. After passing by each House, it is sent to the President for his assent thereto. A bill becomes a law after the President’s assent.

It can be concluded that a Constitutional Amendment Bill, is an important matter, both Houses are given same powers while in case of other Legislative Bills, Lok Sabha has more powers, due to its numerical majority. (Total 264 words)

Q. 8 Answer any two of the following (About 150 words each): 2 × 15 = 30

(a) Comment on the nature of Ordinance-making power of the President of India. What safeguards are there against possible misuse?

Important Points for Answer:

Ordinance – Nature of the power of President

Constitutional Safeguards

Answer: The power to promulgate an ordinance is the most important legislative power of the President of India. Under Article 123, the President can promulgate an ordinance, when

both the Houses of Parliament are not in session (only one House is in session), and

he is satisfied that circumstances exist which render it necessary.

The ordinance has the same force and effect as an Act of Parliament so cannot be challenged on the grounds of malafide. It must be passed on any of the matters upon which Parliament has the power to make laws.

Constitutional Safeguards against possible misuse:

Article 123(a) says that such an ordinance

Shall be laid down before both Houses of Parliament on reassembly of Parliament.

It shall cease to operate if not passed by both Houses.

It may be withdrawn before the period of six weeks by passing a resolution disapproving it.

It may be withdrawn by the President.

Its Constitutionality can be challenged in the same way as an Act of Parliament. (Total 164 words)

(b) Distinguish between Cabinet Secretariat and Prime Minister’s Secretariat. Which of these is more important?

Important Points for Answer:

Functions of both

Composition of both

Conclusion

Answer: The Cabinet Secretariat under the Chairmanship of the Cabinet Secretary, who is the ex-officio chairman of the Civil Service Board, assists the Cabinet in its function of running the Government of the nation. It provides secretarial assistance to Cabinet and Cabinet Committees in preparation, drafting and then implementation of Rules of Business in the Cabinet Committees. It also prepares agendas and maintains records of the meetings of the Cabinet Ministers.

The Prime Minister Secretariat, an extra-constitutional body, which is now known as the Prime Minister’s office, came into effect after independence. This is made up of those officers and special advisers which are appointed by and for the Prime Minister for specific purposes i.e. security, media, culture etc. It is a body, under the PM and for his personal assistance as the head of the Government.

Both are important at their respective places, but in recent times, PMO has gained more importance. (Total 155 words)

(c) Discuss the Constitutional provisions regarding the rights of children.

Important Points for Answer:

Constitutional provisions

Judicial interpretation

Answer: Various Constitutional provisions for Children:

Article-15 prohibits discrimination on the grounds only religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth. But the state is empowered to make special provisions for women and children.

Article-23 prohibits traffic in human beings and forced labour. Under this article, the Supreme Court in the case of M. C. Mehta vs. State of Tamil Nadu-1997 has held the child labour illegal.

Article-24 expressly provides that children below the age of fourteen shall not be employed to work in any factory or mine or be engaged in any other hazardous employment.

The 86th Amendment Act 2002 has inserted Article 21(A) as a Fundamental Right providing free and compulsory education for the children of six to fourteen years.

Article 39(e) says that the tender age of children is not to be abused.

Article 39 (f), as inserted by the Forty-Second Amendment, directs the state to give children opportunities and facilities to develop in a healthy manner and in conditions of freedom and dignity. Also, that childhood and youth are to be protected against exploitation and against moral and material abandonment.

Article-45, as amended by the 86th Amendment Act 2002, now directs the state to provide early childhood care and education for all children until they complete the age of six years.

It is also a fundamental duty, as newly inserted by 86th Amendment Act 2002, in Article 51 A(k) that a parent or guardian is to provide opportunities for education to his child or ward, between the age of six and fourteen years.

All these provisions made in our Constitution aim at all over the development of children. (Total 278 words)

Q. 9 Answer the following (About 20 words each): 5 × 2 = 10

(a) Explain the Local Area Development Scheme of the Members of Parliament

Answer: Started in the 1990s by the Narsimha Rao Government, it provides two crore rupees to every Member of Parliament every year for the development of their local area.

(b) What is Ethics Committee of Lok Sabha?

Answer: Lok Sabha constitutes Ethics Committee of nine members, including from the opposition, to prepare a code of conduct for the ethics and moral of Parliamentarians.

(c) Why is it said that the centre has absolute veto over State Legislature?

Answer: The Governor has the power to reserve a bill for the consideration of the President who may or may not give his assent to the bill, in this way, Centre has an absolute veto.

(d) What is Call Attention Motion?

Answer: In Call Attention Motion, any MP, with the permission of the presiding officer, can inform a minister about any grave situation and/or ask questions about it which can be answered by the Minister immediately or after allowed time.

(e) When is the device of joint sitting of both the Houses of Parliament not available?

Answer: In matters of the Money Bills and the Constitutional Amendment Bill, the device of a joint sitting of both the Houses of Parliament is not available.

Q. 10 Write any one of the following (About 250 words): 30

(a) Review the population policy of the Govt. of India giving the distinguishing features.

Important Points for Answer:

Population policy

Main features

Effectiveness—a review, merits, changes

Answer: The NDA Government announced the Population Policy in February 2000 based on the report of the Committee under the Chairmanship of Dr M.S. Swaminathan. The policy includes various targets and aims with the goal to achieve a stabilised population by the year 2045.

The policy can be highlighted with the following points:

To establish reproductive and infant health services system.

To reduce the maternal mortality rate to below 100 per 100,000 live births.

To reduce the infant mortality rate to below 30 per 1,000 live births.

To achieve 201 total reproductive capacity by 2010 as a middle term objective.

To achieve 100 per cent registration of births, deaths, marriages and pregnancies.

To stabilise the growth of population by 2045 as the long term objective.

It constituted a National Population Commission under the Prime Minister of India to help achieve these objectives.

Not only the population stabilisation but also rise in the standard of living of people is included in this policy. For this, “Health Insurance Policy” is proposed along with it. Balika Samriddhi Yojana and “Maternity facility schemes” are continued for the Below Poverty Line people.

Effective implementation is also required for a result, so the scheme aims to enforce the laws relating to maternity, reproduction and marriage with strictness.

The Child Marriage Prohibition Act and Prenatal Diagnosis Act, Abortion related Act will be implemented strictly.

The Policy as a whole includes a comprehensive draft containing about 12 Schemes and 14 Targets to be achieved by 2010. There is a dire need to enforce the provisions with determination. (Total 256 words)

(b) Discuss the significance of GSLV in space research.

Important Points for Answer:

GSLV—meaning, details, technique

Importance in space research

Progress

Answer: On April 18, 2001, ISRO launched the GSLV, Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle successfully from Sriharikota, Andhra Pradesh. This GSLV carried the GSAT – Geosynchronous Satellite of 1540 kg of weight and put it in Geo Stationary Transfer Orbit (GTO). The first development flight, GSLV-D1 carried experimental communication satellite, GSAT-1.

This GSLV is based on the earlier PSLV—Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle technique of India. It uses a cryogenic engine which is made by Russia.

GSLV is a three-stage vehicle. The first stage, GS1, comprises a solid propellant motor and four liquid propellant strap-on stages. Its first stage is one of the biggest of its kind in the world. The second stage (GS2) is powered by a single liquid-propellant engine. The third stage (GS3) is a cryogenic stage with re-startable engines. With 49 metre height, it weighs 400 tonnes.

This launch of GSLV has proved India’s capacity to launch satellites of more than 1500 kg weight. It puts India into the club of selected countries with such technology. However, some developed nations have much higher capacity.

Before the development of GSLV, India had to use the foreign Satellite Launch Vehicles from French Guyana and had to pay huge amounts, apart from being dependent upon them. Now, as the great importance, India has achieved self-reliant technology in this direction. India can now commercially, launch satellites of other countries also.

The GSLV programme of Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) has proved the capability of Indian Scientists in the space and satellite technology. (Total 254 words)

Q. 11 Write on any two of the following (About 125 words each): 2 × 10 = 20

(a) Determine the utility of Direct To Home in broadcasting system.

Important Points for Answer:

DTH – technology, features

Importance

Relevance in India

Answer: The DTH system was operationalised from November 2000 creating a history in the broadcasting technology. This technology will help to get programmes directly from the satellites with clear, interference less broadcasting.

With the help of multiplexer, various channels can be accessed. Transmitted by KU band, it requires only a small dish-antenna and an “Integrated Receiver Decoder” in the user’s home.

It relieves from the disturbance of cable programmes, settings and connections. Its main benefits will be to the remote areas of villages and forests where cables are not available, they can now access various information and entertainment programmes through this technology.

It will help the Government to spread reach even to the farthest and remotest areas. This technology is user-friendly, less complex and little technical knowledge is required to use this technology. (Total 132 words)

(b) What are the UNDP indicators with reference to the planning process?

Important Points for Answer:

UNDP indicators

India’s place

Answer: The United Nations Development Programme presented its 12th Annual Report in New Delhi on July 2001. This report was based on making new techniques for development. The Human Development Report includes a total of 162 countries of which India is numbered behind at the 115th. Based on some specific indicators, this report is prepared from the figures derived from government offices and census of the countries apart from surveys.

This report indicators in relation to the planning process are:

Life expectancy at birth

Education

– The purchasing power of basic goods and services,

From this year, the report included the fourth indicator, that is,

technological achievement index.

This Technological Achievement Index (TAI) includes 72 countries and India could not get an impressive place in it because of being at 63 rd position. (Total 127 words)

(c) What are the Human Rights issues involved in relation to the arrest of M. Karunanidhi in Tamil Nadu in July 2001?

Important Points for Answer:

Incident

Provisions

Response

Answer: Due to political reasons, former Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu M. Karunanidhi was arrested in Tamil Nadu in July, 2001, which created major political issue in the country giving rise to various types of debates, involving questions ranging from issues of Human Rights, Parliamentary privileges, Involvement of the Governor, revenge politics, etc.

M. Karunanidhi was arrested in the time of night in a derogatory manner. He was not accused of any serious offence necessitating such method of arrest, so it was basically a political act. Even those Cabinet Ministers of the centre who came to rescue the matter were detained under sight arrest.

Under the Human Rights Declaration, 1948 a person cannot be arrested without following proper procedures. The issue is debated by Human Rights activists. Parliamentary privilege is also violated and so centre-state relations have also been in debate. (Total 137 words)

Q. 12 Write notes on any two of the following (About 125 words each): 2 × 10 = 20

(a) Swarn Jayanti Gram Swarojgar Yojana

Important Points for Answer:

The Scheme

Main objectives

Benefits

Answer: The Swarn Jayanti Gram Swarojgar Yojana came into force from April 1, 1999. It comprises of six components IRDP, TRYSEM, DWCRA, MSW and SITRA which were earlier separate schemes.

This scheme aims at:

focussing approach to poverty alleviation.

handling the problems that may come with a multiplicity of programmes.

increasing the advantages of group lending.

A programme for micro-enterprises in rural areas covering all aspects of self-employment, it envisages the organisation of self-help groups of rural poor. Main objectives are to bring BPL families above the poverty line and increase their income to at least Rs. 2000 a month. It provides subsidy, loan, credit and training for such development. It provides 30% of the project cost as a subsidy, maximum at Rs. 7500, which is 50% for SC and ST up to Rs. 10000.

The scheme is funded by the Centre and State Governments in the ratio of 75: 25. (Total 146 words)

(b) Law Commission of India

Important Points for Answer:

Provisions

Constitution

Function

Answer: Law Commission is a body constituted by the President of India, from time to time, to review and propose changes in laws and its implementation in India. The Law Commission consists of veteran members of the highest judicial bodies in the country.

The 15th Law Commission was constituted on September 1997 for a three years term. Justice B.P. Reddy was the Chairman of the Commission with Justice Mrs Leela Seth and Justice Dr N. M. Ghate as members of the Commission.

The reports of the Law Commission of India are presented in the Parliament and necessary changes are made or new laws are enacted based on its recommendations and suggestions. Changes in the implementation machinery are also, sometimes, proposed by the Commission.

The Commission presented the 174th Report recently. It proposed to legislate a law regarding Bio-Diversity Act and the Anti-Terrorism Act. (Total 144 words)

(c) Lalit Kala Akademi

Important Points for Answer:

Establishment

Objectives

Function

Answer: Lalit Kala Akademi, the National Academy of Art, was set up by the Government of India in 1954, and was registered in 1957. Established in New Delhi, now it has Regional Centres in Lucknow, Kolkata, Chennai and Bhubaneshwar.

Objectives:

To encourage and promote study and research in the fields of creative arts such as painting, sculpture and graphics etc.;

To promote cooperation among artists and art associations and development of such associations;

Main functions of the academy are:

To organise an exhibition of

art every year

Try a yearly exhibition

National Art exhibition

Sends artists to foreign countries to develop and spread Indian art abroad.

Honours selected artists for their contribution.

Provides expertise and financial assistance to organisations developing contemporary regional folk, tribal and traditional art.

To conserve India’s heritage of rich art and culture, to develop it and to spread it all over the world. (Total 144 words)

Q. 13 Write about the following (About 20 words each): 5 × 2 = 10

(a) Pullela Gopichand

Answer: In March 2000 he won the All England Badminton Championship. He is the second Indian to win this title. He also won National Badminton Championship 2000.

(b) E-commerce

Answer: It provides a platform for business on the Internet. Sale and purchase can be effectuated electronically through website, shopping card and credit card.

(c) ICCR

Answer: Indian Council for Cultural Relations established in 1950, under the Chairmanship of Maulana Abul Kalam Azad. It aims to develop cultural relations of India with other countries.

(d) Sports Authority of India

Answer: Constituted in 1984, it works as the main body for the development of sports and sportspersons.

It prepares sports persons for glorious performance at International level.

(e) NCERT

Answer: National Council for Education and Research Training was constituted in September 1961 to develop the school education and train teachers for their constant development apart from providing study materials.

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