Time Allowed : Three Hours      Maximum Marks : 250

Instructions: There are TWENTY questions printed both in English and in Hindi. All questions are compulsory. The number of marks carried by a question/part is indicated against it. Answers must be written in the medium authorised in the Admission Certificate which must be stated clearly on the cover of this Question-cum-Answer (QCA) Booklet in the space provided. No marks will be given for answers written in medium other than the authorised one.

Word limit in questions, wherever specified, should be adhered to.

Answer the questions in not more than 200 words each. Contents of the answer is more important than its length. All questions carry equal marks.

Q.1. Starting from inventing the ‘basic structure’ doctrine, the judiciary has played a highly proactive role in ensuring that India develops into a thriving democracy. In light of the statement, evaluate the role played by judicial activism in achieving the ideals of democracy. 12

Important Points for Answer:

•       Basic Structure doctrine

•       Judicial Activism

•       Contribution to democracy

Answer: To keep prevent the government from destroying the fundamental structure and philosophy of the Constitutuion, the Supreme Court adopted the doctrine of Basic Structure in Keshavanand Bharati Case 1973.

Till now judiciary have been successful in fulfilling its role by inventing basic structure doctrine to bring constitutional amendment within purview of judicial review along with extending right to life and liberty by linking it to DPSPs to promote compulsory education as well as right to safe and fresh environment.

Judicial activism is a mechanism through which judiciary puts check on legislative adventurism as well as executive tyranny by enforcing constitutional limits. Judicial activism is necessary to ensure that our constitutional offices and institutions does not become tools for extending any authoritarian agenda of government in power.

However, it is important to note that in a democracy, where judiciary is one of the three pillars of the system. Therefore, in the zeal of judicial activism, judges of Supreme Court and High Courts should not assume the role of an independent policy makers but should act only as interpreter of the constitution to maintain spirit and sanctity of the constitution.

Thus, judicial activism is imperative for Indian democracy but judiciary should maintain confidence and support of public by taking rational and cautious approach.      (Total 211 words)

Q.2. Though the federal principle is dominant in our Constitution and that principle is one of its basic features, but it is equally true that federalism under the Indian Constitution leans in favour of a strong Centre, a feature that militates against the concept of strong federalism.     12

Important Points for Answer:

•       Federalism in India

•       Strong Centre

•       Weak federalism

Answer:Popularly Federalism is known as a set-up of government where the powers to govern is equally and clearly distributed between federal government and its state units.

Indian constitution defines India as a Union. As the Seventh Schedule distributes powers between the centre and states with help of three lists, each State has own government and right to enact laws on the subjects assigned, Indian polity is a kind of federalism.

But within constitution there are several features which provide prominence to the centre over states, some of these features are:

   (a)       Centre appoints Governor.

   (b)       In case of conflict between centre and state laws, the centre’s law will prevail.

   (c)       In case of constitutional machinery or law and order breakdown along with threat to national security, the centre can takeover states administration through emergency provisions.

   (d)       The control of Constitutional Bodies like Election commission, CAG, etc., lies in the hands of centre.

   (e)       Unified judiciary is also going against federal spirit. Judges of Supreme Court and High Courts are appointed by Union.

   (f)       States do not have own constitution.

However, Indian federalism is often described as quasi-judicial federal system because it can be converted into unitary in case of emergency. (Total 202 words)

Q.3. The ‘Powers, Privileges and Immunities of Parliament and its Members’ as envisaged in Article 105 of the Constitution leave room for a large number of uncodified and un-enumerated privileges to continue. Assess the reasons for the absence of legal codification of the ‘parliamentary privileges’. How can this problem be addressed? 12

Important Points for Answer:

•       Article 105

•       Parliamentary Privileges

•       Problems and Codification

Answer: Article 105 of constitution provides certain privileges to Members of Parliament by granting immunity from any action or speech by them while performing their duties within Parliament. Similar provisions are made for MLAs under Article 194.

As the privileges are not codified, they continue to be same as what were enjoyed by British Parliamentarians at the time of Constitution.

The parliament has not passed any law to regulate parliamentary privileges which is mandated by Article 105(3).Thus MPs and MLAs continue to enjoy unhindered immunity for serving political vendetta.

But within article 105 there is huge space which is occupied by a large number of uncodified and unenumerated privileges, which fails the purpose of parliamentary privileges.

Such as, legislative members indulge in hate speech, pass on derogatory remarks on each other while shielding under immunity granted by article 105.

These privileges have created tussle with the fundamental right to freedom of speech and also with judiciary’s right to decide scope of privileges. In cases, Parliament has summoned journalists for reporting debate of Parliament/State legislature.

Thus, it is high time now to pass such a law to regulate privileges and immunities of legislative members so that integrity of parliament can maintained. (Total 202 words)

Q. 4. What do you understand by the concept “freedom of speech and expression”? Does it cover hate speech also? Why do the films in India stand on a slightly different plane from other forms of expression? Discuss.   12

Important Points for Answer:

•       Freedom of speech and expression

•       Hate speech

•       Films in India

Answer:Freedom of speech and expression is a fundamental concept of freedom and liberty which is also endorsed by Indian constitution. It provides Freedom of speech and expression as fundamental right to every citizen of India under Article 19. It covers right to express one’s opinion in any form such as by speech writing or even by staying silent.

However, Freedom of speech and expression does not cover hate speech as it violates right of others and disturbs harmony in society, affects law and order which is counterproductive to both nation and its citizen. Thus, hate speech is crime under Indian Penal code and prohibited by constitution.

On the same issue film industry has slightly different position:

• As the industry claims film is virtual and fictional rather than real unlike hate speeches.

• Films are means to entertain as well as to provide learning, thus they need freedom to show reality.

• Apart from that, there is film certification board to rate the film for appropriate audience, thus full freedom is necessary in making of film.

Hence, films are product of creativity and expression and need freedom of speech and expression. Even then if movie offends someone, filmmaker will be responsible. Until then film makers should be granted full freedom of speech and expression.           (Total 211 words)

Q.5. Instances of President’s delay in commuting death sentences has come under public debate as denial of justice. Should there be a time limit specified for the President to accept/reject such petitions? Analyse. 12

Important Points for Answer:

•       Commutation of Death Sentence

•       Constitutional provisions

•       Delay

•       Judgements

Answer: Article 72 of constitution of grants power to the President to reprive, respite, pardon or commute punishment of a convicted person even in the case of capital punishment. The same is exercised by the President on the advice of Council of Ministers.

There has been cases where the President has not disposed off the petition for pardon for more than a decade. It delays execution of punishment. The basic principle of administration of justice is that justice delayed is justice denied. This undue delay accounts for denial of justice. Resultantly, Supreme court held prolonged delay in commuting death sentence have “dehumanising effect” and it is tortuous for condemned convict. Such a delay violates this right of an individual and therefore the clemency petition must be disposed off in a reasonable time by the President or Governor.

Though the Constitution does not provide for any time limit within which the President or the Governor should dispose off the matter. The Supreme Court has also said in various cases that any time limit cannot be prescribed for the President to deal with mercy petitions.

However, such system should be put in place in informal manner as any regulation and law mandating such time limit will breach independence of office of president of India.        (Total 211 words)

Q.6. The size of the cabinet should be as big as governmental work justifies and as big as the Prime Minister can manage as a team. How far is the efficacy of a government then inversely related to the size of the cabinet? Discuss.           12

Important Points for Answer:

•       Cabinet

•       91st Amendment

•       Efficiency of Government

Answer:Cabinet is a close group of Ministers, headed by Prime Minister, which is responsible for the government. This cabinet works as a team based on principle of collective responsibility to Parliament, to ensure that country remains up and running.

In India, the size of cabinet is fixed as 15% of Parliament or State Legislature strength by the 91st Constitutional Amendment Act. This provision was introduced to put check on large and cumbersome size of cabinets, which are made to fulfil political commitments to coalition parties.

If the cabinet is very large, it is difficult to manage by Prime Minister as a team. There would be too much division of work among the Ministers which will make it difficult to coordinate.

However, even small size of cabinet is not free from issues. Since it tends to centralise power in few hands and goes against the principle of collective responsibility. Moreover, it puts extra burden on few person which may delay decision making, such as single minister handling more than on portfolio.

Therefore, size of cabinet should be optimum based on the requirement of workload and responsibility as well as which prime minister effectively control and lead the ship of nation.(Total 199 words)

Q.7. Though 100 percent FDI is already allowed in non-news media like a trade publication and general entertainment channel, the government is mulling over the proposal for increased FDI in news media for quite some time. What difference would an increase in FDI make? Critically evaluate the pros and cons.        12

Important Points for Answer:

•       FDI

•       FDI in News Media

•       Pros and Cons

Answer: Foreign Direct Investment brings with itself much needed capital, technology, management and knowledge. Non-News Media is one of the sector where 100% FDI is permitted.

Government is considering proposal for 100% FDI in New Media also. However, News media is the fourth pillar or estate of democracy. It has to play an immense role in democracy in India.Therefore, news media is not comparable to ordinary entertainment channels.Given to this, currently only 26% FDI is allowed in news media.

The proposal to raise it 100% have both pros and cons:


• FDI will provide the much needed financial support to news channel.

• Better technology will help them to raise their quality of broadcasting.

• Competition induced byFDI will compel channels to raise their standard of reporting and mitigate yellow journalism.


• There is a threat that Indian media can be painted in western colours.

• If the control of a media house pass on to foreign hands, it directly risks security of India.

• Any misreporting will impact wide range of public as well as bureaucrats, politician and officials.

Therefore, government should take a cautious approach and extend the limit to 49% rather than 100%, so that control remains in Indian hands and media can have access to better financial resources, without compromising with freedom of Media.          (Total 217 words)

Q.8. The setting up of a Rail Tariff Authority to regulate fares will subject the cash strapped Indian Railways to demand subsidy for obligation to operate non-profitable routes and services. Taking into account the experience in the power sector, discuss if the proposed reform is expected to benefit the consumers, the Indian Railways or the private container operators.       12

Important Points for Answer:

•       Rail Tariff Authority

•       Function

•       Implications

•       Power Sector

Answer: Indian railways is running in huge losses, thanks to its cross subsidisation model, in which freight trains cross subsidise losses for passengers. This model is adopted by railways fulfil a social obligation to provide cheap source of transportation.

Similar situation was prevalent in electricity sector also which is now reformed by enactment of Electricity Act, 2003. The act brings in private players in electricity distribution companies, which made certain improvement in this sector.

On the same line, government intends to set up an independent Rail Tariff Authority (RTA), which will rationalise the passenger fair to stop cross subsidisation. The idea to establish an Indian Railways Regulatory Authority (IRRA) was first mooted in the Rakesh Mohan Committee Report (2001), which had other innovative recommendations.

RTA will not only reduce the losses of Railways but also make railways competitive for freight and passenger transport. Moreover, by better pricing policy, railways will enable to provide better quality services.

By introducing system like dynamic pricing, railways can provide high quality service to premium passengers, and with better finances required infrastructure can be created to serve its social obligation.

Thus, setting up of RTA is a step in right direction but cautiousness is required so that railway can turn into a commercially viable unit without losing its social face. (Total 214 words)

Q.9. National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) in India can be most effective when its tasks are adequately supported by other mechanisms that ensure the accountability of a government. In light of above observation assess the role of NHRC as an effective complement to the judiciary and other institutions in promoting and protecting rights standards. 12

Important Points for Answer:

•       National Human Rights Commission

•       Support required

•       Assessment

Answer: National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) was constituted as a statutory body in 1993 by an act of Parliament to protect and promote human rights such as right to life, liberty, equality and dignity.

NHRC is vested with powers equal to a civil court but due to some shortcomings it could not fully achieve its intended goal.

These limitations are:

Lack of financial autonomy keeps NHRC completely dependent on government even for day to day finances.

Functional Autonomy is missing for NHRC as there several restrictions on it’s functioning.

Further, they do not have power to enforce their decision, however it they can recommend corrective action.

Members of NHRC tend to remain soft and biased towards government as there is no officer cadre for NHRC. Appointment based members do not have job security.

Statutory restrictions such as bar on NHRC to investigate Human Rights violation by armed forces put further limitation.

Undoubtedly, there is huge scope and need to reform and empower NHRC, which can be done by legislature by granting more autonomy and authority to NHRC. It can be turned into a specialised agency which can support court and civil society to stop human rights Violation. NHRC has played complementary role of judiciary by being a whistleblower and giving recommendations to Parliament. (Total 212 words)

Q.10. The penetration of Self Help Groups (SHGs) in rural areas in promoting participation in development programmes is facing socio-cultural hurdles. Examine.      12

Important Points for Answer:

•       Self Help Groups

•       Importance

•       Hurdles

Answer: Self Help Groups (SHG) are voluntary groups consisting of 10-20 individual, mostly coming from similar background. People in these groups helps each other by financial as well as technical support to create livelihood. Worldwide SHGs are quite popular and successful among women. In india, after initial success, the SHGs are facing various socio-cultural hurdles. Some of them are:

   (a)       Lack of social support to women as their capabilities are always doubted.

   (b)       Family support is also missing, as women is burdened with other family chorus and face restriction.

   (c)       Lack of knowledge because of high illiteracy level of women and low exposure to outside world keep their practical knowledge very limited.

   (d)       Resultantly, women remain disadvantaged in marketing and dealing with middleman.

   (e)       Prevalence of caste system in India put barrier in formation of SHGs in rural India.

Although limited by various factors, SHGs model has immense potential in India. Realising the same, government has come up with various skill and financial support programmes to help NGOs, micro finance institute, NABARD and RRB. However, the pace of implementation of these structured skill training package remains low. SHGs can be useful tool for empowerment of women and betterment of society. (Total 201words)

Q.11. Do government’s schemes for uplifting vulnerable and backward communities by protecting required social resources for them, lead to their exclusion in establishing businesses in urban economies?           12

Important Points for Answer:

•       Schemes

•       Protection

•       Exclusion

Answer:Communities which are not able to meet their basic needs by using the available resources are termed as vulnerable and backward communities. Government is consistently working for their welfare and upliftment by implementing various schemes in social and economic sectors. The welfare schemes like MNREGA,Atal Bima yojna,NRHM, Food security Act, Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan etc. are some of them. Most of the schemes intend to provide reservation, opportunities or resources without upgrading their skills to compete in urban and business environment.

It is difficult for these communities to come up with resources and expertise needed to start a business in urban communities. Further, they are not qualified enough to take up good jobs in urban centres.

Moreover, even government is trying to keep them in villages to check migration to overcrowded urban centres. It has also been noticed that SC/STs are more comfortable in doing work in their or close to their native places.

In this scenario, government should push for a revamped PURA i.e. Providing Urban Amenities in Rural Areas. This will create employment is RURBAN areas and help in eliminating need to migrate to urban centres. By following this approach, with Shyama Prasad Mukherjee Programme, government has taken a step in direction for holistic development of rural India.(Total 213 words).

Q.12. An athlete participates in Olympics for personal triumph and nation’s glory; victors are showered with cash incentives by various agencies, on their return. Discuss the merit of state sponsored talent hunt and its cultivation as against the rationale of a reward mechanism as encouragement.        12

Important Points for Answer:

•       Athlete and sportsmen

•       Cash rewards

•       Suggestions

Answer: In a developing country like India, due to socio-economic condition of a common household, adopting sports as a profession remains low in priority. However, there some exceptional athletes who raise the flag of India in important events namely commonwealth games and Olympic games.

On their victory in national and international events, many states and agencies offer them cash rewards. This is certainly useful for the athletes coming from poor and middle-class background to keep their interest in sport. It also encourages other sports persons.

However, these rewards benefits only particular athlete rather than helping entire generation of athlete. Moreover, it promotes winner takes it all approach, which is counterproductive for creating a good sports environment.

Accordingly, state should engage in talent hunt programme and train capable athlete to participate in sports events. It would create necessary infrastructure helping both future as well present sportsperson and promote and encourage youth to take up sports as a carrier.

It is required to create a transparent system where talented athlete will get fair chance to represent the country. Talent hunts will give a chance to athletes from rural and backward regions to come forward. More importantly, it will create a healthy sports environment, which will also help keeping youth away from drugs and other vices.       (Total 214 words)

Q.13. Should the premier institutes like IlTs/IIMs be allowed to retain premier status, allowed more academic independence in designing courses and also decide mode/criteria of selection of students. Discuss in light of the growing challenges.12

Important Points for Answer:

•       Importance of IIT/IIMs

•       Status and shortcoming

•       Need for independence

•       Balanced conclusion

Answer:IIT/IIMs are regarded as symbol excellence when it comes to higher education in India. As only best young minds are able to get admission in these premiere institutions.

However, even these premiere institutions stand average when compared to worlds best institutions of higher learning.

One of the reasons for this average ranking in world is unnecessary political interference in their functioning. As these institutions do not enjoy the needed independence in setting up and changing their curriculum as per changing needs of industry and society.

Moreover, India is a country having demographic dividend and needs better quality institutions. For this ample space should be provided to these premiere institutions for revising and updating their courses, recruitment, research, granting scholarship etc.

Further, better resource allocation should be provided by government so that best facilities could be provided to students.

However, some positive government control could be there as these institutions are financed by tax payer’s money, and government have to ensure these institutions are working in public welfare rather than pure commercial consideration.

Overall, in this era of globalisation and competition government should extend every possible support to these premiere institution, so that they can contribute in harnessing India’s massive demographic dividend and maintain their premier status. (206 words)

Q. 14. Has the Cadre based Civil Services Organisation been the cause of slow change in India? Critically examine.    12

Important Points for Answer:

•       Rationale behind cadre based civil service

•       Debate over its existence

•       Need for change

•       Possible reforms

Answer: Civil servants in India are seen as symbol excellence in field of administration. These cadre based civil servants are working on the top positions, all over country and across departments.

However, with changing times it has been noticed that generalist civil servants are not suitable for technical positions like accounting and economic planning etc. It has been noticed that they are making government functioning slow, and they are not adapting changes as per changing nature of society.

Moreover, lack of competition and promotions based on seniority do not encourage them to work on their toes. Apart from that, discrimination between all India services and other services have been creating a demoralising effect on officers of other services.

Further, in present times a large number of important expertise and knowledge generates in private sector which can be productive for bringing excellence in government administration.

To make this outside knowledge available for public use, and increase competition in civil services   the concept of lateral entry is gaining currency in government policymakers. More importantly, it can be a good idea bring best practice, professionalism and discipline of private sector in public servants.

Ultimately, the goal of government must be to achieve excellence in delivering good governance and every necessary change for this purpose is welcome.  (210 words)

Q.15. Two parallel run schemes of the Government, viz. the Aadhar Card and NPR, one of voluntary and the other as compulsory, have led to debates at national levels and also litigations. On merits, discuss whether or not both schemes need run concurrently. Analyse the potential of the schemes to achieve developmental benefits and equitable growth. 12

Important Points for Answer:

•       Schemes

•       Functioning

•       Overlap

•       Analysis

Answer:Both NPR and UIDAI intends to create a register of residents by creating demographic data, biometric data and AADHAR number. Both the schemes collect similar kind of biometric data.

However, while NPR is concerned to achieve better national security and UIDAI is concerned with assigning unique ID to every AADHAR holder to stop leakages financial transitions like wages and subsidies disbursing.

But still there is a huge overlap between two systems resulting into duplication of efforts, and making the whole process slow cumbersome. That’s why, continuation of both schemes together is not advisable.

While government should try to use available data in creating a mechanism by which digital infrastructure could be created and using which leakages in social security benefits and subsidies could be eliminated. Moreover, such system is in line with government’s effort in providing better governance.

This new data system will also save lots of money and time, thus making India financially stronger.

All this can be done by sending data collected by NPR after authentication of identity, place of residence, to UIDAI for creating AADHAR number.

Following which both the schemes should be linked up to different departmental project for their better functioning and ensuring transparency in their functioning.           (200 words)

Q.16. With respect to the South China sea, maritime territorial disputes and rising tension affirm the need for safeguarding maritime security to ensure freedom of navigation and over flight throughout the region. In this context, discuss the bilateral issues between India and China. 12

Important Points for Answer:

•       South China sea

•       Dispute

•       India’s concerns

•       Steps taken by India

•       China’s response

Answer:South China sea has become a theatre of territorial dispute between several countries including China, Brunei, Vietnam, Malaysia and Philippines. All these countries have put forward their claims over some or other portion of south china sea, which is currently occupied by China across Nine Dash line.

Though India is not party to this dispute but it concerns India because:

• Over 2 trillion-dollar trade passes through this route, China’s control over these lanes is direct threat to India’s interest.

• Moreover, it is a part of Chinese strategy, namely “String of Pearls” to contain India in South Asia by building ports around her.

• Apart from this, India is also exploring oil in Vietnam and recently offered two more oil fields by Vietnam in disputed Territory, this does not go down well with China.

• The dispute of South China sea also affects India’s look east policy, as it involves India South East Asian neighbours.

In response to this dispute, and china’s plan to encircle India, now we are combing with

“Necklace of diamond strategy” which also prompted sharp reaction from China.

However, in any case India must put her weight for freedom of navigation and trade in all international waters, but in doing so, India should try to not raise much eyebrows and should maintain her image as a peace-loving nation.    (215 words)

Q.17. The aim of Information Technology Agreements (ITAs) is to lower all taxes and tariffs on information technology products by signatories to zero. What impact would such agreements have on India’s interests? 12

Important Points for Answer:

•       Information Technology Agreement

•       Impact on India

Answer: India joined Information Technology Agreement 1 in 1997. This WTO agreement intends to eliminate duties and tariffs on IT products. But these agreements could go both sides and for India it went south, making India stay away from ITA2 talks.

The main Impacts of Information Technology Agreement are listed below:

Positive effects:

   (a)       Such agreements can provide boost to IT manufacturing thus creating more jobs in this sector, which will help India in harnessing her Demographic Dividend.

   (b)       Cheap IT imports will help the digitisation initiative i.e. “Digital India” of government and give boost to E governance in country.

   (c)       Information Technology Agreement could give boost to country’s IT exports as lower tariffs can open up new markets for Indian IT products especially in the emerging economies of Asia and Africa.

Negative impact of Information Technology Agreement:

   (a)       It will be counterproductive for India’s MAKE IN INDIA initiative as markets can be flooded by cheap imports.

   (b)       Such agreements benefit countries which have developed enough capacity to compete in international markets rather than countries like India which is a service giant and whose manufacturing sector is still in nascent stage.

   (c)       Information Technology Agreement makes India vulnerable to dumping by countries like China as similar situation witnessed in Steel sector. (209 words).

Q.18. Some of the International funding agencies have special terms for economic participation stipulating a substantial component of the aid to be used for sourcing equipment from the leading countries. Discuss on merits of such terms and if, there exists a strong case not to accept such conditions in the Indian context. 12

Important Points for Answer:

•       Foreign aid and its purpose

•       Conditions with such aid

•       Impact on India

Answer: Transfer of goods, services or capital from one country to another country or from an international organisation to a country can be termed as foreign aid.

Though on its face these aids appear to be for the benefit of receiving country but often they also further interest of the donor country.

Since at times, these aids come with strings attached to procure things from certain countries or companies only. Such conditions with aids, in long term can even threaten financial sovereignty   of receiving country.

For India, such aids have both positive and negative impacts:


• Such aids provide much needed capital support to India’s capital starved infrastructure sector.

• Moreover, it helps in creation of employment and helps society by creating public assets, for e.g. Japanese Aid in Bharatmala Project.

• It also brings new technology and administrative experience to nation.


• Restriction put by aid, reduce options for India to find value for money in other countries.

• There can be a situation when India have to buy products which are not suitable for Indian conditions.

• In present polarised world, aid receiving country without any intention can be seen as enemy nation by the other block.

• In longer term, such condition can create unhealthy dependencies on a single country, especially in case of critical technologies like nuclear reactors.

Thus, India should go for trade diversification and avoid situations like putting all eggs in same bucket.          (230 words)

Q.19. India has recently signed to become founding member of New Development Bank (NDB) and also the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB). How will the role of the two Banks be different? Discuss the strategic significance of these two Banks for India. 12

Important Points for Answer:

•       NDB and AIIB

•       Differentiate

•       Strategic significance for India

Answer: In effort to increase her role in developing world, and shift economic power from west to east, India recently joined two new International Financial institution which are discussed below.

New development bank: also known as BRICS bank by taking first letter of name of its five members. It will be headquartered in Shanghai. The unique nature of this bank is its provision of equal voting power, which is major shift from west dominated institutions like world bank and IMF. Moreover, the bank has global focus.

Asian Infrastructure Investment bank: it is a project led by china. The Voting power in this bank is according to contribution of member countries, resultantly, China enjoys veto power here. As the name suggest its main purpose is to finance infrastructure projects in developing countries.

These banks are strategically up against Bretton woods twins to break their dominance, however, for India these banks are even more significant because:

a) These banks provide chance to India in taking up  leadership role among  developing countries.

b) India needs massive investment in infrastructure which can be funded by these banks and  more options will also increase India’s bargaining power to get favourable loans from ADB and world bank.

 Overall, these new entrants are expected to join hands and help poor and developing countries to achieve their full potential.       (210 words)

Q.20. WTO is an important international institution where decisions taken affect countries in a profound manner. What is the mandate of WTO and how binding are their decisions? Critically analyse India’s stand on the latest round of talks on Food security. 12

Important Points for Answer:

•       WTO

•       Role and Function

•       Decisions

•       India’s stand

Answer: World Trade organisation (WTO) is an international organisation which aims to reduce tariff barriers in international trade. The WTO is run by its members and all decisions are taken by negotiation and consensus, which makes all decision acceptable to member countries. The decision is imposed by use of trade sanction against members who violates terms agreed in WTO.

The trade facilitation agreement is one such agenda of WTO which it took up in 2001 ministerial conference. It intends to create comprehensive development agenda for trade with minimum barriers. However, decision to include agriculture support mechanism such as MSP with in TFA does not go well down with developing countries.

As WTO rules cap MSP at 10% of total value which is not viable developing countries as they do not have deep pockets like advanced nations. Moreover, such cap also threatens food security of developing countries because they need to procure food grains to redistribute in their poor population.

On this issue India by taking lead for developing countries and successfully negotiated a peace clause for continuation of food subsidy. But India also made a statement in general assembly that all such talks of TFA must be stopped until we do not reach to a permanent solution over public stockholding issue. (210 words)


Time Allowed:ThreeHours          Maximum Marks : 250

Instructions : There are TWENTY FIVE questions printed both in English and Hindi. All questions are compulsory. The number of marks carried by a question/part is indicated against it. Answers must be written in the medium authorised in the Admission Certificate which must be stated clearly on the cover of this Question-cum-Answer (QCA) Booklet in the space provided. No marks will be given for answers written in medium other than the authorised one.

Word limit in questions, if specified, should be adhered to.

Any page or portion of the page left blank in the Question-cum-Answer Booklet must be clearly struck off.

Answer questions in NOT MORE THAN the word limit specified for each in the parenthesis. Content of the answer is more important than length.

Q. 1. To what extent has the urban planning and culture of the Indus Valley Civilization provided inputs to the present day urbanization? Discuss.           10

Important Points for Answer:

•       Towns of Indus Valley

•       Features of Towns

Answer: The people of Indus Valley were primarily urban people. The Indus cities like Harappa, Mahenjo-daro, Kalibangan, Lothal and Sarkotada show Town planning of the time. The cities were built on a uniform plan.They had the following features which can be useful for modern town planners:

Fine drainage system, well arranged water supply system were carefully adopted.

The street lights system, watch and ward arrangement at night, specific places to throw waste materials, public wells in every street, well in every house etc. revealengineering and town planning of the people.

The streets intersected in right angles.

Drains were made of gypsum, lime and cement, covered with portable stabs. House drains connected in the main drains running under the main streets and below many lanes.

Double storied dwelling houses were widely prevalent.

Almost every house had a bathroom at the ground floor and some even on the first floor.

All these aspects of Indus Valley towns are useful and inspiring for present town planning system. (Total 166 words)

Q. 2. Gandhara Sculpture owed as much to the Romans as to the Greeks. Explain.       10

Important Points for Answer:

•       Gandhara Sculpture

•       Roman Sculpture

•       Greek Sculpture

•       Relations

Answer: Gandhara style of Buddhist art has developed from merger of Greek, Syrian, Persian, and Indian artistic influence which began mainly during the Parthian Period but the Gandhara style flourished and achieved its pinnacle during the Kushan period, from the 1st to the 5th centuries.

Gandhararegion was crossroads for cultural influence and therefore this school of art had maintained contacts with Rome and Greece. Motifs and techniques from classical Roman art were incorporated in Gandhara School which included vine scrolls, cherubs bearing garlands, tritons and centaurs.

The materials used for Gandhara sculpture were green phyllite and gray-blue mica schist and stucco. The sculptures were originally painted and gilded.

Gandhara School started representing Buddha with a youthful Apollo like face, dressed in garments resembling to Roman imperial statues.

The Gandhara school incorporated many motifs and techniques from Classical Roman art, including vine scrolls, cherubs bearing garlands, tritons, and centaurs. The basic iconography, however, remained Indian.

Both Roman and Greek traditions were used to enrich Gandhara art. (Total 166 words)

Q. 3. Taxila University was one of the oldest universities of the world with which were associated a number of renowned learned personalities of different disciplines. Its strategic location caused its fame to flourish, but unlike Nalanda, it is not considered as a university in modern sense. Discuss.          10

Important Points for Answer:

•       Taxila University – its importance

•       Nalanda University – its importance

•       Taxila not a University

Answer: Taxila, also known as Taxshila university is considered one of the oldest universities in the world. Located in modern day northwest Pakistan was situated at the pivotal junction of South Asia and Central Asia. It taught ancient scriptures, arts of eighteen types including skills like archery, elephant lore, hunting, law, medicine, military science etc. Chanakya, Chandragupta Maurya, Charaka, Panini, Jivaka, Prasenajit are some of the famous personalities associated with Taxila university.

Nalanda, located in the ancient kingdom of Magadha was a centre for learning from 5th to 12th century which flourished under the patronage of Gupta empire and Hardhavardhana of Kanauj. It attracted students from various Janapadas of India, and also Tibet, China, Korea and Central Asia. Buddha, Mahavira, Aryabhatta, Aryadeva, Atisha, Dharmakirti, Dharmapala, Nagarjuna Yijing and Naropa studied in Nalanda. The university taught Buddhism, Vedas, logic, grammar, philosophy, medicine, magic, law, astronomy and city planning.

Taxila had no lecture halls and residences, but Nalanda had all these facilities to consider it a modern university.    (Total 165 words)

Q. 4. The third battle of Panipat was fought in 1761. Why were so many empire–shaking battles fought at Panipat?10

Important Points for Answer:

•       Battles of Panipat

•       Location of Panipat

•       Reasons for Panipat wars

Answer: The third battle of Panipat fought in 1761 between Afghans and the Marathas resulted in defeat and subsequent decline of Marathas. The first battle of Panipat was between Babur and Ibrahim Lodi, resulting into Babur establishing Mughal dynasty in India. The second battle was between Akbar and Hemu for supremacy in India.

Because of Panipat’s vicinity to Delhi which has remained the capital of India since medieval times. Therefore capturing Delhi used to give control over India. 

Additionally, Panipat was located in the middle of two of the most agriculturally productive regions i.e. the plains of the Indus and the plains of Ganges.

All forces took route of Kandhar and Panipat fell on the G.T. Road as a battleground for such invaders and the Indian rulers because Indian rulers wanted to fight outside Delhi to no disturb the life of people.

Panipat terrain consisted of large plains making it suitable for battles tactics.

Therefore, so many empire-shaking wars were fought in Panipat.      (Total 165 words)

Q. 5. Sufis and medieval mystic saints failed to modify either the religious ideas and practices or the outward structure of Hindu/Muslim societies to any appreciable extent. Comment. 10

Important Points for Answer:

•       Sufi & Mystic Saints

•       Impact on Hindu/Muslim Society

•       Assessment

Answer: During the Medieval period, two most influential movements, Sufism and Bhakti Movement started in India. Both were either to increase Islamic influence or to save Hindu traditions.

Khwaja Muinuddin Chisti, Farid-ud-din Ganj-i-Shakar, Nizam-ud-din Auliya, etc were main sufi saints of the period. Medieval saints opposed the orthodoxy and superstition in the Hindu religion, and condemned the prevailing social order.

The Sufi movement was the result of the Hindu influence on Islam.

The chief exponents of Bhakti movement were Ramanuja, Nimbarka, Ramananda, Vallabhacharya, Kabir, Nanak and Sri Chaityana. They preached to local people at village gatherings. They moved from one place to another place to propagate and such nomadic nature of saints did not leave long lasting impact. No institutional structure was created and so the message was forgotten by audience.

They could not modify either religious ideas and practices or the outward structure of Hindu/Muslim societies as their influence remained confined to small pockets and ideas remained mostly abstract. (Total 166 words)

Q. 6. Examine critically the various facets of economic policies of the British in India from mid-eighteenth century till independence.   10

Important Points for Answer:

•       Economic Policies of British

•       From 1750s to 1947

•       Analysis

Answer: Mid eighteenth century is marked by an important even in British India. The Battle of Plassey (1757) and Battle of Buxar (1764) opened way for the East India Company to assume the Diwani rights of large part of East India.

Britishers implemented various reforms in the Indian land revenue system like- Zamindari (Permanent Settlement), Ryotwari and Mahalwari systems  during the second half of the 18th century. Discouraging industrialisation in India, British made it a supplier of raw material and market for their finished products. English transformed Indian exports to cheap Indio, Tobacco and opium.

During the British period, irrigation systems were built to provide  impetus for growing cash crops for export and raw materials for industry, especially jute, cotton, sugarcane, coffee and tea.

The British also built a modern railway, postal services, telegraph system in late 19h century. British dictated the terms of international trade for India and often restricted the Indian traders to transact with nations, that were hostile to Britain. (Total 162 words)

Q. 7. In what ways did the naval mutiny prove to be the last nail in the coffin of British colonial aspirations in India?         10

Important Points for Answer:

•       Naval Mutiny

•       Reasons

•       Result

Answer: Royal Indian Navy (RIN) revolt started as a strike by ratings in one of the battleships at Bombay in February, 1946. It was a protest against conditions of service, discrimination, etc. The revolt spread and found support throughout India.

It found immense support among the Indian population which supported the soldiers by demonstration which included a one-day general strike in Bombay. The strike also spread to other cities and was joined by Royal Indian Air Force and local police forces. Widespread rioting took place across the nation.

The point that Sardar Patel could pacify soldiers and not the Britishers made them understand that the control of the Indian politics had finally shifted from the English to the Indian hands.

At the same time, Britishers were weakened in the World War-II which resulted in emergence of US and USSR as super-powers who were against imperialism and colonialism. This Naval mutiny and its repercussions shattered the argument of moral authority of British to rule India. (Total 166 words)

Q.8. What were the major political, economic and social developments in the world which motivated the anti-colonialstruggleinIndia?  10

Important Points for Answer:

•       Political Developments

•       Economic Developments

•       Social Developments

•       Impact on Indian freedom struggle

Answer: The Anti-Colonial struggle in India was inspired by various events and ideologies. Some major International events also played catalyst role in India’s freedom struggle.

Politically the unification of Germany and successful Irish struggle against British inspired the minds of millions of Indian people to unite as a nation.

World War I was the reason for first mass movement of Non-Cooperation Movement and Khilafat Movement. It also sowed seeds of Ghadar movements.

World War-II resulted in the weakening of British as the colonial power and gave rise to US and USSR as new super-powers who were against Colonialism and Imperialism which inspired the process of Decolonisation.

The establishment of United Nations was a moral pressure against colonial powers like Britain.

Economically, Great Economic Recession exposed the vulnerable nature of the colonial powers.

French revolution, Communist movements, Home-Rule Movement of Ireland, etc. were also responsible for creating national movement in India. (Total 154 words)

Q. 9. What were the events that led to Suez Crisis in 1956? How did it deal a final blow to Britain’s self-image as a world power?        10

Important Points for Answer:

•       Suez Canal Crisis

•       Reasons

•       Reactions

•       Result

Answer: The Suez Canal opened in 1869, connecting the Mediterranean and Red Seas, initially as a private corporation owned by French investors and the Egyptian government. But Egypt sold its shares to Britain in 1875. Suez Canal was primarily a commercial venture. Britain had secured permission from Egypt to maintain a military presence in the Canal Zone to reinforce its status as the world’s supreme naval power.

In 1956, Egyptian President Gamal Nasser seized the Suez Canal from its French and British owners, leading to an invasion by those Western nations and their ally, Israel.

Britain and France invaded Egypt to regain control of the Suez Canal and to remove Egyptian President Nasser from power. There was also an invasion of Egypt’s Sinai Peninsula by Israel which was later joined by UK and France. This unilateral action of Britain and France was condemned internationally as a result of which they were forced to withdraw. It was considered undiplomatic and lowered Britain’s esteem as a super power in the world. (Total 168 words)

Q. 10. The New Economic Policy-1921 of Lenin had influenced the policies adopted by India soon after Independence. Evaluate.         10

Important Points for Answer:

•       New Economic Policy 1921

•       Indian Policy

•       Planning

•       PSUs

Answer: The New Economic Policy of 1922 was described by Lenin as an economic system that would include “a free market and capitalism, both subject to state control” while socialised state enterprises were to operate on “a profit basis”. A system of mixed economy was introduced which allowed private individuals to own small enterpriseswhile the state continued to control banks, foreign trade, and large industries. It was also called “State Capitalism”.

Indian economic policy after independence was strongly influenced by success of planned Soviet economy. Nehru and Mahalanobis formulated the economic policy that focused on development of heavy industry by public sector which will percolate to small industries in private sector. Public Sector Undertakings led the economic growth for many years.India also adopted protectionist policy with characteristics like public sector enterprises run by government, central planning, restriction on foreign trade, import substitution and licensing regime for various industries. May industries like telecommunication, steel, mining, machinery, insurance, etc.were under state control.                     (Total 162 words)

Q.11. How does patriarchy impact the position of a middle class working woman in India?10

Answer: Patriarchy is male centred social system. Male members play dominating role in politics, society and other spheres. Fathers or father-figures hold authority over women.

The patriarchal set up of the Indian society affect middle class working women in following ways:

   1.       Contribution of women is under-valued and under-paid therefore they are given only low paying jobs.

   2.       Women perform dual responsibility of work as well as home. The middle class women are allowed to work professionally, but they are expected to manage household tasks as well. It creates an additional burden on working women. They are not able to pursue professional career.

   3.       The concept of women as the bread-winner is not accepted. Whatever she earns is counted as additional income.

   4.       Woman is required to sacrifice her career for child birth and devote herself to the family.

   5.       They are vulnerable to eve teasing and other crimes.

   6.       There are also instances of sexual harassment by superiors. (Total 162 words)

Q. 12. Why do some of the most prosperous regions of India havean adverse sex ratio for women? Give your arguments.10

Important Points for Answer:

•       Sex Ratio in India

•       Situation in Prosperous regions

•       Reasons

Answer: In the Population Census of 2011 it was revealed that the population ratio of India 2011 is 943 females per 1000 of males.

Pondicherry (1037) and Kerala (1084) houses the maximum number of female while the regions of Daman and Diu (618) and Haryana (879) have the lowest density of female population. Even Delhi (868), Chandigarh (818), Dadra and Nagar Haveli (774), Jammu and Kashmir (890), Sikkim (890) and Punjab (895), Gujarat (918), Rajasthan (928), Maharashtra (929) are rich and well doing regions of India but their sex ratio is lower than national average.

Decline of the sex ration in India is due to the biased attitude which is meted out to the women. The main cause of this gender bias is inadequate education. The deep-rooted bias against women and economic growth not translating into gender parity are also reasons why female face social and cultural discrimination. Demographic reasons, like migration by working male in the economically prosperous regions is also responsible for adverse sex ratio.    (Total 167 words)

Q. 13. The life cycle of a joint family depends on economic factors rather than social values. Discuss.      10

Important Points for Answer:

•       Joint family tradition

•       Economic Reasons

•       Nuclear family trend

•       Economic Reasons

Answer: India has social tradition of joint and large families. It was mainly due to economic factors. Majority of population in India were living in villages and were dependent on agriculture and related activities which required physical labour. More family members were involved in the activities of earning, so the family can sustain in poverty. Labourer and tenants were dependent on cumulative income and efforts to run family.

However, in modern time, situation has changed. After industrialisation, companies and urban areas have become attractive source of employment. Individual has to migrate to cities to earn better income and provide better education to children. Attractiveness of service over agriculture has also led to migration. It has resulted into split, nuclear family. A male member of family, along with wife and children, would shift to urban areas for employment purpose.

Such economic factors  were reasons for the traditional joint family system and now new economic situations have created a social trend of nuclear families. (Total 161 words)

Q.14. Discuss the various economic and socio – cultural forces that are driving increasing feminization of agriculture in India.       10

Important Points for Answer:

•       Feminization of agriculture

•       Economic reasons

•       Socio-cultural reasons

Answer: Feminization of agriculture means increase of women’s participation in agricultural activities.

Economic Reasons:

   1.       Most of the agricultural fields have low productivity, serving only as subsistence agriculture. Women work on field while male look for other jobs.

   2.       Male members of family committed suicide due to debts. Responsibilities of earning livelihood for the family remain on female.

   3.       Less educated and untrained for skilled work women have less opportunities for work. It resulted into lack of option for women so they are forced to work in unskilled jobs, like agriculture and manual labour.

Socio-cultural Reasons:

   1.       Loosening of patriarchal attitude has led to greater participation of female on farm fields.

   2.       State-sponsored welfare programmes have prompted male members to enroll for state-aided activities. So the task of farming fell upon the female members of the family.

   3.       The high rate of migration of male from rural to urban areas for better jobs has resulted in women coming to the front and taking charge of family as well as farm. (Total 166 words)

Q.15. How do the Indian debates on Secularism differ from the debates in the west?           10

Important Points for Answer:

•       Secularism

•       Westen Secularism

•       Reasons

•       Indian Secularism

Answer: Secularism means non partiality based on religion. In political and social aspects, no one should be deprived of any opportunity due to his religious faith. It is a negative and prohibitive concept.

In the West, secularism has been considered as a wall between politics and religion. There is complete absence of religious influence in western concept of secularism. No religious influence in governance is permitted.

This has happened due to historical influence of Church affecting politics and lives of people in western countries in the middle ages. Later, it was decided to keep Church at a hand’s distance from politics.

However, in India, secularism has a positive concept. Politics is not allowed to discriminate anyone on the basis of religious affiliation. India, rather believes in promoting all religions equally. Therefore, in India, we have personal laws based on religious beliefs. This is an example of positive and protective secularism. This has happened due to historical reasons where since ancient time, we have concept of Sarva Dharma Samabhava. (Total 167 words)

Q.16. Most of the unusual climatic happenings are explained as an outcome of the El-Nino effect. Do you agree?     10

Important Points for Answer:

•       El Nino

•       Effects

•       Disagreement

Answer: El Niño is the warm phase of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation cycle. El Niño is a naturally occurring phenomenon that is linked to a periodic warming in sea surface temperatures across the central and east-central Equatorial Pacific. El Niño occurs every 2-7 years, and can last anywhere between nine months and two years.

Main effects of El Niño include, a drastic increase in the risk of flooding on the western coast of South America. In eastern countries, like India and Indonesia, there is an increase in droughts.El Niño causes vast amounts of rainfall in the eastern parts of the Pacific and very dry weather on the western parts (India, Indonesia).With all the extra heat at the surface of the Pacific Ocean, energy is released into the atmosphere, causing an overall warming of the global climate temporarily.

However, it has limited effects that arises out warm ocean currents therefore it cannot be attributed with other geographical or climatic effects. (Total 163 words)

Q.17. Why are the world’s fold mountain systems located along the margins of continents? Bring out the association between the global distribution of fold mountains and the earthquakes and volcanoes. 10

Important Points for Answer:

•       FoldMountains

•       Formation

•       Reasons for earthquake and volcanoes

•       Examples

Answer: Fold mountains form when two tectonic plates move towards each other at a convergent plate boundary. Fold mountains are associated with continental crust. Convergent plate boundaries are sites of collisions, where tectonic plates crash into each other.

At a compression zone, tectonic activity forces crustal compression at the leading edge of the crust formation. For this reason, most fold mountains are found on the edge or former edge of continental plate boundaries.

Rocks on the edge of continental crust are often weaker and less stable than rocks found in the continental interior. This makes them more susceptible to folding and warping. It results into volcanic activities and earthquakes. Therefore, in the regions of folded mountains like the Jura Mountains in the Alps, the ‘Simply Folded Belt’ of the Zagros Mountains, The Himalayas, The Akwapim-Togo ranges in Ghana as well as the Ridge-and-Valley Appalachians in the eastern part of United States, such activities are frequent. (Total 157 words)

Q.18. Explain the formation of thousands of islands in Indonesian and Philippines archipelagos.  10

Important Points for Answer:

•       Archipelago

•       Indonesia & Philippines Archipelagos

•       Formation of Islands

Answer: Archipelago, a cluster of islands, is the result of an underwater volcanic activity in the ocean. Countries such as Indonesia, New Zealand, Philippines, United Kingdom and Japan are archipelagos.

Indonesian and Philippines Archipelagos fall between the Pacific and the Indian Ocean which were originally part of the Asian landmass.

Indonesian Archipelago is made up of approximately 17,500 islands out of which more than 6,000 are populated. Out of 400, about 150 are active volcanoes. Not all Indonesian Islands are volcanic. When the glaciers melted, these islands emerged. The Philippine archipelago has 7100 islands.

Beneath the earth’s surface is a ‘hot spot’ that releases magma or semi molten rock. This forms rock-like structures underwater. As magma continues to flow, over a period of time these structures rise up out of water. This forms an island. While the single hot spot remains, the persistent plate movements on the earth’s surface shift the magma, and a series of islands is formed in one area.        (Total 162 words)

Q.19. Tropical cyclones are largely confined to South China Sea, Bay of Bengal and Gulf of Mexico. Why? 10

Important Points for Answer:

•       Tropical Cyclones

•       Formation

•       Reasons for location

Answer: Tropical cyclone is an intense circular storm that originates over warm tropical oceans and is characterised by low atmospheric pressure, high winds, and heavy rain.  They are also known as typhoon or hurricane.

Every year during the late summer months (July–September in the Northern Hemisphere and January–March in the Southern Hemisphere), cyclones strike regions as far apart as the Gulf Coast of North America, northwestern Australia, and eastern India and Bangladesh.

Almost 90 percent of these storms form within 20° north or south of the Equator. Poleward of those latitudes, sea surface temperatures are too cool to allow tropical cyclones to form.

The Pacific Ocean generates the greatest number of tropical storms and cyclones. The most powerful storms, sometimes called super typhoons, occur in the western Pacific. The Indian Ocean is second in the total number of storms. The Atlantic Ocean ranks third.

Therefore, tropical cyclones are largely confined to South China Sea, Bay of Bengal and Gulf of Mexico. (Total 162 words)

Q.20. Bring out the relationship between the shrinking Himalayan glaciers and the symptoms of climate change in the Indian sub-continent.         10

Important Points for Answer:

•       Shrinking Himalayan Glacier

•       Symptoms of Climate Change

•       Relations

Answer: Himalayan glaciers are shrinking at an alarming rate due to climate change. It is leading to significant impact on the water resources of population living in downstream basins.

Climate change decreases snowfall which means less snow in glaciers.

The shorter duration of snowfall prevents the snow from turning into hard ice-crystals which will melt when the summer comes.

Climate change brings rain, rather than snow, thus melting glacier faster. Heavy rainfall in high altitudes cause flash floods and washes away homes and fields, trees and livestock.

Widespread flooding of the melting glacier is initial phenomena but as the snow disappears, there will be drought in the summer season.

The biodiversity in Himalayan drainage and Himalayan region has become vulnerable.

Because of the melting ice, the sea level is rising at an average of 3.5 mm per year.

Tropical cyclones are expected to increase in future as a result of ice-melting.          (Total 152 words)

Q.21. Whereas the British planters had developed tea gardens all along the Shivaliks and Lesser Himalayas from Assam to Himachal Pradesh, in effect they did not succeed beyond the Darjeeling area. Explain.           10

Important Points for Answer:

•       British Planters

•       Tea Gardens in N-E India

•       Why not beyond Darjeeling?

Answer: India is one of the largest tea producers in the world. Britishers introduced Tea in India. They brought it from China and offered perks for developing Tea gardens in India. Due to climatic conditions, it was started in the North Eastern parts of India including Assam. Tea shrubs require fertile mountain soil mixed with lime and iron.

Tea grows best in regions with a warm, humid climate and a rainfall measuring at least 100 centimetres a year. Ideally, it likes deep, light, acidic and well-drained soil. Given these conditions, tea grows in areas away from sea level up to altitudes as high as 2,100 metres above sea level. Therefore, Assam region was very favourable to tea plantation. Presence of cheap labour from the adjoining regions of Bihar and Bengal also made Darjeeling more suitable for tea cultivation.

But due to cold climate and low gradient in Shivaliks and lesser Himalayas, absence of deep clay soil, steep slops in Shivaliks, year round rains, etc., doesn’t allow the tea plantation to succeed in these areas. These factors were not favourable to tea gardens to succeed.

Thus, the location inhibited the growth of tea cultivation as dominant agricultural practices in these areas. (Total 200 words)

Q.22. Why did the Green Revolution in India virtually bypass the eastern region despite fertile soil and good availability of water? 10

Important Points for Answer:

•       Green Revolution

•       Factors required

•       Eastern India bypassed

Answer: The Green Revolution was implemented only in areas which had assured supplies of water and the means to control it, large inputs of fertilisers, and adequate farm credit. Introduction of high-yielding varieties of seeds after1965 and the increased use of fertilisers and irrigation are known collectively as the Green Revolution.

These inputs were easily available in at least parts of the states of Punjab, Haryana, and western Uttar Pradesh. But in other states, such as Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu, in areas where these inputs were not assured, the results were limited or negligible, leading to considerable variation in crop yields within these states.

Large land holdings were required, which was available in Western India. East India has fragmented land holdings due to population pressure. Supporting infrastructure like cold storage, availability of electricity and transport was relatively poor in Eastern India. Irrigation facilities, mechanisation and investment facilities were also other hurdles. Due to this, the eastern India was not involved in the Green Revolution. (Total 166 words)

Q.23. Account for the change in the spatial pattern of the Iron and Steel industry in the world.  10

Important Points for Answer:

•       Steel Industry

•       Factors

•       Shift

•       Reasons

Answer: With Industrial Revolution, the growth and development of iron and steel industry started. The spatial pattern of the this industry depends upon various factors such as availability of raw materials like iron ore, coking coal, limestone and water as well as availability of power resources. Demand of steel, transportation cost, etc.,  also play a role.

Traditionally this industry was located in Western Europe, North America, Japan and USSR.However there has been change in spatial pattern of the industry.

Now they are shifting towards coastal areas so that the produced steel can be exported and the raw materials can be imported easily.The industry is shifting to countries like China, India and South Korea.The traditional industrial regions are either abandoned, like Michigan region in USA, or have been transformed into developing cutting edge technology.The industry is shifting towards industrial hub so that the finished products can be consumed by automobile, heavy engineering and other industries which will reduced the cost of transportation. (Total 164 words)

Q.24. Critically evaluate the various resources of the oceans which can be harnessed to meet the resource crisis in the world.10

Important Points for Answer:

•       Resources of Ocean

•       Usefulness

Answer: The ocean is one of Earth’s most valuable natural resources. It provides food in the form of fish and shellfish—about 200 billion pounds are caught each year. It’s used for transportation—both travel and shipping. It provides a treasured source of recreation for humans. It is mined for minerals (salt, sand, gravel, and some manganese, copper, nickel, iron, and cobalt can be found in the deep sea) and drilled for crude oil. Production of energy through ocean waves is also a viable option.

The ocean plays a critical role in removing carbon from the atmosphere and providing oxygen. The ocean is an increasingly important source of biomedical organisms with enormous potential for fighting disease. These are just a few examples of the importance of the ocean to life on land. Explore them in greater detail to understand why we must keep the ocean healthy for future generations.

These all resources of ocean can be very useful to meet recourse crunch in the world. (Total 164 words)

Q.25. How does India see its place in the economic space of rising natural resource rich Africa? 10

Important Points for Answer:

•       India-Africa Relations

•       Economic Cooperation

Answer: Africa–India relations are deep in the historical, political, economic, military and cultural spheres.

Indian firms are conducting numerous takeovers abroad and are venturing into Africa. Indo-African trade volume reached US$ 53.3 billion in 2010-11 & US$ 62 billion in 2011-12.

Indian companies have already invested more than US$ 34 billion in the resource-rich continent as of 2011 & further investments worth US$ 59.7 billion are in the pipeline.

The Indian government has promised to extend loans worth US$ 5.4 billion (during 2011-14) to several African nations in order to nurture growth in those nations.

The India–Africa Forum Summit (IAFS) is the official platform for African-Indian relations. The IAFS is held once in every three years. It was first held from April 2008 in New Delhi. The Prime Minister also announced $5 billion in lines of credit for African nations. India made further commitments to Africa at the third India-Africa Forum Summit in 2014.     (Total 160 words)